(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



m 



:^^M^ 



» ~*^ 



Tz. 



*m-.; 



K-i>v -M ^-r •' ■:■. ^.air 









^^^^^H 


The Branner Geological Library 


■ 




^■E^PIVVKnnHV^^HMjHH 


■)m 




LELAHB-SiaOTOKII TJVMOiS''i'NP/EKSn[Y 



r^vl 



1743—1893 



PROCEEDINGS COMMEMORATIVE 



OF THE 



One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary 



OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE 



American Philosophical Society 



HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 



FOR THE PROMOTION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 



MAY 22-2(5, ISr-):^; 



PHII.ADKLrmA 
1 894 



PRESS OF 

MacCalla & Company, 237-9 Dock St. 



233853 




Address by tagz. 

I. Frederick Fialey 7, 17-85, 159, 1 

Prof. George F. Barker 104-158 

Dr, Isaac Robens 97^104 

inpponcourt B4-96 

Dr. John G. Morrii 76-B3 

rof- I. M. Hopp in , ■ - C&al^ 

IJr. Samuel A. Green 4S-S< 

Rl. Rev. John J. Keane 33-49 

Dr. Daniel C. Oilman 33 

I*rot Hubert A. Newlon 39-3* 

Prof. Alpheus HyntL , . as-jg 

COMUEMORATION OF THE 

One Hundred and Fiflieth Anniversary of the Foundalion of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, May 39 to 36, 1893. Preambles and Res- 
olulioDS 5, 6 

Greetings 

From American and Foreign Societies 9-13 

List of Delegates 

Appointed to represent various Societies and Institutions 13-16 

List of Societies 

Sending Congratulations and Regrets 16, 17, 54-56 

Papers presented at the Anniversary Meetings, by 

Prof. Samuel H, Scudder (Tertiary Tipulidae, with Special Reference to 

those of Florissant, Colorado) 163-345 

Mr, Joseph Willcoi (Some of the Work of the W^ner Free Insdtule of 

Science of Phitadelphin) 345-147 

Mr. Lorin Blodgel (Catalogue of Woiks on Atmospheric Pliysies and 

Climatology) , 348-364 



Papers presented at the Anniversary Meetings, by page. 

Dr. Charles A. Oliver (A Short Note upon So-called *' Hereditary Optic- 
Nerve Atrophy" — as a Contribution to the Question of Transmission 

of Structural Peculiarity) 269-271 

Dr. John A. Ryder (The Adaptive Forms and the Vortex-Motion of the 

Substances of the Red Blood-corpuscles of Vertebrates) 272-275 

Dr. Alpheus S. Packard (A Study of the Transformations and Anatomy 

of Lagoa crispata, a Bombycine Moth) 375-292 

Dr. Friedrich S. Krauss (Ein Guslarenlied der slavischen Mohamme- 

daner) 293-325 

Dr. W. J. Hoffman (Gshicht fun da al'ta tsai'ta in Pensilfdni) 325-331 

Dr. J. T. Rothrock (On the Growth of the Forestry Idea in Pennsylva- 
nia) 332-342 

Mr. Joseph Wharton (Dust from the Krakatoa Eruption of 1883) . . . 343-345 

Dr. Hermann RoUett (Die Forscher) 345-349 

Prof. Alpheus Hyatt (Phylogeny of an Acquired Characteristic). . . . 349-640 

President's 

Address of Welcome 7 

Address 17-25 

Closing Address 159, 160 

Proceedings at the Hall. 

May 22 7-13 

May 23 17-32 

May 24 33-42 

May 25 42-83 

May 26 84-160 

Receptions. 

Girard College 42 

Penn Club 42 

University of Pennsylvania 83 

Manheim Club House 83 

Cramp's Ship Yard 160 

Union League 160 

Art Club of Philadelphia 160 

College of Physicians 160 




PflOCEEDtNOS AM. PHIL. SOC. 



LIST OF PLATE i_ 



Hall of tbe American Pbilosophlcal Society Frc 

PmldeDT. VJce-Presldenti. SecretHries, Curaiois, Treasurer. Coun- 

dlore Fol 

Meeting Room Far 

Banqueling Raon Faci 

Views in Meeting Room Faol 

Karl Chevalier Rousseau D'Happoncourl Pacir 

Thiileen Plates, illuslraling Dr. Isaac Roberts' remarks on " I II us- 
tralioni of Pragtiaa made during recent years in Astronomical 

Science" Facing pp. 98, 100, loa 

Views in the Library Facing p. 104 

View in the Library Facing p. 160 

Nine Plates, illustrating Dr. Samuel H. Scudder's paper on Ttrliary 

Tipulida tsptciallj of Colorado Between pp. 349 and 143 

Seven Plates, illustrating Dr. Alpheus S. Packard's Study o/Ike Tram- 

fotmaiim and Anatsmjr of Lagoa crisfala, a Bombyc'me Moth . . Facing p. aE)3 
SiKleen Plates, illustrating Ptof. Alpheus Hyatt's paper on Tii Phylog- 

iMji of an Acfuirtd Ckaracliriitic . . . Facing pp. 425. 496. 617. 619, 6ai, 633, 
634, 6a6, 638, 630, 631, 633. 63s, 637, 639. 640 



HON. FREDERICK FRALEY, L.L..D. 



Papers presented at the Anniversary Meetings, by facie. 




VICE-PRESIDENTS; 

E. OTIS KENDALL. W. S. W. RUSHENBERQEfl. 



( 



] 



VOL. XXXII, No, 143. 




PROCEEDINGS AM. PHIL. SOC. 



VOL. XXXII, No. 143. 




/ wl 






TREASURER: 
J. SERGEANT PRICE. 



( 



1 



PROCEEDINGS AM. PHIL. SOC. 



VOL. XXXII, No. 143. 





COMMEMORATION 1893 



ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 



FOU TIIK 1-ROMOTION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 



May 22d to 26tln, 1803. 



At a stated meeting of the Board of Officers and Council of 
the Society, held on the 13th of May, 1892, Mr. Henry Phil- 
lipfl, Jr., offered the following Preambles and Resolutions, 
which were adopted : 

Whereat, Thlfl Society did in the year 1843 celebrate tlie Centennial 
Aaniversary of its foundation by a series of addreaaea, meetings, recep- 
tions, exercises, etc., upon tlie26tb, 26Ui, 2Tth, 28tli,29tb and 30th days 
of May, the reaulte of which were published in a special volume of 
over two huudred pages ; and 

Whereaa, We are approaching the Seaqui-Centennial Anniversary of 
the same anspicioua event ; therefore, be it 

Buolved, Ttist the Society will celebrate the same in a worthy and 
becoming manner. 



Besolved, That the President be authorized to appoint a Committee 
of five members to make all necessary arrangements for the same and 
with full power to act, and that the President be ex officio a member of 
said Committee. 

At a stated meeting of the Society, held on May 20, 1892, 
the Preambles and Resolutions were considered by the Society, 
and unanimously agreed to. 

The President appointed as such Committee, Mr. Henry 
Phillips, Jr., Chairman, and Messrs. J. Sergeant Price, Bichard 
Vaux, Daniel G. Brinton, M.D., William V. Keating, M.D., 
Frederick Fraley, ex officio* 

*Oii the Ist of May, 1893, the Chairman of the Committee was attacked by a sudden 
and serious illness, and being unable to carry on the duties of the position, Mr. J. Ser- 
geant Price, at the request of the President of the Society, acted in such capacity. 



ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY 



OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE 



American Philosophical Society, 



MONDAT, Maj 22, 1893, 8 p.m. 

The Sooietj was called to order by the President, Hon. 
Frederick Fraley, LL.D., who delivered the following address 
of welcome : 

Untied Brethren (for so I think I can appropriately address you), 
it gives me great pleasure to welcome this goodly company which 
has come to us from abroad to the State of Pennsylvania and the 
city of Philadelphia, and to the ancient edifice in which we are 
now assembled. 

I esteem it the crowning glory of a long life to be permitted to 
look upon this day. I have been a sojourner on earth for nearly 
ninety years, and I have looked upon this goodly world for the last 
seventy-five years with a full appreciation of what it contains and 
how much good it is possessed of to benefit mankind. Among 
those benefits I recognize the existence of our scientific institutions, 
which have gradually grown to be numerous in our territory, to he 
the correspondents of the older institutions abroad ; and to have the 
opportunities occasionally of mingling in such assemblies as this for 
the promotion of the common objects they have at heart, for the 
general promotion of useful knowledge. 

I hope that the occasion in which we have ( ome to take part will 
be blessed, as our previous celebrations have been, with a unity of 
purpose, with the beginning of friendships that shall endure through 
life, with stimulus for the creation of new institutions of simi'^" 



8 

character, so that, as the years roll on, the circle of science will be 
completed and extended, and the benefits arising from a diffusion of 
useful knowledge will become more and more a blessing to the world 
at large. 

It is difficult for me to find words with which I can pour out the 
fullness of my heart to you, my brethren, who are here around me, 
and I trust from the greetings which I have witnessed this evening, 
in the gratulations and friendships which have saluted my ears, that 
this occasion will be memorable in the history of our scientific life ; 
and that if we have the advantages which seem to me to be prom- 
ised to us from this gathering, when we shall separate at the close of 
the week there will be not only a union of hearts and a union of 
hands, but a union of common purposes and pursuits. Our country 
is so large, our population is so great, our resources of all kinds are so 
abundant, that everything which can stimulate the human intellect 
to labor, for the increase of knowledge and for the increase of hap- 
piness, lies all around us. 

While you are here you will, 1 hope, accept and participate in 
those social enjoyments that will be tendered to you outside of the 
mere exercises of our meeting, and that you will visit our ancient 
University, the Girard College for orphans, the Drexel Institute, 
the United States Mint at Philadelphia, and, among others, those 
two hives of industry which bear testimony to the great improve- 
ments in the extension and perfection of steam machinery, in its 
application to naval purposes and to land transportation, the work- 
shops of the Cramps and the *' Baldwin's.*' 

These opportunities are freely tendered to you, and our Commit- 
tee of Arrangements will divide themselves into squads and take 
charge of you, so far as your individual preferences may choose, for 
visiting these different institutions. 

Again renewing the cordial welcome that 1 have given you, I bid 
you now, gentlemen, Godspeed in the enterprises in which you may 
engage for the coming three days of this week, so that when the 
time comes for drawing upon us the curtain of separation, we will 
disperse with the conviction that we have added to our knowledge 
and to our friendships, and that we have done something for the 
benefit of our country and for the world at large. 

It will be a great gratification to me personally, and I know that 
it will gratify our friends who are here assembled, if some of our 



giicsts will say a few words of congratulation to us, I may ask, and 
also give the views that they may take of such a celebration as we 
propose to hold. 



Mayor Stuart, baviog been introduced by President Fraley, 
atldressed the Society, as follows; 

Mr. President, Guests and Members of the Amerifan Philosophical 
Soeiety .- — I had no idea when I came into tlie room to-night that 
I was to say anything in the way of welcoming the guests of this 
Society to Philadelphia. My good friend, Mr. Fraley, whom every 
Philadelphian loves and respects, has said far more to you in the few 
moments he has spoken than I could say if I were to speak for half 
an hour; but I have been requested, on behalf of the Committee, 
to say a few words of welcome to the distinguished guests who 
have honored our city to-day and ihi'i week by iheir presence, 
and in the name of the people of Philadelphia, who cherish the 
highest regard and res])ecl for this ancient and useful Society, I extend 
lo you a most heartfelt welcome, hoping that your visit among us 
will be as pleasant and agieeable to you all as I know your presence 
will he lo us. 



President Fraley next introduced Hod. Louis Toasioo, Con- 
sul of France at Philadelphia, who presented the greetings of 
the University of Paris to the Society, as follows : 

A La SoafeTt ne Philsophie dk Philadelphie—L' University de 
Paris. 

Messieurs: — L'Universit^ de Paris est heureiise de saluer votre 



SociSt^ qui cultive, avec tant de succ^s, les Sci 
dans un pays que I'Europe considere trop souvi 
ment occupe d'affaires industrielles et commen 

II apparienalt a I'Ktat qui a compt^ parmi sc 
ophe pratique tel que Franklin de tenir haut el 
la philosophic dans les Etats-Unis d'Amerique. 

La France n'oublie pas que la Pensylvanie lui a cnvoye ce grand 
patriote qui a nou6 entre votre jeune nation et la vieille France des 
lelationi d'affettion tt qui; c\>[ mx. environs de Philadelphie que 

;. AMER. PI1II.0S. 80C, XXXII. 14.!. B. PKINTKD MOV. 31, 1603. 



;nces philosophiques 
:nt comme exclusive- 

iales. 

5 citoyens un philos- 

ferme le drapeau de 



10 

La Fayette a scell^ de son sang, d^ sa premise bataille, cette ami- 
tid imp^rissable. 

Nous aimons aussi a nous rappeler que Franklin n'a pas seulement 
acquis a son pays les sympathies de la France, mais que par la dig- 
nite simple de sa vie, par ses paroles et par ses Merits, il nous a pr6- 
par^s a la liberty en nous montrant qu' une grande nation pent se 
gouverner elle-mSme. 

Ces souvenirs ineffagables vous assurent. Messieurs, de la sinc6rit6 
des voeux que nous formons pour votre Soci6t6 et pour la Grande 
R^publique des Etats-Unis d'Am^rique. 

Le Recieur^ Prisident du Conseil giniral, 

Ereud. 
Le Secretaire f 

Ernest Lavisse. 

Prof. William B, Scott was next introduced, who, on behalf 
of the University of Princeton, New Jersey, read the follow- 
ing address : 

SociETATi Philosophise AMERiCANiC Universitas Princetoniensis. 
S. P. D. 

Cum hoc quidem semper decet eos qui scientias liberales amore, 
labore honore illustrauerint liberali in grata memoria haberi, sic 
enim debita immortalitas his rite tribuitur qui scientiam uiuificauer- 
unt, turn in praesenti praecipue conuenit nos Praesidemet Professores 
Universitatis Princetoniensis laetos celebrare uobiscum saeculares 
ferias niox Philadelphiae habendas atque hunc annum centesimum 
quinquagesimum Societatis Philosophise Americanae conditse com- 
memoraturas. 

Itacjue nobis placuit inuitatui uestro amicissimo respondentibus 
Guilielmum Berrynian Scott, qui apud nos Geologiam Palaeonto- 
logiamque profitetur, diligere uicarium, cui insuper mandaruimus ut 
ipse pro nobis gratias et gratulationes coram reddat. 

Datum PRiNCETONLt a. d. xiii Kal iun. [seal.] 

Anno Salutis MDCCCXCIII. 

The following address from the Naturwissenschaftliche Verein 
ill Kiel was read: 



11 

DeR AimUKAinSCHBN PHIL06OPHI9CHKN GtSBLLSCHAFT ZU PHILAp 
DKLPHIA ZU IHRSM HUNDERTF&IIFZIG-JAHRIGEN StIFTUHGS- 

•nsTB All 22 Mai, 1893, Gewidmet vom Naturwissbn- 

SCHAFTUCHBN VeREIN IN KlEL. 

1st miser Verein anch durch die riumliche Entfernung gehindert 
Ihrer EinUulang gemlss einen Al^eordneten zu Ihrer Festfeier za 
senden, so sind wir doch nicht verhindert, Ihnen unsere Giiisseund 
WOnsche fiber das Meer bin zu scbicken. 

Ibre Gresellscbafty so viel wir wissen eine Vereinigung mit der von 
Franklin begrilndeten Gesellscbaft Junto, feiert fast genau zu gleicber 
Zeit wie eine der iltesten deutscben naturwissenscbaftlicben Gesell- 
scbaften, diejenige zu Danzig, das bundertninfzig-j&brige Stiftungs- 
fcst. 

In zablreicben Binden reicben Inhaltes haben diese beiden Ge- 
sellscbaften die Naturforscbung gefordert und der Verbreitung niitz- 
licber Kenntnisse zum Besten der Menscbbeit gedient. 

Fast zabllose Gresellscbaften sind seitdem Ibrem Vorbilde gefolgt; 
Sie aber kdnnen Sicb rQbmen unser naturwissenscbaftlicbes Zeitalter 
▼orbereitet zu baben. 

Wir senden Ibnen unsere besten WQnscbe Rir das fernere Bltihen 
und Gedeiben Ihrer Gesellscbaft. 

Der Naturwissenschaftliche Verein in Kiel. 
Dr. G. Karstei/; C. Reinbold, L. Weber. 

Provost William Pepper being next introduced, presented 
on behalf of the University of Pennsylvania the following ad- 
dress: 

SOCIETATI PhILOSOPHIC/E AMERICANiE UnIVERSITAS PeNNSYLVANIEN- 

sis. S. p. D. 

Magno cum gaudio litteris vestris nuper acceptis intellexinius ap- 
propinquare diem natalem Societatis Vestrai abhinc annos centum 
et quinquagenta conditae ; ad quem diem maxima Isetitia concele- 
brandumnos non solum humanitas Vestra in convocando, sed etiam 
vel maxime id movet, quod Societatem et Universitatem meminimus 
ab uno conditore eodem fere tempore institutas, omnibus enim 
notum inter conditas eas annos intercessisse decem vel baud multo 
plures. His igitur jam Vobis conjunctos vinculis, tempore, quod 



12 

et maximum, Franklinio conditore nunc cum maxime juvat illius 

hominis, decoris nostra communis, merita commemorare erga nos, 

civitatem nostram immo patriam universam, necnon operam egregie 

navatam in litteris scientiaque promovendis. Is enim est ille vir, 

cui inter nostrates paene soli hoc contigerit, nullum opus in nostra 

urbe, quod ad bonum publicum spectet, non tetegisse, nullum, quod 

tetigerit, non auxisse, dignumque esse qui banc laudem audiat, 

meliora sevisse quam speraverit vel etiam somniarit. Omnia quae 

instituit ille, Bibliotheca Philadelphica, Valetudinarium Pennsyl- 

vaniense, Universitas Pennsylvaniensis, hodie, quod ad mag^itudi- 

nem pertinet, adeo sunt aucta, quod ad utilitatem publicam, tan turn 

ab inittiis illis parvis, ut nobis nunc videtur parumque sunt provecta 

quantum nemo, ne in somnio quidem fieri posse imaginaretur. 

Nee solum habemus ilium, cujus hodie mentionem debeamus 

facere : immo quam multi philosophi illustrissimi, Societatis socii, 

magna pars fuerunt rerum a Universitate prospere gestarum ! Quis 

enim est civis noster quem dies hie faustus felix ad commemoranda 

non ipse ducat nomina haec clarissima ; Franklin, Bond, Bartram, 

Hopkinson, Coleman, Alison, inter fundatores venerabiles Vestros ; 

— Rittenhouse, Smith, Ewing, Adrian, Morgan, Kuhn, Redman, 

Kinnersley, Barton, Coxe, Hare, Patterson, Rush, Wistar, Bache, 

Hornor, Wood, Price, Leidy, olim socii illustri Vestri, Curatores, 

Professoresque Universitatis nostras honoratissimi ! Et in praesenti 

eadem communitas atque necessitudo nos feliciter conjungit. Vobis 

igitur gloriam per annos centum et quinquagenta conservatam et 

auctam sincere gratulamus, optamusque ut ilia in omnem posteritam 

vigeat ac floreat. Valete ! 

GuiLELMus Pepper, 

Prafecius, 
Curatorum a secretis^ 

Jesse Y. Burk. 

[seal.] William Pepper, M.D., LL.D. 

Mr. Price, on behalf of the Committee, then read a number 

of telegrams received by the Society from various scientific 

societies. 

St. Petersburg, May 20, 1893. 

To the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia: 

Russisches Geologisches Comite sendet seine beste Gliickwiinsche 



13 

am bedeutungsvollen Tage HundertfQnfzig-jahrigen Jubiliums der 
Gesellschaft. Karpinski. 

Moscow, May 22, 1893. 
To THE American Philosophical Society^ Philadelphia : 

The Imperial Society of Friends of Natural Sciences, Anthropol- 
ogy and Ethnography, Moscow, congratulate cordially upon the 
great Anniversary, and send the best wishes for the future. 

President^ Anoutchin. 

Secretary^ Gondatti. 

Moscow, May 21, 1893. 
To the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia : 

Soci6t6 Imperiale Naturalist, Moscow, presente felicitations a 
Soci^t^ Philosoph occasion 150 Annivers de fondation. 

President^ Sloudsky. 

St. Petersburg, May 21, 1893. 
To THE American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia : 

Imperial Russian Mineralogical Society congratulate Philosophi- 
cal Society on 150 years of existence. 

Directory Jeremejew. 

Secretaire Tschernyschew. 

Helsingfors, May 22, 1893. 
To the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia : 

Geographic Society of Finland and Societas pro Fauna et Flora 
Fennica beg to present their respects and congratulations on the 
memorable day. Bergkom Palmen. 

The following list contains the names of the delegates ap- 
pointed to represent the various societies and institutions re- 
sponding to the Society's invitation : 

SocMjte Entomologique de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium : 

Capt. Casey, U.S.A., New York. 
I. R. Accademia degli Agiati, Rovkreto, Tyrol : 

Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia. 
K. K. Military and Geographical Institute of Vienka : 

Capt. Karl Chevalier Rousseau d'llapponcourt, 

Lieut. Col. Robert Daublebsky von Sterneck. 
L' University de Paris : 

Hon. Louis Vossion, Consul of France at Philadelphia. 



14 



R. University de Bologna, Bologna, Italy 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia. 

University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy : 

Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia. 

Royal Academy of Padua : 

Prof. John James Stevenson, Ph.D., New York. 

R. Istituto di Studi Superior], Florbncb, Italy : 
Prof. Vincenzo Botta, New York. 

R. Academia de la Historia, Madrid, Spain : 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia. 

Royal Society, London, Eno. : 

Capt. W. de W. Abney. R. E., C. B.. K. C. B. 

Royal Statistical Society, London, Eno. : 

Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, Eno. : 
Sir Douglas Galton, E. C. B. 

Royal Astronomical Society, London, Eno. : 

Isaac Roberto, D. Sc, F. R. S., F. R. A. S., F. Q. S. 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London, Eno 
Prof Charles R. Lanman, Cambridge, Mass. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland : 
Prof. Herbert Anson Newton, New Haven, Conn. 

Canadian Institute, Toronto, Canada : 

Nova Scotian Institute, Halifax, N. S. : 

Harvard University, Cambuidqb, Mass.: 
Prof William W. Goodwin. LL.I). 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Camhkidgk, Mass.: 
Prof George Lincoln Goodulo, LL.D. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass. : 
Dr. Samuel A. Green. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, Mass. : 
Prof Josiah P. Cooke, LL.D., 
Prof Alpheus Hyatt, Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. : 
Prof Samuel IL Scudder. Ph.D. 

Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. : 
Prof. Thomas Messinger Drown. 

American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. : 
Hon. Henry C. Lea, LL.D., Philadelphia. 

Providence Franklin Society, Providence, R. I. : 
Prof Levi W. Russell. 



15 

New HaveD Colony 11 istoricftl Society, Nkw Havkn, 

Prof. Jamee M. Hoppin, D.D. 
Yale UniTereiiy, New Haveh, Conn.; 

Prof. Olhnlel C. Msrah, LL.D. 
American Cliemieal Society, Qrookltn, N. Y.: 

Prof. George F. Barker, M.D.. Ptiilacjdphia. 
Cnliimbin College, New Y^otts : 

Pror. Charles F. Cliandler. Pli.D. 
AinericuQ Geographical Society, Naw YonK : 

Prof. William Libbey. 
Malbematical Society, New Yoiik : 

Prof. Henry B. Fine. 
OnciilaCo. Historical Society, Utica, N, Y.: 

Gen. Charles W. Darling- 



Lafayette College, Easton, Pa.: 

President Ellielherl D. Warfielil, LL.P,, 
Prof. PmnciB A. March, LL.D. 
Linneaii Society, L^nca^ter, Fa. : 

Prof. H. F. Biiner. Milkrsvillc, Pn., 
Prof. J. H. Roddy. 
Prof. 8. M. Pener, Lnncaater, Pa. 
College of Pharmacy, Pbiladrlphia : 

Charles Bullock. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Puiladrlphia ; 

Geo. Isaac J. Wiatar. 
College of Physicians, Philadblpbia : 

Dr. I. M. DaCoBla. 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, PiriLADBLPF 

Francis Jordan, Jr. 
Engineers' Club, PHiLADEi.rHiA ; 

Strickland Knea«a. 
Wagner Free Institute, Piiiladeli-hia . 

Joseph Wilcox. 
University of Pennsylvania, pRiLADELrtiiA : 
Provost William Pepper, M.D., LL.D. 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia : 

Dr. Edwin J. HoubIou. 
Wlslar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Phil 
Clurles C. Barrison. 



16 

Johns Ilopkins University, Baltimore, Md. : 
Prof. Ira D. Itemsen. 

Mainland Ilistorical Society, Baltimorb, Md. : 
Rev. John G. Morris, D.D. 

Antliropological Society, Washington, D.C: 
Col. Garrick Mallery, U.S.A. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D.C: 
Prof. Charles A. Schott. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C: 
Prof Samuel P. Langley, Ph.D., LL.D., 
Dr. George Brown Goode. 

Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Ga. : 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia. 

University of Michigan, A nn Akbor, Mich. : 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Philadelphia. 

University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. : 
Prof. John M. Coulter. 

(Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, III.: 
George II. Hough, LL.D., 
Charles G. Fuller, M.D. 

Societies that sent congratulations, but regretted their 
inability to send delegates : 

Geological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

Asiatic Society of Japan, Tokyo. 

Tokyo Library, Tokyo, Japan. 

Royal Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 

lioyal Geographical Society, Buisbane, AusTRAiiiA. 

Finska Littcnitur-Siillskapet, IIelsinofors. 

K. Siichsische Meteorologische Institut, Chemnitz, Saxony. 

K. Siichsische Alterthumsverein, Dresden, Saxony. 

K. Norske Frederiks Universitet, CiiursTiANiA, Norway. 

K. Norske Videnskabers Selskab, Thuondh.tkm. 

Anthropologische Gescllschaft, Vienna, Austria. 

Uhcinische Fricdrich-Wilhelms Universitiit, Bonn, Prussia. 

Naturhistorische Verein derPreussischeu liheinlande uiid Westphalens, 
Bonn, Prussia. 

Verein fi'ir Erdkunde, Metz, Germany. 

WurtleiubtTgischc Verein fi'ir ITandelsgeographic, Stuttgart, Ger- 
many. 

Scnrkonbergischc Naturforschcnde Cfesellschaft, Frankfurt a. M. 

NaturwisHcnschuflliche Verein fiir Schleswig-IIolstein, KiRL. 

r>at:ivijin Society, Rotterdam. 



17 

Ajcadtoie Royale dei Sdeooes, Bbxtzbllbs, Belgium. 
Schweixeriflcbe Naturfonchende Gesellachaft. Lausaknb, Bwitzbr- 

liAHD. 

Acad^mie des Sciences, Duon, France. 

Socilt^ de Gkogiaphie, Paris, Francs. 

Oxford UnlTeTBity, Oxford, England. 

Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Literary and Pliiloeophical Society, Manchester, England. 

UniTersity of California, Mount Hamilton, Cal. 

Ohio Arcliieological and Historical Society, Columbus. 

Georgetown College, West Washington, D. C. 

Colorado Sdentiflc Society, Dknybr. 

Elislia Mitchell Scientific Society, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Md. 

United States Military Academy, West Point, N. T. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 



Philadelphia. Tuesday, May 28, 1898, 11 a.m. 

The Society was called to order at 11 a.m. by the President,* 
Mr. Fraley, who delivered the foUowiDg address : 

Gentlemen: — In May, 1743, when Benjamin Franklin put forth 
his proposals for the establishment of an American Philosophical 
Society in Philadelphia, he found, according to his letter, that the 
pK)pulation of the British Colonies in North America had reached 
to such proportions, and the examinations that had been made of 
their natural resources and the industry and thrift that attended the 
whole population, showed that it was a favorable time for bringing 
the scientific men of the country into unison, and to establish a 
Society having for its model the Royal Society of London. 

What thoughts rise in our hearts when we contemplate the bold- 
ness of such an undertaking at such a time, and how naturally we 
realize the fact that the struggles of the Society for existence and 
progress were marked with all the usual infirmities that attend upon 
infancy ! 

During the last half of the eighteenth century, Europe was agi- 
tated by bloody and cruel wars, nation waging against nation, 

• At this meeting General Isaac J. Wlstar appeared, and, as a newly-elected member, 
WEB preaented to the President, and took his seat. 

PROC. AMBB. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. C. PRINTED NOV. 22, 1893. 



18 

threatening the overturn of existing institutions, and ultimately 
culminating in the establishment of modified institutions and a 
gradual approach more and more to democratic organizations. Our 
own country, emerging from its colonial state, had made a declara- 
tion of independence ; had, by great courage, trials and sufferings, 
accomplished finally the result of the proposition for free govern- 
ment ; and, before the close of the eighteenth century, that Consti- 
tution of the United States under which, with a few amendments, 
we now so happily live and are making such mighty progress as a 
great nation, was adopted. 

Some of the men who participated in those early struggles in our 
country were enrolled as members of this Society, and, among them, 
without an attempt to enumerate all, we find of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, 
Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush and several others who were early 
members of our organization. 

In 1769. there was a union of the two Societies for the promotion 
of useful knowledge in Philadelphia, and Benjamin Franklin became 
the first President, David Rittenhouse the second and Thomas Jef- 
ferson the third. Those who followed after have fairly illustrated 
what were the objects which were had in view by the founders of 
the Society, and how they were prosecuted by the early members ; 
and with what success the great objects for the promotion of useful 
knowledge were aided, and to a great degree accomplished, through 
the instrumentality of the members of our Society. 

While the wars which I have referred to disturbed the last half of 
the eighteenth century, science, invention, intellectual thought, with 
everything that contributes to the elevation and prosperity of man- 
kind, were not neglected. The volumes written and printed during 
those fifty years, the activity in the development of the constitution 
of nature, in the empire of thought, the application of science to 
the useful arts and the wonderful achievements of those days, even 
when we contrast them with what is now going on around us, are 
wonderful in the extreme. The Century of Inventicns, published 
by the Marquis of Worcester, illustrative of his investigations in 
the mechanical sciences, has formed to a certain extent the basis of 
the operations and thoughts of our mechanical minds. The simple 
steam engine which was in existence at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, was gradually developed by new additions to its 
structure, promoting its safety and giving it more and more efl5- 



19 

ciency. By the attention given to mechanical science by the Earl 
of Stanhope, and above all by the genius of James Watt, the steam 
engine of those ancient days attained a perfection which seemed at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century to be such that there was 
nothing more for man to invent or to aspire to, to increase his 
powers. 

But how does this wonderful invention stand at the present day ? 
The old, simple-acting atmospheric engines, of which I saw some 
remains in my early childhood, have entirely disappeared, except 
perhaps in the museums of mechanical objects. The perfected 
engine of Watt began to be superseded early in the century by the 
invention of Oliver Evans, a citizen of Pennsylvania, who devised 
the high-pressure engine, imperfect in the first place in its structure, 
but wonderful in its effect. Among the examples of his engines, in 
contrast with those of Boulton and Watt, I may be permitted to 
call the attention of this meeting to the two engines which for a 
number of years stood side by side in the building of the Fairmount 
Water Works, which was erected for the purpose of containing the 
engines and supplying the city of Philadelphia with water. There 
was the complicated and ponderous engine of Boulton and Watt, 
with its walking beam and its great fly-wheel, with the improve- 
ments that had been made on the sun and planet movement for the 
accomplishment of the conversion of vertical power into rotary 
power. There was a little engine built by Oliver Evans, occupying 
a space of certainly not more than fifteen feet wide by twenty feet 
long, with its boiler and all its api>endages working under a pres- 
sure of 150 pounds to the square inch and performing more work 
than the elaborately constructed and perfected engine of Boulton 
and Watt. 

In this high-pressure engine of Oliver Evans is found the type of 
what are now called the compound steam engines of the present 
day, the steam entering one cylinder at a very high pressure, grad- 
ually emerges from that into a second under a diminished pressure, 
and going on until finally, I believe, it is now passed through at 
least four cylinders, and terminates at the end of its work under the 
pressure with which the Boulton and Watt engines were originally 
worked. 

I do not think too much praise can be given to our mechanical 
inventors. Not only does the steam engine evidence the success 
of their inventive genius and their perfected labors, but the machin- 



20 

ery by which cotton and wool and silk are carded, spun and woven 
into the beautiful fabrics of the present day, is the product of the 
last one hundred and fifty years. It will be recollected by my 
friends who are now here that it was very doubtful towards the 
close of the eighteenth century whether cotton could be so treated 
as to separate it from the seeds, to be carded and spun into threads 
and woven into fabric ; but while this doubt was threatening that 
great product of nature, Whitney gave us the cotton gin, which 
separated successfully the seeds from the fibres of cotton, preparing 
it for the cards and introducing it through the gradually perfected 
machinery for drawing and spinning. 

The English inventors and factory men had their genius stimu- 
lated to the same end, and the spinning jenny, the mule, and the 
more elaborate machinery invented by Richard Arkwright, came 
into use, and, by improvements on the original structures, have 
arrived at the perfection with which our factories are now equipped 
and perform their work. 

If we turn to other branches of useful knowledge and of science, 
the first that make an impression on my mind are the wonderful 
discoveries in astronomy. The old plan of searching the heavens 
by imperfect instruments has given place to the magnificent tele- 
scope of the present day. Photography has come in to the aid of 
the astronomer, and while his telescope searches out the stars and 
keeps his instrument in continued harmony with their motion, pho- 
tography copies the picture of the heavens and opens to us a world 
not only of knowledge but of imagination. 

The chemistry of the world has also undergone great changes. 
The middle of the eighteenth century was illustrated by the discov- 
ery of oxygen gas by Dr. Priestly, and that discovery influenced the 
science of chemistry to a very great extent in the early years of its 
progress. But Sir Humi)hrey Davy and the other later chemical 
philosojjhers found out that there were other supporters of combus- 
tion than oxygen, and by the combination of those other supporters 
of combustion we get the basis with which it is possible to combine 
those gases in the manufacture of important acids. 

The whole science of chemistry has been revolutionized, and now 
the chemists who survive and who received their instructions in the 
early years of the i)resent century, not only cannot realize what the 
status of chemistry is at the present day, but are lost in amazement 



21 

at the contemplation of the arts hy which such revolution and such 
changes have been accomplished. 

In mathematical science the development has, I think, been found 
equally progressive. We must recollect, in this connection, that 
while planets used to be discovered by accident and by the visual 
inspection of the starry heavens, this age has been celebrated by 
the discovery of a planet purely accomplished by mathematical 
computation. The great planet Neptune bears testimony to the 
accuracy of such mathematical 'formulae, and perhaps it may not be 
too much to say that, as years roll around, other great planets may 
be added to our solar system and the study of the inferior ones will 
become more nearly perfect by the aid of improved telescopes 
and th^ application of photography, so that we may penetrate into 
the recesses of those planets and perhaps discover that, like our 
own, they are populated by intelligent beings pursuing, according 
to the blessings that may be vouchsafed them, the study of what 
they are capable of in the development of their condition ; and 
possibly, if it is not too much a flight of fancy, that the inhabitants 
of the earth may develop some machine or instrument by which 
the gravity of our planet may be overcome and we may go on a 
voyage of discovery to Venus or Mars. 

In medicine, what progress has been made ? The old, simple 
methods followed by a physician, when he was called in to attend 
a patient, in endeavoring to ascertain the cause of the disease with 
his imperfect knowledge, reducing inflammation by bleeding, afraid 
to embark upon any capital surgical operation for fear of disastrous 
results, have been replaced with greater knowledge. Now the 
accomplished physician and surgeon steps in and in a very few 
hours or a very few days determines what is the affliction of his 
patient and applies the appropriate remedy for changing the con- 
stitution of the fluids of the body, and, if need be, courageously 
takes out his knife and extirpates a tumor, dissevers an arm, opens 
the throat or the body and by actual inspection of what is the mat- 
ter lays open the whole case for the application of his remedy, and 
saves perhaps ten lives at the present day from the inroads of dis- 
ease, where one life was saved at the beginning of our present cen- 
tury. 

In geographical investigation what marvels have the explorations 
of our travelers exhibited ? How more and more are we becoming 
familiar with the conditions of uncivilized life, the temperature of 



24 

I think, of encouragement to what has been accomplished by your 
skill. The old methods of transferring power by means of cog- 
wheels and ratchets has given way to the utilization of power by 
means of the pulley and the belt. You enter a factory now and see 
whirling around you what appears to be simply a loose strap passed 
over a pulley, with ponderous masses of machinery driven for the 
production of objects that are useful to mankind, some of them of 
prime necessity, and all of them recognized as great coadjutors in 
the work of practical education. 

In every large machine shop that we enter we see the evidences 
of the invention of instruments of precision by which the labors of 
the mechanician are rendered more easy and more perfect ; the plan- 
ing machine supersedes the old attempt to form a level surface by 
the application of the hand plane ; the turning-lathe accomplishes 
the formation of very complex forms, far differing from the original 
cylinder or cone that was the marvelous product of the lathes of 
old ; the gunstock, or the last for a shoe for the human foot, or any 
complicated form of object, is turned out as if by magic in the im- 
proved lathes of the present day, and thus enters into the general 
mass of useful objects and the evidences of profound invention and 
skill. 

And now, my friends, while I have not especially referred to the 
history of the American Philosophical Society, I will give you a 
reason for it, in the fact that it has already been given to you 
with such marvelous fidelity and truth by the public press that I 
could add no words to make the record which they have trans- 
cribed more complete or full. But I will say in conclusion, 
that one of the most useful applications of knowledge that these 
two centuries have witnessed, is the progress of the printing 
])rcss. In the hall of the child of this Society, the Franklin 
Institute of Pennsylvania, stands the original printing press of 
Benjamin Franklin. Contrast that old but powerful instrument of 
its day with the steam ])resses that are rattling with their machinery 
and the operation of their contrivances every hour through the ex- 
istnig busy day. Their work and the result of their labors seems 
even to exceed what we have witnessed by the utilization of light 
and electricity. I^ight and electricity contribute no doubt to the 
vitality of their existence, but I think one of the most marvelous 
things for study is to visit the interior of a large, well-equipped 
printing oftice of the present day, and see with what rapidity the 



25 

notes of the stenographer are turned into the text which appears in 
the newspaper article of the next day or the magazine article of the 
next month, the ponderous chapter of the history of inventions, or 
the treatise on mathematics or chemistry or geology or any other 
of the kindred sciences; how the text is reduced to printed matter, 
the type set up, the matrix in which a whole cylinder of matter can 
be at once developed, formed and put on the whirling cylinders of 
the press and printed and sped on the wings of the wind throughout 
the universe. 

Such, my friends, is the simple tribute that I am able to pay to 
this intelligent audience, and the testimony which I am constrained 
to bear that this earth is gradually growing better and wiser, and 
that men are beginning to understand more fully the objects for 
which they were created and to be more helpful to their fellowmen, 
to prepare us for that higher and more blessed immortality which is 
promised to the faithful. 

President Fraley then presented Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, Mass., 
and spoke as follows : 

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, at Boston, is the 
sister of this institution, ours having been established in 1743 and 
the Boston Academy in 1780. They celebrated their centennial in 
1880, and no doubt will emulate us in celebrating their one hun- 
dred and fiftieth anniversary in 1930 ; and when that time comes 
around they will make up the glorious record more fully of that 
which has been accomplished and also realize the truth of the 
motto which they bear on their seal. 

Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, Boston, Ma-ss., adJre?sed llic Society as fol- 
lows : 

Mr. President and Members of tJie American PhiloM>f<liical So- 
ciety : — I came this morning intending, of ^ our-^*.-, to l:s**:n to the 
two gentlemen who had been announced to speak, wi'h tjo antici- 
pation whatever that I should be called \\\)<)U to give anything 
more than j^erhaps a mere statement of the subject of rny paper. 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. D. I'KrNTKD NOV. 22, 1^9'J. 



26 

I labor under the double disadvantage of having prepared there- 
for no specimens, having brought before you nothing to make my 
theme comprehensive, and also the final disadvantage of having no 
blackboard ; but I will do the best I can to make my point com- 
prehensible. 

The subject which I proposed to present to the Society is what I 
should call the ** Phylogeny of an Acquired Characteristic," the his- 
tory of one single characteristic followed out from its earliest inception 
in the type of cephalopods through various stages of its evolution to 
its final disappearance in the same type. The object is to give a solid 
basis to certain theories of evolution. 

You all, of course, know that in the present treatment of the 
problem of evolution everything depends on having some specific 
object. It is well enough to speculate, it is well enough to state 
the Darwinian hypothesis, it is well enough to have this hypothesis 
or that point of view and to argue about them, but to come down 
to the facts which lie at the bottom of these, and to follow them 
through all the phases of their evolution is, of course, difficult and 
largely a matter of chance in every department of research. 

In this case, one characteristic happens to be provable, and fur- 
nishes the subject which I have in hand for special investigation. 
The earliest shells, those which are primitive in shape, are cones 
like this. (Illustrating.) They are divided by partitions and have 
certain internal characteristics which distinguish them. The next 
shape is bent, as if I were to take this cone and bend it without 
crushing in one side. The next form is loosely coiled, as if I 
doubled this paper cone without depressing one side, the cone not 
coming in contact. The next stage of evolution is one in which 
the cone not only doubles on itself by growth, but doubles so closely 
that it actually flattens this inner side, and then, in place of being 
able to see thc^e inside convolutions in the next state of evolution, 
they are concealed by the downward growth of the outside. So 
that the shell, growing gradually, first like a rope coiled up, and 
then eventually, if you can imagine the sides of the coil growing 
inwards as they progress, so as to cover up the interior, you would 
see the last or outside convolution with a depression like that (illus- 
trating) in a horseshoe shape, on the inner side. These whorls, the 
first of them in the* Devonian and Silurian period, are always 
rounded, so that the section is very much like a section of the end 
of that cone, it has no depression on the inside. Then, as the 



27 

forms coil tighter and tighter, one whorl Ijdng over the other, the 
inner whorl presses upon and obliges the outer whorl to form this 
depression on the inner side. When the shell gets old the whorl 
quits the spiral and grows out straight, and when that period begins 
in old age this depression, which is formed where the whorls close 
up, gradually disappears, so that in extreme old age you get a return 
to the rounded outline. 

Thus you get throughout the earlier systems in the earth's history, 
throughout the Silurian and Devonian period, a transient condition. 
You will find that whenever this depression occurs it is always 
because one whorl laps over another. When, in the course of growth, 
the shell passes by the whorl, that bay or depression disappears, so 
that you get in every fossil the proof that this characteristic is a 
transient one, that when it occurred it was through the mechanical 
action of the growth of one whorl of the shell over another, as much 
so as a dent in a piece of putty when you put your fist in it ; in other 
words, it is not in the organism and in any shape which would en- 
able us to say it was inherited. The Weissman hypothesis is that 
evolution has taken place by other forces than those which modify 
the organization from the exterior. He says that no characteristic 
which id acquired in this way, mechanically, by growth or the 
action of the externals in any way on the animal, can be inherited. 
It is not inherited. It makes no impression on the organism so 
that it can be inherited. 

We can get the history of this characteristic throughout the 
earlier periods and it justifies the hypothesis. It was supposed by me 
for several years to be one of the strongest points in favor of the 
hypothesis, that an acquired characteristic made no impression 
on the germ and was, in fact, non-ijoherited. 

This last winter, following out an investigation begun in connec- 
tion with the geological survey of Texas in the carboniferous de- 
posits of that region, I was led to extend my investigation in regard 
to their development and general history. The result was the 
finding that in certain series of the carboniferous this characteristic 
was indubitably inherited. I found in the young of close-coiled 
carboniferous forms, shells which were unquestionably close coiled 
in their adult condition, that in the young of these there was a repeti- 
tion of the characteristics of the adults of the Silurian and Devonian. 
In these very young forms the whorls do not touch when they first 
begin to grow, but are all open, as much so as if I bent this piece 



28 

of paper this way and simply curled it in that shape. (Illustrating.) 
The young of these carboniferous forms are formed like that; the 
whorls do not touch. When you take a young cone like that and 
examine this portion of it you find this depression, which was 
purely mechanical in origin throughout the Silurian and Devonian, 
and dependent upon close coiling is here inherited before the 
whorls touch. 

That, then, seems to be as far as possible, without demonstration 
by experiment, a clear case of the acquisition of a characteristic in 
the earlier periods of the evolution of a group, through the purely 
mechanical effect produced by the mode of growth of the shell, and 
then the inheriting of the same in the young of carboniferous forms 
before any of those mechanical causes which originated this charac- 
teristic could have their influence on the growth of the shell. While 
it was still young, still uncoiled, still like its ancestors in every 
way, it inherits this acquired character, which never appeared in 
them until later in life, and was retained in them only so long as 
the originating mechanical causes continued to bear on the shell 
during its growth. 

Then to complete the history after the carboniferous, I have inves- 
tigated the different forms to see if it were continuous. We find it 
is present in the same type throughout the jura, cretaceous and 
trias, and finally, examining the last existing forms, of which there 
are only four species, of nautiloids now living, the same character- 
istic is well developed in the young. 

Then following up another line, taking the Ammonoids, which is 
the more complicated type, and which terminates in the cretaceous, 
we can pass through the entire group, and we find this character- 
istic increasing and becoming more and more important. Finally, 
we strike in the jura certain degraded forms, and ultimately in the 
cretaceous forms which are the reverse of those with which they began. 
Just as in old age we are in a measure the reverse of our adult period, 
just as in that condition we put on certain infantile characteristics, 
which are produced by the wear and tear of life, these types through 
their evolutionary history go back on their history, and part with 
characteristics that distinguish their higher development and become 
simpler. Instead of being coiled up they become uncoiled, having 
young which are coiled up and adults which are uncoiled, and in 
following this characteristic through that long reverse series of 
forms it IS found to disappear precisely in accordance with certain 



29 

laws, which show that m the degeneracy of t3rpe89 as well as in the 
old age of individuals, there is a decrease and a final disuse of char- 
acteristics which have been introduced during the rise of the group. 

The history of this characteristic follows the same law, and is pre- 
cisely in accordance with the history of other parts of the animal, 
and precisely parallel with those which no one can deny to be 
hereditary. It will be very difficult for those who take the view that 
acquired characteristics cannot be inherited, to prove that this is 
not an acquired characteristic or that it is not inherited. It seems 
to me, as far as can be shown, without, of course, the direct demon- 
stration of experiment, that it is an acquired characteristic of 
purely mechanical origin which becomes inherited in the carboni- 
ferous. 

A Member : I should like to know what is the natural size of 
these shells. 

Prof. Hyatt: They are of all sizes. The largest of those 
described perhaps are three inches in diameter, others when full 
grown being much larger. They are all of good size for obser- 
vation. 

Prof. Hubert A. Newton, of New Haven, Conn., represent- 
ing the Royal Society of Edinburgh, next addressed the Soci- 
ety, as follows : 

I have to apologize somewhat in that I came to the rooms not 
expecting to speak to you. I have, however, one point which I 
think will interest the members of this Society if they will give me 
a few minutes to develop it, and that is, the force which acts on the 
small bodies sent off from comets and which form our shooting stars. 

There are in the comets so many questions that we cannot answer, 
so many curious and wonderful phenomena that are unexplained, 
that I am sure you will accept any explanation of any of them that 
seems plausible, as a matter of interest. From a comet there is con- 
tinually driven off matter forming the tail, a light substance, and as- 
tronomers are agreed that the force that acts on the matter which 
forms the tail is a repulsive force from the sun acting inversely as the 
square of the distance, the force of the repulsion being greater than 
that of attraction. 

Not only is this true, but different parts of that tail are acted 
upon by repulsive forces of different powers ; otherwise the tail 



30 

would form across the sky a single line instead of a broad, expand- 
ed mass of light such as we see. From the comet, however, there 
are driven off also, or there are separated other things entirely dis- 
tinct from the tail, small bodies, which are not thus driven away, 
which are not visible, but follow along closely in the path of the 
comet, and whenever the occasion comes, that is when we go through 
a group of them, those give us our shooting stars. 

The Biela comet, in the period about 1840, passed near to 
Jupiter. At that time it was turned pretty sharply out of its orbit, 
the' inclination of the orbit being turned several degrees, and the 
node being carried forward also several degrees, represented by 
several days in the time at which we crossed the path of the comet. 

After 1840 the bodies which formed the meteors that were met in 
1872 and in 1885 were separated from one or other parts of the 
Biela comet. I say after 1840, because if they had been separated 
earlier they would have given us a different radiant in the skies, 
the one given by the Biela meteors of 1838. The radiant was 
changed, the node was change'd, all to correspond to the new orbit, 
and these bodies could not have been turned in that way had they 
been before scattered, because the force that acted on them, the attrac- 
tion of Jupiter, would have scattered the group instead of giving us 
that single compact group through which we passed in 1872 and 1885 
in the course of four or five hours, and the bulk of them even in two 
hours. 

In 1872, the comet was something like 200,000,000 miles away 
from the bodies that we met as we passed through them on the 27th 
of November, giving us a brilliant shower. Thirteen years later we 
passed through the group again, and then the comet was something 
like 300,000,000 miles ahead of the group. So that some of the 
particles, leaving the comet between 1840 and 1870, had gained 
and others between 1840 and 1885 had fallen behind. 

What should separate those particles ? What are the forces which 
carried off those particles so many miles — 200,000,000 miles on the 
one hand and 300,000,000 miles on the other, in round numbers ? 
The force that acts on them must be a force acting in one plane, 
that is, the plane of the orbit of the comet. Any force acting in 
other planes would have scattered the group and we would not have 
met them as a single definite group at the times named; but if it 
acts in the plane, only scattering them on the plane, they would be 
together as we saw them. 



31 

In that plane, it must be either an impulsive force acting once or 
it must be a constant force acting continually. The only bodies in 
that plane are the comets and the sun, and if the force is a continu- 
ous force it must be from the comet or from the sun. It is almost 
inconceivable to suppose that the comet could have sent them off, 
either impulsively or continuously, in such a way as to give us the 
distance of 200,000,000 and 300,000,000 miles in the course of 
thirty yeans ; it would require far more than any velocity that 
we can give in our terrestrial exjjeriments, and we have no reason 
to suppose that there is any such power of impulsion. Moreover, 
if the impulsion came from the comet, they would go in all direc- 
tions and their character, as being in a plane, would have been en- 
tirely lost. 

We are then thrown back on this one hypothesis, that the sun is 
the source of that force. In other words, we are led to extend the 
idea that I gave you in the begihning, and which is accepted by 
astronomers, that the material which goes off from the comet, after 
it leaves it, is subject to a force like that of attraction but differing 
in its intensity. In the case of the tail, it is a repulsive force. 
To satisfy these conditions of separation, part in one direction and 
part in the other, from the comet, we must have an attraction in 
the one case exceeding the attraction of gravitation and, in the 
other, an attraction less than the attraction of gravitation. In 
other words, these little bodies of hard matter that go off from the 
comet and follow very nearly in its train are acted on not in pro- 
portion to the force that steadily acts on the planets in their orbits. 

I see no escape, myself, from this conclusion. What it means, I 
must leave to you to decide. Our experiments make it very improba- 
ble that the attraction of matter differs in any way from proj)ortion to 
the mass. It looks to me as though the more natural explanation 
is that, in some way, the materials which go off from the comet 
carry with them a load of electricity, or something of that kind, by 
which they have a permanent repulsion or permanent attraction 
sufficient to change the orbit altogether, not in kind, but in a 
steady change, throwing them into a new orbit with a new period, 
and thus scattering them. 

What that added force must be, we cannot very well tell, because 
it differs according to the place in the orbit where the disintegra- 
tion takes place. If that disintegration takes place near the sun, 
it is one thing; if it takes place near Jupiter, it is another. It 



32 

looks more to me as though there was a disintegration all along the 
line of the comet's orbit, giving us small particles with all sorts of 
loads of electricity and all sorts of differences of central attraction 
and differences of orbits, and thus they get widely scattered so 
as to give us the showers a long distance from the comet itself. 
The amount of this change would have to be something like the 
tenth part, possibly, or something less than that. I should think 
that all the phenomena could be explained by a change amounting 
to one- tenth of the attraction ; that is, if the small particle carries 
a load of electricity such as to diminish the attraction to say nine- 
tenths of the original attractive force of the sun, or increase it to 
eleven-tenths, it will explain the phenomena. 

If that is the explanation, we come to this further conclusion of 
interest, that the space through which these comets move is not 
such that the electricity which the particle carries can be lost. An- 
other practical point would be that, in the discussion of the sepa- 
ration of these comet masses that through the telescope we see 
going on as the comets pass the sun, there might fairly be intro- 
duced an unknown correction of the force of central attraction. 

A Member : Have you gentlemen, who have made a study of 
this very interesting subject which you have been discoursing on, 
arrived at any hypothesis as to what broke up the Biela comet ? 

Prof. Newton : I can only answer as a working hypothesis, 
in my own mind, is that a mass, not surrounded by an atmosphere, 
coming down from the cold into a warmer region near the sun, be- 
comes heated up, and in that heating there is a disintegration going 
on. If you put the pieces of a meteorite into a vacuum, and heat 
them, you will get gases that will be something like those which 
are thrown off from the tail of a comet, and the comet coming 
down near the sun, with the hot, scorching effect entirely undimin- 
ished by a thick atmosphere, would have pieces broken off, giving 
fresh surfaces. An immense amount of action of some sort follows, 
and those i)ieces would naturally go off under such excitement, car- 
rying with them, as I conceive, a load of electricity. The process 
goes on in almost all our comets. It is not in Biela alone that we 
see comets going off to pieces. Scores of comets have shown that 
same breaking up under the telescope. 

Adjourned. 

In the afternoon the Society and guests attended a reception 

tendered by the Drexel Institute. 



88 



Philadklfbia, Wednesday, May Zi, 1888, 11 a.m. 

The Society was called to oider at 11 a.m. by President 
Fraley, who presented Dr. Daniel 0. Oilman, President of 
the Johns Hopkins University, who read an address on the 
** Present Aspects of Science in America." 

After presenting the congratulations of the Johns Hopkins 
XTniversity to the American Philosophical Society, he pro- 
ceeded to discQSB the yarioQS agencies which are concerned in 
the advancement of knowledge, namely, museams and libra- 
ries, universities and colleges, scientific instruments and ap- 
paratus, agencies for the encouragement of research, and 
publications. Under each of these five heads, the speaker 
considered the actual condition of science in America, adding 
occasional historical illustrations. The paper included a sketch 
of the contributions made to each of the principal branches of 
natural science by American investigators. 

President Fraley next introduced Et. Rev. John J. Keane, 
President of the Catholic University of America, at "Washing- 
ton, who addressed the Society upon the subject of " Philoso- 
phy's Place Among the Sciences," as follows : 

Afr, President and Fellow-members of the American Philosophical 
Society^ Ladies and Gentlemen : — In the name of one of the very 
youngest of our American institutions of learning, I offer the tribute 
of my respect and reverence to the first association of the kind in 
our country. In our New World a century and a half is a very hoary 
old age, and a society that has with honor lived during that period 
can very well look down in a spirit of patriarchal dignity and superi- 
ority on every other institution that sets to work under its guidance 
and in pursuance of its example. 

I say in the name of our young institution in Washington that to 
follow that guidance shall be our constant endeavor and our highest 
ambition. We have long since come to the conviction, so well 

FBOa AMBB. PHIL08. 80C. XXXU. 143 B. FBINTBD NOV. 22, 1898. 



34 

Stated just now by Dr. Oilman, that between science and religion 
there cannot be an antagonism, only we go a step farther than that 
which he indicated : We are not willing merely to regard science as 
the handmaid of religion, but we look upon science as the sister of 
religion ; they are both from the same Father, and He has not made 
one the servant of the other ; He has made them sisters one to the 
other, and it is in that spirit of sisterhood that in our institution 
they are to march hand in hand through the generations to come, 
and in doing that we are always going to keep our eye on the grand 
old association in Philadelphia. We are going to have its object of 
extending the boundaries of human knowledge and of bringing its 
treasures within the reach of the largest possible number, and in 
pursuance of that we shall always promise the tribute of our rever- 
ence and our loyalty to the grand old pioneer. 

Yesterday, the keynote to this centennial celebration was given 
in the address of our venerable President. He showed us that the 
century and a half during which this Society has lived has been a 
period of progress along all the lines of human knowledge and of 
human activity. As lovers of mankind, we rejoice in that perspec- 
tive and we give thanks to the Author of all good gifts, to the 
Father of Lights, who has so guided the researches of the past and 
led them to results that are so conducive to human utility. 

To-day, as Americans, we look on that same perspective with 
honest pride, listening to the admirable presentation made by Dr. 
Gilinan of what America has done in helping on that progress in 
the lines of science, and it could be shown by other specialists 
how America, in every other field of human thought and action, 
has taken her part nobly. 

There is one department, however, in which it might be alleged 
that America has been rather in the background. America has 
added very little, comparatively, to the world's stock of philosophic 
thought. This is not owing to any want of philosophical ability 
or of what may be termed the ])hilosophic spirit in our country, 
but it is because the energies of a new country have naturally been 
taken up in the tremendous development of her growth. Now that 
that growth is approaching its maturity, the natural tendency to 
philosophize asserts itself; but it behooves us, looking at the pres- 
ent and glancing forward to the future as far as we can, to provide 
that the philosophizing of the present and of the future shall chime 
with all the advance of human thought and of human knowledge. 



35 

We do not want a philosophy that will ignore any acquisition of 
human knowledge. Hence, it becomes of great importance that 
we should rightly estimate the relations that exist and must exist 
between science and philosophy. 

In glancing over the sum of human knowledge, there are two 
things that strike us with almost equal force — we cannot but wonder 
at how little we know and we cannot but wonder at how much we 
know. Paschal has said very truly that that man has advanced but 
a short way in the road of knowledge who has not discovered that 
the amount which he does not know incomparably surpasses the 
amount he does know. There are still infinities of things that are 
beyond the reach of our ken, and yet we cannot but marvel at the 
amount of knowledge that we have drawn from the facts that are 
within our reach. The reason of that is because, as Schelling says, 
knowledge has two poles, the objective and the subjective poles, of 
cognition. The object of cognition may remain the same; the 
subjective conditions vary infinitely — subjective aptitudes, subjec- 
tive fitnesses. The dewdrop has a message for the poet that the 
scientist may have no ears to hear, and the dewdrop has revelations 
for the physicist to which the poet may be absolutely impervious. 
The vibrations of air are one thing for Helmholtz ; they are quite 
a different thing for Wagner. We remember how, in our child- 
hood, we played with our kaleidoscopes and saw how the same little 
bits of broken glass, continuously assuming their varied forms, 
could give us infinities of beauty, and that was not, by any means, 
only a work of imagination. So the facts that stand before us are 
many sided in their phases, and every phase appeals to some aspect 
of human intelligence, and when we put into combination the end- 
less variety of phases of things, and the endless variety of intellec- 
tual capabilities, then we come to understand how it is that, from 
the facts within our reach, the sum total of human intelligence has 
grown so tremendous. 

This variety of human capabilities coming in contact with the 
intelligibility of things, is not only a legitimate and an unquestion- 
able fact, but it is an ultimate fact, a fact whose consc([uences im- 
pose themselves upon us, not with a necessity that is regardless of 
distinction between true and false, but with the necessity of the 
truth. The consequences of that endless variety of human capa- 
bilities are in the sum total of knowledge an endless harmony, 
although in the comparison of individual fitnesses and individual 



36 

intellectual activity it may often seem to lead to contradiction. 
Why should it lead to real or to apparent contradiction ? 

Even within the limits of severe knowledge, laying aside fancy 
and poetry, there is an immense difference between, leading to a 
divergence between, experimental observation and philosophic or 
speculative thought. Some minds are made for the one, some 
minds are made for the other. It is only the rarer minds, the im- 
mensely comprehensive minds, that seem capable of fully combin- 
ing these two qualities in perfection. We know that this combina- 
tion did exist in Aristotle — equally wonderful, equally admirable as 
a scientific observer and as a philosophic speculator ; but in the 
average of men the one or the other fitness is very apt to predomi- 
nate, and, if it is predominant, is apt to run into exclusiveness, 
and, if that tendency to exclusiveness be not counteracted, after 
awhile the scientific observer and the philosophic thinker may have 
drifted so far apart that they seem to be in conflict, in contradic- 
tion, that they may seem to find it impossible to come into agree- 
ment or even to find a common ground for argument. 

When both gifts are combined in some great man, then it be- 
comes evident to him, and his experience serves as a demonstration 
to others, that between the two — between the scientific and the 
philosophical — there cannot be a contradiction. But whenever the 
speculative or the experimental claims for itself exclusiveness, then 
the result is one-sidedness, and the one-sided thinker is apt to tum- 
ble over into chaos, or, what is almost equally bad, to rebound 
to an opposite extreme. So it is with individuals, so it is with 
epochs, with generations. Some great man puts the stamp of his 
mind on his epoch, and it is philosophic or it is positivist and 
scientific ; and in the epoch even more than in the individual, be- 
cause the epoch has time to work out the logic of things which may 
not be given to the individual, extremism or one-sidedness is cer- 
tain to lead to a rebound, to a reaction that tends towards and may 
reach the opposite extreme. 

During our century and a half, this has been made abundantly 
evident to the world. When our Society began, Kant was calmly 
investigating the value and the limits of human knowledge, work- 
ing out what posterity recognized to be objective scepticism. It 
led to the rebound of extreme idealism, led by such men as Fichte, 
Scbelling and Hegel, and that idealism went to such extremes as 
simply to bring philosophy into contempt. It led to the opposite 



87 

rebound of matenalism, reaching its climax in the positivism of 
Angoste Comte, and the extremes of that idealism have almost 
justified the extremes, also, of the empirical school. 

At present we see a rebound from materialism and empiricism. 
The result is twofold. Wherever philosophic thought has grown 
languid and weak under the opiate influences of materialism and 
skepticism^ wherever it merely has power to lift itself up and be 
heard, it seems to totter into mere agnosticism ; but wherever, on 
the contrary, philosophic thought has retained some of the manly 
rigor which recognizes that the human intellect is not made for 
nescience but for knowledge, not made for darkness but for light, 
then philosopl^y stands up and asserts itself, asserts its right to re- 
mind science that it does not fill the whole world of human thinking, 
and demands that those relations between science and philosophy 
shall be remembered and shall be observed, upon which the reason- 
ableness or utility of both equally depends. 

What are those relations? Science works according to certain 
principles which it presupposes. These principles are very ele- 
mentary. The whole is, and must be, greater than any of its parts. 
All the operations of nature take place, and must take place, in 
space and in time. Every effect presupposes, and must presuppose, 
a cause ; and is, and must be, proportionate to its cause. Nature 
itself is a reality and not a fiction. It has in it those elements that 
make it possible for a man from facts to rise to laws and from laws 
to build up systems. All the notions of equality and inequality, of 
proportion and relation — all these things science works with, all 
these things science presupposes. Science did not make them, 
science did not discover them, science did not receive them even 
from mathematics. Mathematics, itself, presupposes them and 
works with them. Where do they come from ? The scientist may 
accept these principles unconsciously, he may forget his debt to 
philosophy, but he does not by that forgetfulness cancel the debt. 

More than that, when a science has done its best, and by the 
application of these principles has made and tested its methods, 
carried on its observations and then tested its results, all is not 
done. These single facts have to be woven, have to be fixed into 
the great mosaic of truth. Science stands side by side with other 
sciences, and the scientist in any department must every now and 
then, if he is loyal to human intelligence, look over the fence of his 
own narrow boundary, recognize the fields of thought that are beyond 



38 

him, estimate the relation and agreement between his results and 
those which they are working out, and not merely try to estimate 
how it is as between him and his nearest neighbor in the depart- 
ments of science, but how it is between him and them all. 

Who is going to do this? No individual science can do it; no 
mere coming together of all the sciences can accomplish it. An 
arbiter is needed, an arbiter that can stand on a hilltop and survey 
all j and that arbiter of all the sciences — the one that stands on the 
hilltop and corrects blunders and utters notes of warning, and 
knows how, from hypotheses, to sift out certitudes and from mis- 
takes to sift out truths, and to take all the little bits that each sup- 
plies and weave them in the harmony of truth — is philosophy; and 
the fact that her point of view is so much higher and so much 
more comprehensive than that of any science in particular, enables 
her to direct the sciences in their work and to point out any part 
of the great horizon in which the light is seen to be breaking forth. 

Such is the natural relation between science and philosophy^ the 
relation that they must have in the nature of things. How is it de 
facto in the age in which we live ? It is a noteworthy fact that, in 
our age, so many scientific men are developing into philosophic 
thinkers. Wundt, after writing on physics, physiology and experi- 
mental psychology, gives us his system of philosophy. Mivart, 
while plying his scalpel, learns for himself and publishes to the 
world the deeper lessons from nature and the higher meaning of 
truth and the value and method of reasoning. From the phys- 
iological laboratory Du Bois Raymond surveys the Seven World 
Riddles, and Lewes launches out into the problems of life and 
mind. 

These facts, simple indications of multitudes that might be enu- 
merated, show that the most accurate scientific research is compati- 
ble with the profoundest philosophic thinking. Nay, more, it 
shows that science — when it is loyal to truth, when it is logical, 
when it is consistent, when it is human — must lead up to philo- 
sophic thinking. The same appears when we institute a compari- 
son between the methods of science and of philosophy. First of 
all, let us observe that every science has its own specialties of 
method which no other science may share with it. The physicist 
has one method, the chemist has another, so have the biologist and 
the astronomer. 

But these differences of detail in the methods of the individual 



39 

sciences do not, by any means, prove any incompatibility between 
the sciences or their general methods. Apply the truth, and we 
recognize at once that, while there must exist distinctive differences 
between the methods of any science, or of all the sciences, and the 
methods of philosophy, these distinctive differences are no proof of 
incompatibility between philosophy and sciences or between their 
methods. 

More than that, the method observed by all sciences is, in its 
ultimate analysis, generalization, which is a process of abstraction. 
Without generalization, without abstraction, it would be simply 
impossible to rise from the notion of fact to the notion of law. 
When the chemist finds that this oxygen, in this balloon, takes just 
so much of this hydrogen in this balloon in order to combine into 
water, he extends this proportion to all oxygen and all hydrogen, 
and to all experiments with them — past, present and to come — not by 
scientific observation, but by generalization, by abstraction, by the 
fundamental process of all thinking. When the physicist finds that 
this piece of spar gives double refraction, he concludes the same of 
all samples of that substance, and that without at all needing to 
experiment with the rest. When the physiologist finds that the 
blood in this man is composed of white and red corpuscles, he 
does not need to dissect all mankind in order to reach the conclu- 
sion that the blood of every man is composed in the same way. 
Thus we recognize that science is constantly making use of one 
great operation, which is the fundamental unity of all scientific 
method, and that is generalization, abstraction. 

Then comes the mathematician, whose method means abstraction 
on a higher plane. He shows that two and two make four, whether 
it be two and two atoms, or two and two planets, or two and two 
ideas; and he applies his principles of number and weight and 
measure, his notions of quality and equality and proportion, to all 
things, and works out at his desk the system of tlie universe. It is 
a remarkable fact that the great fundamental, dominant principle 
of all physical science in our age, the conservation of force, was 
wrought out mathematically, by Leibnitz, one hundred and fifty 
years before it was proved experimentally by Joule. 

One step more up that ladder of abstraction and we reach the 
operations of philosophy. It widens our view, giving us not merely 
the perspective of this science and of that science and of all sci- 
ences lying side by side, interlacing and working together in the 



40 

production of the world's harmony^ but it opens before us a per- 
spective that embraces all things, a perspective embracing the infi- 
nite and the atom, with all the intervening grades of force and 
of life, the grand hierarchy of being, of causing, of becoming; 
therefore, the advance from science to philosophy is but an ascent 
from one grade of abstraction to another, without jar or hindrance, 
for those whose minds are keen enough for analysis and broad enough 
for synthesis. 

Yet another motive which leads, or rather forces, the logical sci- 
entist into philosophy is the fact that problems exist and demand a 
solution which no amount of scientific research can solve. What is 
the origin of all ? What is the aim of evolution ? What is the 
nature of the human soul, its whence, its whither? What is the 
real value of human life ? What are its duties, its rewards, its des- 
tiny? Any individual scientist may brush these questions aside, 
but there they stand, they confront mankind, they ever have con- 
fronted mankind, they ever have forced mankind to its highest 
and its deepest and its noblest thinking. They demand a reply, 
they prove with the very evidence of intuition that a reply to these 
problems is of greater importance than a reply to any of the prob- 
lems ever started by physics or by chemistry ; and just in proportion 
as special research drifts away from facing these problems they cry 
out all the more loudly in the ear of humanity and tell man that he 
dare not ignore them. The man who stands ankle deep in the riv- 
ulet may laugh at the shallowness of the little stream, but his merri- 
ment does not fathom the sea into which that stream and a thousand 
others are pouring ; and to sound the depths of that all-comprising 
truth into which the separate branches of knowledge empty their 
threads of facts is the proper office of philosophy. 

What system of philosophy is going to do this? What system of 
philosophy can we Americans at the close of the nineteenth century 
accept ? It must be a philosophy that shall have an eye on the past 
and an eye on the future ; that is to say, first, it must be a fair and 
balanced philosophy that shall avoid extremes, extremes which are 
fatal alike to empirical and to speculative thought. It must avoid 
one-sidedness, it must keep clear of materialism and of idealism, of 
skepticism and of dogmatism, of pantheism and of atheism ; it 
must be balanced, it must be an all-around philosophy, it must be 
the via media. Secondly, it must be adaptable, it must be firm 
enough to hold fast to every addition which science may make to 



41 

the sum total of human knowledge, fearless enough to welcome 
them all, knowing that fact can never contradict fact and that 
truth can never be in antagonism to truth ; and it must be elastic 
enough to meet the result of philosophic research, holding on to 
what is, pressing on to what is to come. It must be, in the third 
place, a reflection of all those elements which in the development 
of thought persist because true. 

We have men around us building up grand systems of philosophy 
and those systems die one after another, and yet, as the scientist 
shows us to-day the structure of the beings that lived ages and ages 
ago and left a substratum of fact after them, so these systems of 
thought that come and go and die leave something after them. No 
system of thought is totally false, though few systems of thought 
can claim to be totally true. And so our system of philosophy 
must be able to hold on to all that is true, no matter where it comes 
from, to hold on to the persistent, to hold on to that which is 
eternal because it is true. 

May I be permitted in conclusion to ask your attention to what 
some may consider a singular fact in the world of thought at the 
close of the nineteenth century. Let me ask your attention to that 
grand old man whom we Catholics I think have a right to be proud 
of, Leo XIII, who on the one hand calls the world again to study 
the old scholastic philosophy, and, on the other hand, endows out 
of his own means astronomical observatories and laboratories of 
physics and of chemistry. That man is convinced that there is in 
that old philosophy a body of principles that are the truth, a body 
of principles that therefore are everlasting, a body of principles 
that therefore can guide science as well at the end of the nineteenth 
century as they did in the middle of the thirteenth. He shows 
that that philosophy is not a fossil, but a system of living principles 
ready to take in all that the scalpel, the retort and the lens can 
ever show us, and to teach all the wondrous progress of the science 
of the future how it is to weave itself into the great harmony of 
truth and is yet to shed its refulgence on the world. He shows us 
that it is possible for a system devised by Aristotle and developed 
by Aquinas to receive yet further development, and to answer yet 
or to help mankind to answer all the mighty problems in nature and 
above it that press upon the mind of man. 

Shall not America do something towards helping the world to 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXXII. 143. F. PRINTED NOV. 22, 1893. 



42 

such a philosophy? America aims at giving to the world not only 
the best machines the world has ever seen, but the best men the 
world has ever seen ; Americans make the best men that civilization 
has yet produced. She is therefore to help the world on to the best 
thought that the world has ever yet beheld. I hope we recognize 
that human thought will not be at its best until scientific thought 
and philosophic thought are wedded together in proper harmony; 
and shall not this grand old Society, which has so beautifully guided 
America in her thinking and researches of the past, guide and help 
America in the study of that glorious problem which she in the 
future must help the world to solve ? 

Adjourned. 

Wednesday, May 24 — 3 o'clock P.M. Beception by the 
Board of Directors of Girard College at the College. 
9 o'clock P.M. Reception by the " Penn Club." 



pHiLADELniiA, Thursday, May 25, 1898, 11 a.m. 

The Society was called to order by Dr. Ruschenberger, who 
presided over the meeting. 

Dr. Samuel A. (xrcen having been introduced, read a paper 
on *' Benjamin Franklin, Printer, Patriot and Philosopher," as 
follows : 

At this anniversary meeting of the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety the name of the founder readily suggests itself; and for that 
reason I have t^iken as the subject of my paper the career of Ben- 
jamin PVanklin, who was during his lifetime, with possibly a single 
exception, the most conspicuous character in American history. 

Whether considered as a printer, a patriot, or a philosopher, 
Franklin challenges our highest regard and our deepest admiration. 
Taking him for all in all, in his moral and intellectual proportions, 
he is the most symmetrically developed man that this country has 
l)rodu( ed. In popular phrase he was a great all-round man, able 
to meet any emergency and ever ready to cope with any situation. 
In many ways he has left behind him the imprint of his mind and 



43 

of his work on the activities of the present day, to an extent that 
is unparalleled. To a large degree he had a knack of doing the 
right thing at the right time, which is epitomized by the American 
people as horse sense, — a quality which justly assigns him to a high 
place among men of worldly wisdom. He had a faculty of per- 
forming the most arduous labors on the most momentous occasions 
in such a quiet way that even his nearest friends often were entirely 
ignorant of his agency in the matter; and little did he care whether 
the credit of the deed came to him or went elsewhere. He seemed to 
turn off work of the highest order as easily as the sun shines or the rain 
falls, and just as unconsciously. A marked peculiarity with him was 
doing his whole duty on all occasions, without making a fuss about it. 
An estimate of his father's character, given in Franklin's own 
words, would apply equally well to himself: " His great excellence 
was his sound understanding, and his solid judgment in prudential 
matters, both in private and public affairs.** 

In order to trace some of these qualities towards their source, it 
is necessary to examine the causes at work during Franklin's early 
life, and even to go back still further and learn what influences had 
been brought to bear on his ancestors ; since the influence of hered- 
ity must in this, as in every such case, be considered. It has been 
wittily said by a writer — so distinguished in many ways that I 
hardly know whether to speak of him as a poet or a physician, but 
whom all will recognize as *' the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table ** 
— that a man's education begins a hundred years before he is born. 
I am almost tempted to add that even then he is putting on only 
the finishing touches of his training. A man is a composite being, 
both in body and soul, with a long line of ancestry whose begin- 
ning it is impossible to trace ; and every succeeding generation only 
helps to bind and weld together the various and innumerable quali- 
ties which make up his personality, though they be modified by 
countless circumstances that form his later education, and for which 
he alone is responsible. Of Franklin it may be said that he came 
of sturdy stock, none better in New England, poor in this world's 
goods, but rich in faith and the hope of immortality. On both 
sides of the family his ancestors, as far back as the records go, wtre 
pious folk, hard-working and God-fearing. They knew the value of 
time and money, and they also placed a high estimate on learning 
and wisdom. From such a source it fell to his lot to inherit life, 
and his heritage was better than silver or gold. 



44 

Benjamin Franklin was born on January 6, 1706, — according to 
the old style of reckoning time, — in a modest dwelling near the head 
of Milk street, Boston. Just across the way was the South Meet- 
ing-house, belonging to the Third Church of Christ, of which 
Franklin's parents were members, and at its services were constant 
attendants. In this sanctuary the little infant, on the day of his 
birth, was baptized by Samuel Willard, the minister, who duly en- 
tered the fact in the church record. With our modern ideas of 
sanitary precaution, it might now seem to us somewhat imprudent to 
take into the open air, even for a very short distance, a delicate 
neonatuSy whose earthly pilgrimage was spanned by an existence of 
only a few hours, and to carry him to an unwarmed meeting-house, 
in the midst of a New England winter, even for the purpose of re- 
ceiving the rite of Christian baptism; but our pious forefathers 
thought otherwise. At the same time, prayers were offered up for 
the speedy recovery of the mother; and the knowledge of this fact 
was a source of great comfort and consolation to the family house- 
hold. 

Benjamin's father, Josiah Franklin, was English-born, — coming 
from Northamptonshire, where the family had lived for many gene- 
rations; the same county from which also the family of George 
Washington came. For a long period the men had been rigorous 
toilers, earning their livelihood by the sweat of their brow, and 
many of them were blacksmiths. Benjamin's mother, Abiah Folger, 
was a native of the island of Nantucket, and his father's second 
wife. Her father, Peter Folger, was a man of such distinguished 
probity that when he was acting as one of five commissioners ap- 
pointed to measure and lay out the land on that island, it was de- 
creed that any three out of the five might do the business provided 
he was one of them. What a commentary on his integrity, and 
what a tribute to his personal worth ! The resemblance between 
the philosopher and Peter Folger, a later kinsman, as seen in his 
portrait, is very striking ; and it may well have been said by his 
neighbors that in his younger days Benjamin favored his mother's 
family in looks. 

Franklin's father owned a few books, mostly theological, and on 
these the lad used to browse, and pick up whatever he could in 
order to satisfy his inquiring mind, though he found it dry picking. 
There is no better exercise for a bright boy than to turn him loose 



45 

in a library, and let him run, day after day and week after week, 
nibbling here and tasting there, as whim or fancy dictates. 

Franklin's early surroundings were of a humble character, and 
his chances of brilliant success in life, as seen from a worldly point 
of view, were slim and discouraging. As a boy he played in the 
street, went barefooted in summer, fished from the wharves at flood 
tide, and snow-balled on the Common in winter; and he got into 
petty scrapes, just as other youngsters of that period did, and just 
as they ever will do, so long as boys are boys, because boyhood is 
brimful of human nature. He was no exception to the general run 
of youthful humanity, any further than that he was a bright, clever lad, 
with a good memory, and that he was fond of reading and always 
hated shams. He would never have been picked out of a group of 
urchins as one ordained to help mold the destiny of a new nation, or 
as one likely to stand before kings. But is it not written, "Seest 
thou a man diligent in business? he shall stand before kings" ? 

Early accustomed to habits of strict frugality, Franklin also im- 
bibed those peculiar notions which laid the foundation of a remark- 
able and distinguished career. Brought up to work, he was not 
afraid of labor when apprenticed as a boy in the printing-office of 
his brother James, the owner and editor of The New- England Cou- 
rant, where he often did a man's stint. His early advantages at 
school were very limited, being confined to a period of less than 
two years, and that, too, before he was eleven years of age. An 
apprenticeship in a printing office at any time is a good school of 
instruction, though one hundred and seventy-five years ago Franklin 
did not find it an agreeable one. His experience at that time, how- 
ever, stood him in good stead on many later occasions. 

The question naturally comes up, ** What special influences were 
brought to bear on the young apprentice during the plastic period 
of his life which made him afterward the great philosopher and the 
sagacious statesman, and above all the apostle of common sense?" 

This is answered in part by himself in his charming Autobiography, 
where he speaks of his fondness for reading, and of the difficulty he 
experienced during his younger days in getting the right kind of 
books. He mentions by title Defoe's Essays on Projects, and Cot- 
ton Mather's Essays to do Good, otherwise called Boni/acius, as two 
works which had a lasting influence on his after-life. Defoe's book 
is a very rare work, so rare, indeed, that its very existence has been 
doubted, and it has been even asserted positively that no such book 



46 

was ever written ; but the assertion is wrong. It has been said, too, 
that Franklin had in mind, when he wrote this part of his Autobi- 
ography j Defoe's Complete English Tradesman^ and that he was 
then thinking of this work ; but it was not so. The great printer 
in his younger days had handled too much type to make a mistake 
in the title of a book. Eight or nine years before his birth An 
Essay upon Projects was published in London, written by the same 
author who afterward wrote that prose epic Robinson Crusoe^ which 
charmed us all so much in our boyhood. In the introduction to 
the Essay the author terms the age in which he wrote '* the project- 
ing age," and in the body of the work he refers to many schemes 
which have since crystallized into practical projects, and are now con- 
sidered necessary institutions of the present age. Besides other 
subjects he refers to Banks, Highways, Assurances, Pension Offices 
or Savings Banks, Friendly Societies, and Academies, all which 
to-day are recognized as actual problems in business life. In his 
chapter on " Assurances " is found the origin of modern Fire Insur- 
ance companies ; and in that on '* Fools," or Idiots, there is more 
than a suggestion of Insane Asylums and other institutions for the 
care and comfort of persons who are mentally unsound. The Essay, 
or collection of Essays, is well written, and in style furnished a good 
model for the readers of that century, although now it would 
hardly be considered an attractive book for boys. It may be as- 
serted, in the light of Franklin's statement, that this work gave 
the young philosopher a turn of thought which ever afterward he 
followed. In the treatment of the various subjects of the different 
chapters there is a decided flavor of practical wisdom for everyday 
use, which seems to have clung to Franklin during his whole life. 

The other little book mentioned in the Autobiography was first 
published in the year 1710; and, as the author was settled as a 
colleague pastor over the church where the Franklin family after- 
ward attended worship, it seems natural that the work should 
have been introduced at an early period into the Franklin house- 
hold, where it surely found eager readers. The book is scarcely 
ever looked at nowadays, much less is it ever read ; but it contains 
some grains of wheat scattered through the chaff". The following 
extracts from its pages are quite Franklinesque in their character: 

Take a Catalogue of all your more HSfStaitt HelcltfbeS. . . . 
Tliink ; Wherein may I pursue the Good of such a Relative (page 72)? 



47 

Have alwayes lying by you, a List of the Poor in your Neighbour- 
hood (page 75). 

You must not think of making the Good you do, a pouring of 
Water into a Pump, to draw out something for your selves (page 78). 

Do Good unto those Neighbours, who will Speak III of you, after 
you have done it (page 80). 

Often mention the Condition of the Poovy in your Conversation 
with the Rich (page 100). 

The Wind feeds no body, yet it may turn the J//7/, which will 
grind the Corn^ that may Feed XkitPoor (page loi). 

To Bear Evil is to Do Good (page 103). 

One Small Man, thus Nicking the Time for it, may do wonders 
(page 1 79) ! 

At a very early period in his life Franklin had acquired a great 
mastery of language, and an excellent style in writing. It was clear 
and terse, and left no doubt as to the meaning he intended to con- 
vey. This high art is rare, and more easily recognized than de- 
scribed. In many ways it is the man himself, and shows him off 
from every point of view. It is never learned by rote, but comes 
largely by practice, and also by familiarity with the works of good 
writers. Franklin was a close reader, and in his boyhood devoured 
everything in the shape of a book within the reach of his limited 
means. He studied Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, — 
a work to which many a man has acknowledged a debt of gratitude 
for its help in mental training. He had also read Banyan's Pil- 
grim^ s Progress y and a stray volume of The Spectator, both excellent 
models for a young man to copy. In one of his Almanacks, 
Franklin says that Addison's '* writings have contributed more to 
the improvement of the minds of the British nation, and polishing 
their manners, than those of any other English pen whatever." 
While yet a printer's apprentice he wrote articles for his brother's 
newspaper, the authorship of which was at first unknown to the 
editor ; and he also wrote doggerel rhymes, in those days often 
called *'varses," which he hawked about the streets of Boston and 
sold for a trifle. In this modest way he earned a few extra shillings 
and laid the foundation of a brilliant career. Who can say now 
that his success in after-life was not in some manner connected with 
the narrow circumstances of the young ballad-maker? 

As at that time the drama was not regarded with favor by the 
good people of Boston, I have often wondered if Franklin in his 



48 

boyhood had ever read any of Shakespeare's plays. The original 
settlers of Massachusetts abhorred playwrights, and looked with 
distrust upon everything connected with the theatrical stage. Even 
in his boyhood Franklin had such a keen appreciation of what 
is great and grand, and such a lively concern for all things human, 
that it would be of interest now to know that he, too, had paid 
silent homage at the shrine of the ** sweet swan of Avon." In The 
New- England Courant of July 2, 1722, there is a bare allusion to 
"Shakespear's Works,'* which is probably the first time that the 
name of the great dramatist is mentioned in New England litera- 
ture. It occurs in a list of books made by an anonymous corre- 
spondent, as belonging to himself, which would come handy '' in 
writing on Subjects Natural, Moral, and Divine, and in cultivating 
those which seem the most Barren." The whole communication 
reads not unlike the effusions of the young printer, and may have 
been written by him. 

The circumstances under which Franklin left home are too well 
known to be repeated here. Youthful indiscretions can never be 
defended successfully, but they may be forgotten, or passed over in 
silence. 

From his native town Franklin went to Philadelphia, with no 
recommendations and an utter stranger ; but fortunately before 
leaving home he had learned to set type. The knowledge of this 
art gave the friendless boy a self-reliance that proved to be of prac- 
tical help, and laid the foundation of his future fame. During a 
long life he never forgot the fact that he was a printer first, and 
Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America to the 
Court of France afterward ; and still later President of the State of 
Pennsylvania. In his last will and testament he sets forth these 
distinctive titles in the order given here; and in his own epitaph, 
which he wrote as a young man, he styles himself simply ** Printer." 
This epitaph is a celebrated bit of literature, quaint and full of 
figurative expression, and has often been re-printed. It bears a 
remote resemblance to some lines at the end of a Funeral Elegy on 
John Foster, a graduate of Harvard College and the pioneer printer 
of Boston, who died on September 9, 1681. The Elegy was written 
by Joseph Capen, then a recent graduate of the same institution, 
and was first published as a broadside. Perhaps the lines suggested 
to Franklin his own epitaph. As a bright boy with an inquisitive 
turn of mind, he was familiar with the main incidents in the life of 



49 

Foster, who set up the first printing-press in Boston, and was prob- 
ably the earliest engraver in New England. 

After Franklin had become fairly domiciled at his new home in 
Philadelphia, one of his chief aims was to make himself useful not 
only to his fellow-artisans, but to the community at large. In divers 
ways he stro/e to raise the condition of young men, and to impress 
upon them the responsibilities of life and the duty they owed to 
others. 

In the year 1732 Franklin began to publish Poor Richard^ s Al- 
manack ^ which not only put money in his purse but made his name 
a household word throughout the land. It soon reached a wide 
circulation, and was kept up by him for twenty- five years. It was 
largely read by the people of the middle colonies and had great 
influence over the masses. From every available source he selected 
shrewd and homely maxims, and scattered them through the pages 
of the publication. So popular did these sayings become that they 
were reprinted on sheets, under the title of ** The Way to Wealth," 
and circulated in England as well as in this country, and were even 
translated into French and sold in the streets of Paris. They are 
not so highly thought of now as they once were ; and the more the 
pity. The present age likes show and style better than quiet ease 
and domestic comfort, and is sometimes called the gilded age, to 
distinguish it from one that is not veneered. The pseudonym of 
authorship on the title-page of the Almanack was Richard Saunders, 
and in quoting these maxims the public often used the expression, 
*' as Poor Richard says," referring to the pseudonym; and in this 
way the name of Poor Richard has become inseparably connected 
with that of Franklin. During the latter part of the seventeenth 
century there had been printed in London an almanack by Rich- 
ard Saunders, and Franklin, doubtless, there found the name. In 
fact his own title-page begins, ** Poor Richard improved ;" show- 
ing that it had some reference to a previous publication. 

A curious circumstance, connected with the translation of these 
proverbs into French, may be worth narrating. The translator 
found a difficulty in rendering '* Poor Richard" into his vernac- 
ular tongue, as Richard in French means a rich man ; and to 
give a poor rich man as the author of the sayings was an absurdity 
on the face of it. So the translator comi^romised by rendering 
the name of the author as ** Bon-homme Richard ;" and Paul Jones' 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. SOC. XXXII. 143. O. PRINTED NOV. 27, 1893. 



50 

famous ship was so called in honor of the Boston printer and the 
Philadelphia philosopher. 

Franklin never accepted results without carefully examining rea- 
sons, and even as a boy was slow to take statements on trust, 
always wanting to know the why and wherefore of things. By 
temperament he was a doubter; but in the end such persons make 
the best believers. Once drive away the mist of unbelief from 
their minds, and the whole heavens become clear. With the eye 
• of faith they then see what has previously been denied to them. 
Franklin did not set up for a saint, or pretend to be what he was 
not; and his friends have never claimed that he was free from 
human failings. They have always looked with regret at his 
youthful errors, and would willingly blot them out; but he himself 
has freely confessed them all. It is on his own testimony alone 
that the world knows his worst faults. *VTo err is human, to forgive 
divine." 

Franklin was a voluminous writer on a large variety of subjects, 
but of all his works the Autobiography has been the most widely 
circulated. This book was first published soon after his death, and 
has since passed through many editions. It has been translated 
into numerous languages and been read throughout Christendom, 
where it has charmed both the old and the young; and the demand 
for it still continues. For close, compact style and for general 
interest it has become almost a classic work in the English lan- 
guage. The bibliographical history of the book is somewhat pecu- 
liar, and makes a story worth telling. 

Presumably an Autobiography, published after the death of the 
writer, would remain substantially unchanged; but it was not so 
with Franklin's. At four different times there have appeared in 
English four versions of the Autobiography, each one varying from 
the others, — though they have not always covered the same p)eriod 
of time, — thus making great and decided changes throughout the 
book. The explanation of this anomaly may be found in the fol- 
lowing statement. The narrative was written at various times and 
places, and the author has given some of the circumstances under 
which it was prepared. The first part, coming down to his mar- 
riage in the year 1730, was written at Twyford, England, in 1771, 
while he was visiting at the house of his friend, Dr. Jonathan Ship- 
ley, Hishoi) of Saint Asaph, with whom he was on terms of close 
intimacy. It was begun for the gratification of his own family, and 



61 

intended for them alone ; but afterward it took a wider scope, and 
was then evidently meant for publication. He did not resume 
work upon it until 1784; but in the meantime the incomplete 
sketch had been shown to some of his friends, who urged him 
strongly to go on with it. The second part of these memoirs, 
written while Franklin was living at Passy, near Paris, is short and 
made up largely of his ideas on life rather than by the recital of 
events. When he began this portion of the narrative, he did not 
have the former part with him, which accounts for a break in the 
thread of the story. The third part was begun in August, 1788, 
while Franklin was in Philadelphia, and is brought down to the 
year 1757. This portion ended the Autobiography, as formerly 
printed in English. About a year after Franklin's death there was 
published in Paris a French translation of the first part of the 
memoirs. It. is a little singular that the principal portion of the 
Autobiography, which was destined to have so great a popularity, 
should have been printed first in a foreign land and in a foreign 
tongue ; and it has never been satisfactorily explained why this was 
so, nor is it known with certainty who made the translation from 
the English into the French. 

In 1793, ^^o years after the appearance of the Paris edition, two 
separate and distinct translations were made from it and published 
in London, — the one by the Messrs. Robinson, and the other by 
Mr. J. Parsons. Both editions appeared about the same time ; and 
probably some rivalry between two publishing firms was at the 
bottom of it. They were English translations from a French 
translation of the original English; and yet, with the drawback 
of all these changes, the book has proved to be as charming as a 
novel. 

In 1818 William Temple Franklin, while editing his grand- 
father's works, brought out another edition of \.\\(t Autobiography y 
which seemed to have the mark of genuineness; and for half a 
century this version was the accepted one. But in 1868 even 
this edition had to yield to a fourth version, which gave the ipsis- 
sima verba of the great philosopher. During that year another 
edition was published from Franklin's original manuscript, which 
a short time previously had fallen into the hands of the Hon. 
John Bigelow, while he was United States Minister at the P>ench 
Court; and by him it was carefully and critically annotated. This 
version now forms the standard edition of the Autobiography^ and 



52 

easily supersedes all former versions. It contains, moreover, six or 
eight additional pages of printed matter from Franklin's pen, 
which had never before appeared in English. It is also a curious 
fact in the history of the book that there are no less than five 
editions in French, all distinct and different translations. 

The limits of this paper will not allow me to follow Franklin in 
his various wanderings either back to his native town or across the 
ocean to London, where he worked as a journeyman printer. Nor 
can I even mention the different projects he devised for improving 
the condition of all classes of mankind, from the highest to the 
lowest, and thereby adding to the comforts and pleasures of life. 
The recollection of his own narrow circumstances during his 
younger days always prompted him to help others similarly placed ; 
and the famous line of Terence applied to him as truthfully as to 
any other man of the last century. In brief, it is enough to say 
that on all occasions and at all times his sympathies were with the 
people. In the great political contest which really began on the 
passage of the Stamp Act, and did not end until the Declaration of 
Peace in 1783, he was from the first on the side of the Colonists, 
and one of their main supports. During the War of the Revolu- 
tion he was a venerable man, the senior of General Washington by 
more than twenty- five years, and the leaders all looked up to him 
for advice. In such an emergency it is young men for action, but old 
men for counsel ; and on all occasions he was a wise counselor. 

Franklin's services in Europe as one of the Commissioners of 
the United States were as essential to the success of the patriots as 
those of any military commander at home; and he gave as much 
time and thought to the public cause, and with as marked results, 
as if he had led legions of men on the battlefield. The pen is 
mightier than the sword, and the triumphs of diplomacy are equally 
important with those of generals who lead armies on to victory. 

I regret that the space of time allowed forbids me to dwell, as I 
should like to do, on Franklin's brilliant career as a philosopher. 
From early boyhood his inquiring mind had led him to study the 
ks>ons of Nature and to learn the hidden meaning of her myste- 
ries. It is easy to understand how, while yet a young man, his 
youthful imagination became excited over the wonders of the 
heavens, when the lightning flashed and the thunder pealed; and 
how he burned to find out the causes of the phenomena. By his 



63 

ingenious experiments in the investigation of these nnatters, and by 
his brilliant discoveries made before he had reached the middle 
period of his life, he acquired throughout Europe a reputation as a 
philosopher; and the results of his labors were widely published in 
France and Germany, as well as in England. In his memoirs he 
gives a brief account of the way he was' drawn into scientific stud- 
ies, and how the seed was sown which brought forth the ripened 
fruit ; but the preparation of the soil in which the seed was planted 
dates back to his childhood, when he was reading Defoe, Mather, 
and other writers, or even to an earlier period. For a full quarter 
of a century before the Revolutionary War broke out, he had 
gained such fame in Europe for his attainments, and was so widely 
known for his fairness, that, when acting as a diplomatist during 
the political troubles of the Colonies, great weight was always given 
to his opinions. 

By the help of that subtle power which Franklin's genius first 
described, audible speech is now conveyed to far distant places, 
messages are sent instantaneously across the continent and under 
the seas, and the words of Puck have become a reality : 

*' I'll put a girdle round about the earth 
In forty minutes." 

Through the aid of this mysterious agency, dwellings and thor- 
oughfares are illuminated, and means of transit multiplied in the 
streets of crowded cities, where it is made to take the place of the 
horse ; and yet to-day mankind stands only on the threshold of 
its possibilities. 

Whether the career of the practical printer or of the sagacious 
statesman or of the profound philosopher be considered, Franklin's 
life was certainly a remarkable one. It would be difficult, if not 
impossible, to name another man so distinguished in a triple cliar- 
acter and so fully equipped in all his parts. By dint of genius 
alone, he arose to high eminence, and took his place with the great 
men of the age, where he was easily their peer, and where he main- 
tained his rank until the day of his death. 

One of Franklin's early acts, fraught with great benefit to schol- 
arship, was the founding, one hundred and fifty years ago, of the 
American Philosophical Society, the oldest scientific body in 
America and one of the oldest in any country, — whose numerous 
publications, covering a broad variety of subjects and extending 



64 

over a period of nearly its whole existence, have won for it a 
proud eminence, and given it high rank among the learned societies 
of the world. 

On this interesting anniversary it falls to my lot to bring to you 
the felicitations of the Massachusetts Historical Society, which was 
founded in Franklin's native town and is the oldest association of 
its kind in the United Slates. The younger sister on this occasion 
sends her warmest greetings, and instructs me to express the hope 
that the same success and prosperity which have followed your 
growth during a long life of honor and usefulness may continue to 
abide with you, undiminished and unabated, for long generations 
to come. 



The President next introduced Chevalier Rousseau d'Hap- 
poncourt, K. K. Navy, who presented the congratulations of 
the Imperial Royal Academy of Vienna to the American Phil- 
osophical Society, as follows : 

SOCIETATI PHILOSOPHiE PhILADELPHIENSI, CjESAKEJE ACADEMIiE LlT- 
TERARVM, ViNDOBONENSIS, SODALES S. 

Qvanti philosophiam qvam merito Cicero omnivm bonarvm arti- 
vm procreatricem et qvasi parentem esse dixit maiores vestri sesti- 
maverint ex eo coUigitvr qvod iam ante hos annos centvm et 
qvinqvaginta Beniamin Franklinio dvce et avspice illam qvae nvnc 
vcstris consiliis regitvr societatem condidervnt ad earn disciplinam 
excolendam et promovendam. Probe enim intellexerant singvlorvm 
hominviii doctorvni operam angvstis finibvs circvmscriptam esse iis 
avieni in vnvm corpvs conivnctis id effici vt lativs propagentvr 
stvdia ac permvltorvm animi ad satvs illos felicissimos excipiendos 
prxparcntvr. Ab his igitvr profecta initiis societas vestra non 
solvm de philosophia excolenda egregie mervit sed totam de rervm 
natvra doctrinam praiclaris et laboriosis libris illvstravit lingvarvm- 
qve mvltarvm origines et rationes feliciter indagavit atqve diligenter 
explanavit. Merito igitvr diem qvem vtpote natalem societatis ves- 
tr:u VMO ct dimidio ScXcvlo svmmo cvm honore peracto sollemniter 
agiiis vobiscvni celebramvs congratvlantes optimisqve votis vos atqve 
instil vtvm vestrvni proseqvenies. Firmissimo enim vobiscvm 
conivncti svmvs vincvlo pio litterarvm amore et svmmo stvdio iis 



65 

enixe cvUis omnivm hominvm salvtis promovendse. Valete viri 
doctissimi nobisqve favete. 

Dabamvs ViNDOBONiE Die iii, Mensis Mai, 

Anni MDCCCLXXXXIII. 

C. SUESS, 

Cas, Acad, Litt, Vindob,^ Totivs A Commentariis, 
A. Arnett, 
Ccts. Acad. Litt. Vindob,^ Prceses. 

Reading the same to the meeting in German, as follows: 

Die Mitglieder der K. und K. Akademie der Wissenschaften 
IN Wien an die Philosophische Gesellschaft in Philadel- 
phia: 

Wie sehr Euere Vorfahren die Philosophic gepflegt haben, von 
welcher Cicero sagt, dass sie Mutter und Amme aller Wissenschaft 
ist, folgt daraus, dass Euer gelehrtes Wirken schon vor 150 Jahren 
von Benjamin Franklin eingeleitet und seither durch Euch fort- 
gesetzt wurde. Euere Vorfahren haben erkannt, dass auf dem Gebiete 
der Wissenschaft der Arbeit des Einzelnen enge Schranken gesetzt 
sind, dass aber eine Veieinigung miichtig zur Erzielung und For- 
derung des menscblichen Geistes beitragt. In dieser Erkenntniss ist 
Euere Gesellschaft enlstanden, welche nicht allein das Stiidimn der 
Philos(>phie gefordert, sondern auch die Naturwissinschaften dur( h 
grilndliche und vorziigliche Werke bereirhert und Urspning und 
Zusammenhang vieler Sprachen durch fleissige Arbeit gliicklich ^e- 
funden hat. Wir fiihlen uns daher gedrangt, die 150. Wiethrkehr 
desGriindungstages Euerer Gesellschaft feierlich rnit JOiich zu 1j<';,'<> 
hen und beglUckwunschen Euch und Euere so herrlic h fort^csMirit- 
tene Anstalt. Wir sind mit E'lch verbunden durc:h fl.is ;^♦Mn(:irl^anM.• 
Band der Liebe zur Wissenschaft, welche das Wohl dL-r Mrnsf Mi' it 
in hohem Masse gefordert hat. 

Lebet wohl und behaltet uns in Euerer (Junst. 

Sm.- ■, 

Arnett, 

Pr aside fit, 
WiEN, 3. Mai, 1893. 



56 

Also a translation of the same made by himself, as follows: 

The Members of the Imperial and Roval Academy of Sciences 
IN Vienna to the American Philosophical Society, Greet- 
ing : 

How much your predecessors cultivated philosophy, of which 
Cicero says that it **is the mother and nurse of all sciences," is 
shown by the fact that, so far back as 150 years ago, Benjamin 
Franklin introduced the study, which has since then been continued 
by you. Your predecessors recognized that in the domain of science 
narrow bounds are set to the pursuit of individuals, but a union be- 
comes mighty in gathering and furthering what concerns the human 
mind. Recognizing this fact has your study arisen, which not alone 
encouraged the study of philosophy, but of the natural sciences as 
well, and by original publications, discussions and collections prove 
your active work. 

We feel ourselves therefore called upon to join with you in the 
celebration of your One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary, and 
congratulate you and yours upon your grand progressive institution. 

We are connected with you by the common bonds of love for 
knowledge, which has in a great measure helped the welfare of hu- 
manity. 

Farewell, and keep us in your memory. 

SUESS, 

Secretary, 

Arnett, 

President, 
Vienna, May 3, 1893. 



The President next introduced Prof. J. M. Hoppin, who 
read to the Society an address on "The Philosophy of Art." 

The subject of the paper which I have the honor to present is 
*' The Philosophy of Art,'* and as this would seem to be in accord 
with the object of your venerable Society, devoted to philosophic 
inquiries, as well as in the line of my own pursuits, I have presumed 
on its fitness for this occasion. And, might 1 be allowed also to 
say, that the present is a favorable time to discuss art while we are 
having the great Exposition in which art holds so conspicuous a 



place. In looking at the ImildtDgt erected on the Fair gronnds, at 
ChicagOi I could not bat think that architecture, at least, would 
leceive a vigorous impulse in our land; for in these buildings 
there is an originalityi a sense of creative power, a pregnant sug- 
gestion of something new, of a style more truly American than 
that of the Middle Ages and better suited to express the breadth 
and simplicity of our democratic ideas, which will doubtless be 
worked out by American genius into a national architecture of 
noble design, of which we need not be ashamed and can claim as 
onr own. But my object at present is purely theoretic rather than 
practical. It will dwell more on the idea than on the expression 
of art. 

The subject of the philosophy of art may be still more briefly 
comprehended in the term ''^Esthetics." iEsthetics, from a 
Greek word of subtle meaning, was first used comparatively re- 
cently in Germany to signify the philosophic classification of those 
mental faculties with which we perceive and are pleasurably affected 
by the beauty of the world, and was thus made to comprise more 
than the term fairly means, viz., the whole theory, production and 
criticism of art; and yet this word, ''aesthetics," happily empha- 
sizes one important element of art — feeling, or the sense of delight 
in the perception of beauty — for art springs chiefly from the emo- 
tions and love, jast as in the ** terribleness " of Michael Angelo's 
nature averse to delights there was one spring of joy — the love of 
his art and beauty ; and so, too, after the influence of the skeptical 
philosophy of the early part of the eighteenth century, that dried 
up the spiritual emotions, the new feeling for the beautiful opened 
by the movement of romantic literature, produced such works as 
JFaus/ a.nd Waiienstein, 

The philosopher, Hegel, in treating aesthetics as a branch of psy- 
chology, set to work to explore the laws of spirit which constitute 
mind and to construe nature and art by means of universal ideas, 
on the principle assumed by the German transcendental philosophy 
of the subjectivity of all knowledge, regarding nature as the uncon- 
scious realization of spirit in time and space, and, in the same way, 
viewing the genesis of every human institution, science and art as 
spiritual expressions. He sought to trace through its various stages 
the philosophy of culture, and to develop a priori the history of 
human consciousness in its growth from the first crude ideas to the 

PROC. AKSR. PHILOS. SOC. XXXII. 143. H. FRIKTKD HOV. 27, 181)3. 



68 

most advanced theories that shape our modern civilization. ^Civili- 
zation, in his application of^ hilosop hic analysis, is the mind real - 
izing ij self. Human consciousness perceives the ideal form which 
measures and moulds the ph^^omenal world, although this con- 
sciousness is not awaked at once,\and only gradually awakes to find 
itself contemplating its ideal prototype, its absolute personality, 
which thus becomes self-consciousness; and this rousing of self- 
consciousness constitutes the intellectual progress of the race. It 
sees its ideas realized, or reflected^ in art as wellas natjire* and 
makes at each ste~p~an advance in civilization, (fleggyt philosophy 
was the revelation, in the world of time and^ space, of self-con- 
sciousness, of the personality of the absolute, of the advancement 
of humanity in the consciousness of its unity and perfection, o.f the 
gradual merging of the individual into the universal, which univer- 
sal consciousness is the progress of thought from nature to spirit, 
from the sensual to the ideal, from the objective to the subjective ; 
and, under this system, nrt^H.jin ^Kpresfiifmjl^fthf' s^irktial, a mani- 
festation, more or less clear, of the eternal idea which measures the 
outer and phenomenal, recognizing in the external world the image 
of itself and comparing all things to this inner form, this self- 
determined and abiding idea, which is the absolute, the ego, the 
rational totality of the race, the spiritual personality. The reality 
of things — art among them — is in the idea, while all else is show 
,and changing phenomena. "The real world," says an Hegelian 
writer, ** is the spiritual world ; things exist because spirits expe- 
rience them, and spirits experience them because, as parts of the 
complete life, it is their interest to be as manifold and wealthy in 
their self-realization as possible." 

In a word, idealism, in which the world of nature and art is the 
evolution of spiritual existence — this is the basis, the road-bed, so 
to speak, in which Hegel's lu^thetics is planted ; and it must be 
confessed that it is an admirable foundation of art, going beneath 
the superficial theories now prevailing, most of which regard art as 
a mere fashion to catch, like a mirror, the flitting reflections of the 
outward, and to decorate life and amuse the senses; and also going 
beneath that false realism which lies in the physical merely, and 
not in the mind that contains the unchangeable types of beauty. 
Art, according to Hegel, is the discovery of the type-ideas upon which 
nature and all things are formed and which must be sought within, 
not without, so that self-ai)prehension is the artist's highest law, 



69 

and that by which he seizes the universal, the absolute beauty. 
Nature acts as a medium of the manifestation of the ideas, or idea, 
of beauty, and is the objective form of a subjective fact. The art- 
ist studies nature, viewing it as an intermediary of the spiritual per- 
fect truth, and not as perfect in itself; for perfection is in the idea 
consciously apprehended. 

Mr. Stillman, in a recent article in the Atlantic Monthly y entitled 
" The Revival of Art," has favored this Hegelian theory of art, 
carrying it, however, so far as to make the artist wholly an idealist 
inspired by that beauty which he sees in his mind, and he seems to 
give but little value to the inspiration and study of nature, quoting 
Turner's saying that " nature puts him out.'* 

The truth, I believe, would hold nature as that which mediates 
between and unites the ideal and the real, the subjective and the 
objective. The true idealist is he who has the deepest knowledge 
of nature, and who can use this knowledge in the formulation of 
his own conceptions. 

But, even before Hegel, Schelling attempted to construct an aes- 
thetic philosophy. His poetic temperament led him to look on 
nature as unconscious art, and to believe that material forms sym- 
bolize spiritual processes, so that in nature our ideals are expressed. 
He said that ** artists were often unconscious philosophers and that 
the greatest philosophers were consummate artists." 

Singularly enough, too, the pessimistic pliilosopher, Scliopenhauer, 
set forth one of the most consistent, if but partial, theories of aes- 
thetics of any of the school of the German idealists; for while 
himself belonging to this school, instead of Hegel's ego, or spirit- 
ual personality representing ihe absolute, he regarded the *' world- 
will," or the concentrated power of all world-activities, as the 
capricious and accidental but real creator of the phenomenal world 
of nature, which '* world- will " and its ideas we interpret by expe- 
rience. Our intelligence, as also a creature of the Welti^eist or, 
Weltwillcy penetrates to the inner will of nature, and *' reaches its 
perfection in the power of contemplation that sinks into the depths 
of nature, and which belongs, above all, to the temperament of the 
productive artist." ^t, then , according to Schopenhauer, LlJ* the 
embodiment of the essence of the *.world:Nyill/ asijeen or interpre- 
ted, by tTTe"'artTst's intelligence. The world-will has fashions of 
expressing itself, kinds and degrees of self-objectification, and these, 
in so far as contemplation can seize them, are ultimate types or 



60 

ideas exemplified in space and time by individual objects." The 
are the embodiments of the world's desire, of the world's passion 
and longing, the forms of the whole world's will that exist. Art 
grasps these world-forms, these types of creation, action and desire, 
and exhibits them in artistic forms ; for an example, architecture 
(as a commentator of this philosophy says) ** portrays the blind 
nature-forces or longings of weight and resistance;" or, as I ven- 
ture to add, the harmonious arrangement of matter and mass, par- 
alleled by the scientific theory of the rhythmical disposal or 
molecular atoms. Art is the universal appreciation, pf the essence 
of the *^H¥Oj;ld-oadll". -.from- the- point o( ^ v ie w ii^an intelligent on- 
looker,-4ibove^all,..axtist.;. and thus art, while embodying the world's 
desire or will, is not itself the victim of passion. Of all the arts, 
according to Schopenhauer, '' music most universally and many- 
sidedly portrays the essence of the world-will, the soul of desire, 
the heart of this passionate, world-making, incomprehensible inner 
nature ;" and listening to the longing and oft abrupt strains of 
Wagner's music, I have been sometimes startlingly reminded of 
Schopenhauer's ** world-will," or desire, so wistful, passionate, ob- 
jectless and chaotic, and finding its utterance in those weird and 
changeful harmonies. ** The opposition* between will and contem- 
plation " reaches, indeed, its most systematic statement in the 
philosophy of Schopenhauer; but the difficulty remains that the 
** world-will " of Schopenhauer is at best '' a simple desire and selfish 
striving," and the longing after perfection even is only an accidental 
and changing will, whereas human life has a spiritual centre (v''t5/^)f 
as the material universe has a physical centre, from which ever- 
recurring influences and attractions spring, that tend to the recog- 
nition of unchangeable and eternal ideas of beauty — a will lying 
back of the phenomenal world in the spiritual ; and in this Hegel 
is truer in his aesthetic philosophy than Schopenhauer. 

Leaving these speculations of the German idealists, let me offer 
some thoughts, imperfect though they may be, on the philosophy ' 
of art as a good theme to theorize upon, and tending to promote 
the best interests of art, which is assuming, together with physical 
science and literature, its own great place in modern civilization as 
well as in modern education ; and suffer me to follow out here for 
a moment this suggestion in regard to education. It might be 
taken for granted that the training of the knowing powers makes 
education mean nothing unless it mean the development of the 



61 

intellectual faculties ; but this surely is not all in education. There 
is left a portion of the being which is more peculiarly the region of 
aesthetic power, and in which are the sources of the beautiful; and 
how broad a region and how narrow the view which would suffer 
this part of our nature, the truly human part, to lie barren ! U.is 
the aesthetic .pawer_ that j:.Q.Cpnstructs and makes all new ; it is the 
cr^jatiye power. It is that which gives one man's speech a freshness 
that another's of equal force of thought does not possess. -Esthetic 
culture should be introduced into education also, because art com- 
prises so great a portion of the life of mind. It needed mind to 
build St. Peter's dome and to compose the music of Sebastian Bach, 
as truly as to compose the Pnncipia or the Mechanique Celeste ; 
and we are not confined to architects, musicians, painters and 
sculptors, but may reckon in as artists the poets who body forth 
ideas of beauty reflecting spiritual types. It is the province, too, 
of education to bring out the lovely perfection of truth, so that it 
shall meet the desires of the mind and be followed freely ; yet as a 
|>eople we have freedom much on our tongue, but not so much in 
our spirit. We have brought down everything to the dead level of 
the actual. It is the thing which answers the present use, the pres- 
ent success, and not the thing which should be, or the ideal ; and 
while we would not weaken this noble, practical, American quality, 
we would counteract its current towards an utterly earthly concep- 
tion of life and thought ; and art would help in this struggle to de- 
liver ourselves from the crass bondage of materialism and to give 
play to spiritual ideas. Art would likewise afford a counterpoise to 
certain narrowing tendencies in education by presenting truth in 
more natural and vital forms. The purely scientific process, it is 
true, comes first. The mind must learn to investigate and reason. 
First fact, then beauty. But the scientific process has its dangers 
unless guarded against, dealing as it does almost entirely with an- 
alysis, and may tend to lose the living synthesis of truth, and not 
to come, after all, to the unity of knowledge and the perfection of 
truth. Art through its intuition arrives often at truth's wholeness 
when science sees but in part. Art aims at unity, the beautiful 
whole, the perfect form of nature and spirit, and its influence is 
towards the introduction of a living variety into educational pro- 
cesses, so that young men may come out of the university not mere 
scholars, but men of broad, alert and independent minds, with the 



-'\ 



62 

eye open to see the beauty and glory of the universe. But to re- 
turn from this digression. 

We sometimes hear it said that man is a religious animal, and yet 
it might just as well be said that man is an artistic animal — artistic 
in the constitution of his mind. Metaphysicians commonly divide 
mental faculties into reason, sensibility and will. This metaphysics 
— whose tendency is to view mind by sections, as it were, or as a 
congeries of faculties, each distinct from each, and which assigns its 
own value to different powers, giving to some an undue value — is 
apt to make the so-called intellectual faculty an exclusive object of 
consideration, losing sight of the truth that the mind is one and 
indivisible, that it acts as a whole, and that, in every act, all its 
energies enter, some more and some less ; that therjejis a. vital inter- 
play of functions in mental acts, intellect in feeling and Feeling in 
intellect, the rational nature restijjg odlliClinpral/^tTdlhje^^m^ 
moved to activity and •choice-by^the -sensibilities and imagination, 
so that, however convenient this metaphyslcar classificairdh'mayl3c 
for the analysis and study of philosophical concepts, you cannot 
erect such distinctions in the inner spiritual substance of the mind, 
and to do this sometimes leads to grave errors; for you cannot 
really say that any one part of the mind is of more value than an- 
other and that any part of the mind can be ignored, or affirm that 
it does not belong to mind as mind, and therefore deserves no spe- 
cial attention. Shall we neglect that rich domain where lie the 
springs of feeling for the beautiful, the productive powers in the 
achievements of art ? In this realm, called, in metaphysical lan- 
guage, the sensibility, is found mainly the domain of art, though it 
is by no means confined to this, since all the faculties are involved 
in art — reason, invention, will, the use of the intellectual and logi- 
cal faculty that pervades a work of art, the judgment as well as 
feeling. But there is, nevertheless, a quality of sensibility, of emo- 
tional susceptivity, which is the mind's power of receiving impres- 
sions from the outward world and its beauty. This feeling is not a 
mere excitation of the senses, the sensual nature, but it is a mental 
susceptibility which not only feels but acts, and, when roused to act 
by impressions from objects, it becomes a power of self-differentia- 
tion, or a i)ower of contemplating itself, a power capable of recog- 
nizing its own acts and impressions made on it, and of reproducing 
these ini[)ressions, being the correspondent within to the nature 
without; and it is thus a permanent quality, to which we give. 



63 

with other dements oombmedi the name of ffu msiketU sime, or, 
from the fiuralty through which this instinct chiefly operates, the 
perception or sense of the imagination. The imagination is the 
idealising, the image-making power — ^the power that receives and 
communicates the form of things (Jerm-ntm^ as the Germans name 
it), even as the intelkctual faculty receives and communicates the 
truth of thingST^ Thb aBithetic-pewer'6nBc"'iittagiiiaiiqn, when / -^ 
acted upon by correspondiint objects in nature that are sym^tll^tic^ /ui^t- X 
to mim's spiritual cpnditions, seeks to reproduce the essential form jl^^ c^ 
of tl^ese objects, since they exist in the mind only in theirfopas-^ t=a«t t^i^ 
some'^losophers deny any other real existence Jo-ebjeClivcmatter 7^*^** * 
—and on seeking thm to ropVoduoeTire "forms of things, by a law ' 

of the mind it strives to reproduce the perfect form in which the 
mind delights and was made to delight. The mind*s susceptibility 
to be impressed by the world of nature through the organ of the 
imagination, which not only receives but imparts impressions of 
objects, since it fa full of energy and creative power, is the mind's 
function of form, and, necessarily, in a rational nature, of perfect 
form or beauty, and here dwell the ideas of beauty in the mind. 
If the imagination works simply in. order to body forth the form of 
things as an ''idealized imitation," to interpret nature in all its 
forms, it works artistically and its products are what are termed 
** art." The artist, in fact, is the poet ; he is poet of another sort, 
who tells in line, form and color, as the poet in words, what nature 
tells him ; and this is the more important because we ourselves are 
parts of this nature, in framed in her subtle organism. The artist, 
by his imaginative or quasi creative power, reconstructs nature, be- 
comes nature's interpreter, and finds in nature the responsive image 
of the soul. Art is poetry, mainly poetry — I believe this. 

We see thus in all mind, though in a less degree in most men, 
but especially, and sometimes supremely, in the artist, this aesthetic 
power, this artistic faculty, by which it must and will express itself 
in the sphere of art as surely as the mind must and will express 
itself in the sphere of knowledge, and, indeed, so related are the 
mental powers that, as we cannot keep out any of them from the 
aesthetic faculty, so we cannot keep out the aesthetic sense from any 
of these, and we cannot say — in the investigation of truth, the 
highest truth, which is moral — that the imagination, which is the 
organ of the sensibility, can be excluded, for here dwell the forms 
of truth and beauty. I am a Platonist. I believe art belongs to 



64 

the spiritual powerSi and is, in some sense, spontaneous — a law to 
itself. Schiller says : " The artist (meaning the poet or creator) is 
no doubt the son of his time. But ill is it for him if he be also its 
pupil or darling. A beneficent divinity snatches the suckling in 
time from his mother's breast, nourishes him on the milk of a bet- 
ter age and lets him ripen under distant Grecian heavens to his 
maturity. Then, when he has grown into manhood, he returns to 
his own country in the image of a stranger, not always to please it 
by his presence, but, terrible as the son of Ags^memnon, to purify 
it. The substance of his work he will take from the present, but 
the form of it from a nobler time, yea, from beyond all time, out 
of the essential, invariable individuality of his own being." * 

The highest conception of art is that it is the interpretation of 
the spirit in its varied forms, feelings and experiences, and of those 
eternal ideas of beauty that are in the soul and belong to absolute 
mind ; but this admits, of course, of modification when other 
faculties and qualities of our nature — above all, the sensuous — 
come into view. The senses play their part in art, and a great deal of 
art is on this lower and not unnatural plane. What a world, that of 
color ! Color has astrong, sensuous appeal, as in nature, but is some- 
times too pronounced in art, as in the luxurious warmth of Rubens, 
the fiery tones of Raphael's greatest pupil, Giulio Romano, the vio- 
lent contrasts of the Spanish school of painters. 

Now to discuss this subject in a direct manner, What is art? 
But we can only approximate to a definition. It is impossible to 
give a rigid definition of art. It bursts from our formulas like an 
uncontrolled spring. It is indefinable because it is a truth rather 
than a term ; and yet we may do something towards a definition by 
separating art from truths closely akin to it. Art, for example, is 
not nature, while it is nothing without nature, as Shakespeare says: 

" There is an art 
Which dolh mend nature — cliange it rather, but 
The art itself is nature.*' 

Nature, in a general way, is all that is not art — all that is created, 
not made. Nature is the substance, physical and spiritual, out of 
whose de[)ths art arises like an exhalation of beauty. It comprises 
the forces at work to produce the phenomena of the world and their 
laws outside of human agency. Those phenomena in ourselves 

*.fjsthetic Education of Mankind (ninth letter). 



65 

and the world "which we do not originate but find" repre- 
sent nature; those "which we do not find but originate" repre- 
sent art. Thus the human element comes into art to mold nature 
to its purposes. Art, too, is not science. Science concerns itself 
with knowledge and the investigation of truth, and it may be said 
to be the law of knowing, dealing with the facts of the universe, its 
chief instrument being the reason whose special function is analysis. 
Art has also to do with knowledge, and art may aid in the search of 
truth ; but it does not end in knowing. Art is, in fact, a science 
as far as its methods of technique are concerned, and it applies sci- 
ence to its own methods, but its end is farther on in the perfect 
and joy-giving work touching profounder emotions, rather than in 
scientific knowledge or the technical process. Art, in like manner, is 
not philosophy, nor religion, nor morality ; and it does not pretend 
to overtop, oppose, usurp or meddle with these while keeping to its 
own sphere, and much confusion has been caused (and no one has 
done more of this than Mr. Ruskin) by mixing these; but the dif- 
ference in such cases is obvious. Art, however, is no negative 
thing, but is a most positive reality, in that it implies the existence 
of natural material on which to work and out of which to create its 
results, requiring at the same time a principle of susceptive thought 
that understands and orders nature for its conscious ends. In every 
work of art, its original material of nature, the subjective idea 
which calls it forth, and the form which is complete in itself like a 
divine creation, are comprehended. This ai)plies to all foriiis of 
art, even the most mechanical ; and, first, the term doubtless iiic.iiil 
the arts of bare existence, first of all, probably, tlie art of agri^ ul- 
ture — the ** coarse arts'* as Emerson called them in contradi-.tiiK - 
tion to the *• fine arts " — so that the useful was the fir^t id' a, .uid, 
indeed, what is not intrinsically useful is worthless now in art, in tli»; 
highei,t art, which belongs to the highe.->t necd^? of bein^% and ror/i- 
pared with which its commoner uses are as earth and r.iay. iinf .1 . 
new methods of civilization arose, art came np jr.ifj jr , niOf; .j/in! 
ual spheres. Nature was studied ; her sulVvh: lav\- of w wkin;.' w i' 
lovingly observed ; finer natures were tou(.i.cd to nn'.r :..;« ■, i.'.d 
the arts which have in them a thought!':! (.leui' nt, v.i.:'i. ■.\.\.\\\' 
from an idea, succeeded the arts of mere exi-»':n^f, ui.ln " ;iri 
won a peculiar meaning, limited to the jTod'j^tion \\h;',ij i.'i . in it. 
the love of perfect creation, of beauty, wl.irij i^a'.o -,u)-> \. lii': rno ,f 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143 I. PKI-N7I,L» .NOV. 2*!, l^'jij. 



66 

manifest and desirable of things. But while the artist represents 
the beautiful object that he sees in his mind's eyei and paints from 
this mental image, art is never simply a mental act. Hegel con- 
tended for this. Art, without the mediation of objective form, be 
said, was an empty thing. ** The art-idea is not a mere conception 
— */j/ niemals ein Begriff^ — inasmuch as the latter is a frame into 
which different phenomena may fit, whereas the artistic idea must 
stand in the most intimate agreement with the particular form of 
the work." The subject must be conceived in the object; there 
roust be the manifestation of the idea, which is its expression, as in 
nature, and which expression must accompany the conception. 
Expression, in fine, reveals the artist and is another word for his 
art ; for if it be true that 

«* Many are the poets sown by nature, 
Yet wanting the accomplishment of verse," 

it can hardly be said that the power of vision in the artist is ever 
unaccompanied by the power of expression, though the two may be 
unequally distributed. The bas reliefs on the pediment of the 
temple of Zeus, at Olympia, which Pausanias ascribes to the Attic 
sculptors, Alkamenes and Paionios, are conceived with the utmost 
dramatic power, but are stiffly and rudely executed ; probably the 
conception was that of the great artist and the work that of the 
local artist. What wonderful power of expression, for another ex- 
ample, is in Rembrandt's painting of *' Abraham's Sacrifice," now 
in the Hermitage, at St. Petersburg — the obedience of a servant, 
the heart rending grief of a father, the mysterious awe which the 
celestial messenger inspires! Here the great artist is seen, and 
great artists exist because they cannot help being so any more than 
the roots of a willow-tree can help running to the water. Da Vinci 
and Correggio were predestined artists as truly as Isaiah and Martin 
Luther were predestined i)rophets and Dante and Tennyson predes- 
tined poets ; for the spiritual conceptions and yearnings in them, 
the strivings for universal beauty, found their only expression in 
art-forms. 

Art, therefore, if we should attempt to define the indefinable, 
might at least be described in its works as the power of represent- 
ing, like a new creation, in f(jrm, line and color, the object pre- 
sented to the mind, or, more specifically, to the imagination, which 
is awakened to act by a joyful and loving sympathy with nature in 



67 

all her forms — ^it may be ugly as well as beautifal — ^bat more espe- 
cially with what is beautiful and perfect in nature, as that for which 
the mind was originally made pr ivlapted. 

I. Aft, though "Earing to do with the perceptive faculties and the 
senses, is giirilnal in jte^^— ctit* «^ iifur i»n €0^*nAntir,w> i^ ^^ inner 
snsceptibilfiy" of the suul, whirh fnrrsspnnr1a.,to gutward forms. 
There is a power in the mind of receiving impression^^^rorfespeadrL^ 
ing to the power that impresses. There is more thjin this. The 
mind contains the very ideas, in their conceptual mold, in which 
the forms of natural objects are cast, and is fitted to comprehend 
them, so that art is the condition under which the sensibility for 
impression is excited when the object and subject become identified. 
The German philosopher, Lotze, indeed says that " the impression 
of beauty cannot be referred to a uniform standard in us, to a 
spiritual organization actually existing in all individuals, but to one 
that has first to be realized in each person by means of develop- 
ment, and realized in each only in an imperfect and one-sided 
wdy ; '* but, though this opinion of Lotze's may be true, that the 
perfect standard is not realized in every mind, or in the artist him- 
self, yet for it to be realized at all, there must be the organization, 
the susceptibility in every mind as mind, and the imperfection of 
its development does not militate against the truth that there is an 
ideal condition, like the plate delicately prepared to receive im- 
pressions of objects, and without which the actualization of any 
form of beauty would be lost and objects would remain without 
form and void. A mountain is a pile of rocky matter of a certain 
geologic period, as science teaches, until thoughts of majesty, unity, 
power, are developed in its impingement on the ideal sense. The 
beauty of nature is only to him who appreciates it ; but we are all 
of us inframed in this natural kosmosas an organism itself designed 
to be that through which the soul realizes its ideas, and without 
which the mind could not formulate them, and this is the most 
important part nature plays in art. In like manner the ethical 
sense is a permanent condition of the soul, but the ideas of justice, 
right, duty, are not developed except in the actual relations of our 
natural life. 

Call the beautiful an intuition or not, man, I contend, has an 
aesthetic sense, the outcome of whose formulated ideas is art, and 
which is capable of recognizing and expressing the objective view 
and beauty of the universe. We are subjects of impressions which 



68 

do not always find expression, and only do so when they impress 
with sufficient power to form distinct conceptions. We may feign 
an appreciation and enjoyment of nature that we do not feel. 
There is an aesthetic cant as nauseating as any other cant. The 
first hunter who saw Niagara was doubtless overpowered by its ter- 
rorizing sublimity y but, it may be, his uncultured mind soon recov- 
ered its ordinary apathy, and he saw nothing in the stupendous 
phenomenon to give him delight, and made his preparations to 
cook his dinner on the edge of the cataract as coolly as ever. With 
an Audubon it would have been different. 

"If the eye had not been sunny 
How could it look upon the sun ? ** 

I have, however, guarded against the theory that art exists solely 
in the mind, solely in the idea, and that there is no intrinsic beauty 
in natural objects but what the mind creates in them. 

2. Art is the interpretation of the significance and beauty of 
nature. The product of the subjective capacity when drawn* forth 
by the beauty of nature becomes the language of art. Some think 
of nature only for scientific and practical uses, but ** nature," says 
Canon Mozlcy, ** has two revelations — that of use and that of beauty. 
The beauty is just as much a part of nature as the use; they are 
only different aspects of the self-same facts, the usefulness on one 
side is on the other beauty. The colors of the landscape, the tints 
of spring and autumn, the lines of twilight and dawn — all that 
might seem the superfluity of nature — are only her most necessary 
operations under another view ; her ornament is another aspect of 
her work; and, in the act of laboring as a machine, she also sleeps as a 
picture. The same lines which serve as the measure of distance to 
regulate all our motions also make the beauty of perspective.** But 
beyond this idea of Canon Mozley*s, it is my belief that there is actual 
contrivance in nature for an appeal to the aesthetic sense. Moun- 
tains that surround a valley *' like a chorus of hills,** by their fusion 
of noblest forms with finest tints, speak directly to the mind, as do 
the powerful words of a chorus in a Greek drama; and there is 
found also in nature every secret, even the subtlest, for the result of 
beauty, so as to j)roduce the effect of beauty and power on the 
mind of the beholder. This is nature's art. What Venetian blue 
is like the blue of the Rosenlaui glacier? What painting ever ex- 
celled the splendors of 

" The fiery noon, and eve's one star ?" 



60 

He who begins to study nature, who observes trees or a single leaf, 
who looks closely at the minute grass-spires under his feet that cover 
the whole earth, who notices the tricksy play of light and shadow, 
who watches the sky, " sometimes gentle, sometimes capricious, 
sometimes awful, never the same for two moments together, almost 
human in its passions, almost spiritual in its tenderness, almost 
divine in its infinity,*' he must believe that there is in nature that 
which is designed to convey thoughts to the human soul beyond 
those of mere sense. Art interprets this higher truth. '* The aim 
of art," says Taine, " is to manifest the essence of things." Art, 
indeed, seeks for the means of the highest effects. It depends on a 
penetrative study of nature's principles, and here it still may be 
original. Here the Yankee artist has as good a chance as the 
Greek. Here American art may prove its claim to originality as 
truly as Dutch art has done. The artist, to be an interpreter, must 
have knowledge, whether gained by study or instinct. He goes 
lovingly where nature leads him, and enters this kingdom of art by 
becoming a little child, until, through long discipline and patient 
watching, he sees ** the most essential quality of things ;" he grows 
into such intimacy with nature that he comes to interpret the 
thoughts of nature and also the thoughts of the human heart. The 
group of the ** Niobe " came out of the profoundest depth of human 
experience — there is, morally, nothing more suggestive than this 
sculpture in modern art — as the Greek poet, Meleager, in his poem 
on the "Niobe," believed and proved this in ancient art. There 
is a fragment of the Reformation in the works of the satiric, keen- 
eyed painter, Holbein. There is much of the splendid but corrupt 
sensuousness of the neo-pagan Renaissance period, under Christian 
forms of humanity, represented in Titian's voluptuous pictures; for 
art is a reflection of life and its multiform phases, fascinating or 
terrible as the ages march on, and of the life of the soul. 

. 3. Art finds its laws and principle^ primarily m nature. T It can- 
not go<i step independencfy of these and remain art. Michael Angelo 
seemed to lose his creative power, and virtue went out of him the 
moment he left nature and began to work from a dry scheme of 
abstract form. 

There is, for instance, the fundamental law of truth, which in- 
volves the idea upon which the universe was built. There must be 
a sensitive relation in the artist's mind to this law, without which 
art is artifice or sham. But art, as has been said, is not nature, nor 



70 

does the artist, in Coleridge's words, *' pick nature's pockets. " Na- 
ture is inimitable ; for how can a little square of painted canvas 
convey the infinitude of mountain scenery whose power is revealed 
like a divine inspiration ? Yet nature in her commoner moods, if 
still inimitable, is genial and accessible. She is odd and humorous 
at times, with a fanci fulness full of grotesque irony. She does not 
hide her winsome face. She invites us to sit at her feet and learn 
of her. She will herself teach us. We cannot follow her instruc- 
tions too closely, nor imitate her too minutely. Not a leaf but is 
a map of the boldest and most complicated pattern. Nature fur- 
nished the originals of Greek forms of every sort. But the artist 
must go beneath the surface of things to the plastic laws of these 
forms, else imitation would be untrue. He must discover, as it 
were, nature's own law of creation. A picture is an illusion, but it 
is not a delusion, for its end is not imitation, which would be some- 
thing unreal and an absurdity, but it is the production of similar 
effects of nature's beauty and power so as to speak to the mind in 
some sense as nature speaks. While the artist is not to leave nature 
and lapse into a dreamland of his own, while he is to seek truth, 
yet by his thought, by separating the natural object from its acci- 
dental circumstances and conceiving it as a whole, by so painting 
the tree, the flower, the man, that the true form is seen, that the 
type is brought out in which the properties of the species are devel- 
oped and in which it is best fitted to discharge the functions for 
which it was made — this shows the highest skill ; for here is the ac- 
tion of the artist's soul which gives to his works the appearance of 
fresh creations. This is the ideal in art. This is the law of mental 
selection and probably was coeval with the law of imitation even, and 
accompanied the earliest art, savage and archaic art, since no art, 
even tlie most primitive, could have been entirely imitative. 

** In the effort to imitate the human figure the process of thought 
and sympathy becomes apparent ; and where this process of con- 
trolling power begins there the ideal in art begins. Whenever this 
isolated position, or scene, or action of nature is taken, it cannot 
be truly represented unless by an act of thought it is connected 
with the whole. The idea, or the whole, to which it belongs as a 
I)art, must enter into it and transfuse it."* 

Yet be it noted that the ideal does not exist without the real 
jjassing into it like a life, even as mind works on facts and molds 

* A. S. Murniy, JUfi. Gr. Sculpture. 



them, and this might be called **the idealized real." The real is 
the working basis of the ideal, even as the sculptor puts his thought 
first into a clay model and works from that. The poetic super- 
structure is grounded in the soil of the actual. **The beautiful is 
the real," was the Florentine sculptor Dupre's motto. Imitation 
is not the object of art, or is, at besl, a low idea of it ; yet how 
can a picture or sculpture be too true to nature ? Were the best 
Greek sculptures? You may be sure that it was not the close imi- 
tation only in the old familiar story of the grapes that made the 
birds peck at them, but it was chiefly the truth. It was the real 
life of natural objects that the artist of poetic genius had caught. 
It was a picture and not a copy. A portrait — what is it worth if it 
be not real and rugged as life is; otherwise it would become like 
the many unauthentic portraits of Columbus — a specimen of what 
has been called ** artistic subjectivity ?** This realness is the test \ 
of artistic excellence. ** The more pearly and truly a picture ap- ""^ ' 
proaches the exact colors and forms of nature, the greater will be% ^^ 
the effect.*' There i§ ho excuse for false drawing. Th^" healthy ^^"^ 



tendeiicy of..arV then; i^ to becpme luoreah^'mofe real^ which Is 

...1- i 1 ■ e ^ rrsx ' *• fc*"*^^" ■*■* "fr*** ' ""1 /• ' • ■'•' . 1 ■ 



in the true line of ^pwjgress^. T+re \igorb«5^)i^vTval of art in tlie 
Netherlands in the first Aialf^f^ the seventeenth century, which cre- 
ated the Flemish and (Dutch schools, to whi(\h the names of Rem- 
bran'dl,. Franz Hals, Temufg, Jan Steen belong^, was nothing more 
than a return to realistic art from the feeble conventionalism of 
decadent Italian classic art. But rashness in theory makes a one- 
sided development, and the attitude of the artistic mind should be 
ever that of a thoughtful receptivity. All great painters have been 
realistic painters, but ikat is not all that they were. They j^ainted 
from an idea. Velazquez, the greatest of artists both in technique 
and expression, did not paint tl^ architecture of a face, but its char- 
acter,- ks character drawn from his creative conception of a man . So 
/art must contrni^ to have in it llicse two elements of the real and 
. the Jdeal, or it will jurr into something analogous to that coarse 
realism in literatw^', whose works, viewed as works of art, are onlv 
pieces of loose real life, without unity and plan; or, on the other 
hand, that subjective school of poets illustrated by Dante (ia- 
briel Rossetti, ravishing as it is, but neither of them comj^lcte in 
itself. Art would die out, since some essential quality of lite would 
be lost. It would either drop the element of truth to nature or the 
element of thought. The canons of universal art must not be 



/ 



J 

72 

^5^afmped in the tun|)ici deluge of French realism; though in regard 
"^ to'^^ench impressionisni, whicfa^s^ Jhe-Und ^cy of modern art, 
when not carried to an absurd extreme, I have a good word, as in- 
fusing new life into painting, catching the light and atmosphere of 
heaven, and promising a true advance in landscape art. But it is 
well to remember, in this realistic age, that art has a spiritual side 
allying it with poetry and with the loftiest achievements of the 
mind, in which the beauty that lives in the idea and in the univer- 
sal and spiritual is expressed. All true art in every age catches a 
spark of this unfading glory of the beautiful ; and yet I do not say 
that there is no true art which does not aim so high as this, as wit- 
nessed in the hundred forms of unambitious art, the crude but honest 
efforts of beginners, the drawing which aims only at correct imitation, 
the pictures of many realistic artists painting nature as it is and not 
so much in minute detail as in whole true impressions, the graphic 
illustrations of literature carried to such excellence at the present 
time, the rich field of decorative design which is mainly scientific — 
all this is pleasing and laudable and having its genuine place in art, 
but I speak now of art in its enduring forms, which, like the best 
poetry, is of ** imagination all compact," and must spring from 
the love and idea of beauty. This innate sensitivenesff^f the Greek 
mind te beauty made it to differ from E^y^tiajij Roman, iind almost 
every other national art, and constituted it the standard of art for 
all time. But the Greek sense of beauty was a thoughtful quality 
of a thoughtful people; since the sensual, strong in the Greek, was 
subordinated to the intellectual and moral in this finely attempered 
race. Its line of beauty was i liiTe -of -strength. Beauty was 
another word for perfection. *' Beauty with the Greek," says 
an English writer, ** was neither little nor voluptuous; the soul's 
energies were not relaxed but exalted by its contemplation. The 
servi( c of beauty was a service comprehending all idealisms in one, 
demanding the self-effacement of a laborious preparation, the self- 
restraint of a gradual achievement. They who pitched the goal of 
their as[)iration so high knew that the j)aths leading up to it were 
lough, steep and long ; they felt that perfect workmanship and 
jK-rfect taste, being supremely precious, must be supremely difficult 
as well ; yah-oj 70 /.a/.n>, they said, the beautiful is hard to win 
aiul hard to keep."* Thus beauty, with the Greeks, was the mani- 
festation of tlieir ideal self-fievelopmcnt, the working out of a pro- 

* IT' ."<//« //».-■>'<■/• J!' n't w. 



73 

found principle of culture, and this made their art so noble ; and 
it is this by which, in presence of their serious sculptures, our spirits 
grow calm, and we feel the truth and moral power of the Greek 
conception of beauty, raising us above our littleness into a region 
of higher thought and feeling. 

So there are other laws of nature besides truth which enter into 
art, such, for example, as order, which belongs not only to the 
structure of the world, but of the mind and its structures ; as unity, 
or that consistency of parts with the whole which gives delight in 
a beautiful object ; as proportion, which is the outcome of a sym- 
metric mind ; moderation, which is the continence of conscious 
spiritual strength ; grace, which flows from inward sympathy and 
freedom ; character, or individuality, or expression, so variously 
named, which, indeed, is much the same as ideality, by which the 
artist expresses his own thought and personality, and by which also 
a distinctive spirit of the period and history of the work is stamped 
on it ; and not to mention more of these laws, above all, the great 
law of form, to which everything in art comes, which is the highest 
intellectual expression of art, so that sculpture, perhaps, is the pur- 
est art manifestation ; and it is by studying these laws that we come 
at the principles of art criticism, and through the ignorance of 
which there is often shown a want of judgment in matters of art, 
betokening false standards drawn, it may be, from metaphysics or 
political economy rather than nature, making to be measures of 
art productions such qualities as logic, difficulty, cost, preltiness, 
melodramatic effect, bulk, warm coloring, elaborate though sense- 
less detail — instead of the true and invariable standards of nature, 
by a return to which through the clear instinct of aesthetic genius 
lies the only road to reform and advancement. 

4. ^^rt in its source is divine. The divine ideal has not been 
penecTTy'Vttained, but ever oeckons on like a star. Nature is a 
projection of divine ideas of beauty into time and space ; and the 
human mind, which could know nothing objectively unless the same 
existed subjectively in itself, can read these tyj^es of beauty, or, as 
Ruskin calls them, *' the eternal canons of loveliness," in its con- 
sciousness. Ruskin classes among spiritual ideas tyi)ical of divine 
attributes such purely esthetic conceptions as unity, perfection, in- 
finity, order, repose, moderation, purity, truth. These are moral 
as well as aesthetic qualities ; and I was greatly pleased to come 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. 800. XXXII. 143. J. PRINTED NOV. 28, 1893. 



74 

across this passage spoken to the students of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, from a poetic point of view, by an American poet — 
poet of the salt-sea marshes — Sidney Lanier : " Cannot one say 
to the young artist, whether working in stone, in color, in tone, or 
in character-forms of the novel : So far from dreading that your 
moral purpose will interfere with your beautiful creation, go forward 
in the clear conviction that unless you are suffused — ^soul and body, 
one might say — with that moral purpose that finds its largest expres- 
sion in love ; that is, the love of all things in their proper relation ; 
unless you are suffused with this love, do not dare to meddle with 
beauty ; in a word, unless you are suffused with true wisdom, good- 
ness and love, abandon the hope that the ages will accept you as an 
artist." Would that Lanier could have lived longer to have out- 
lived some superficial defects of style, to have chastened his luxuri- 
ant imagination, and to have carried out his own noble theory of 
art! 

Thus art has a vital beauty belonging to divine things. 

The total sensualization of art characterizing a great deal of our 
modern art, forgets the truth that, though art lies partly in the 
sphere of the senses, in which ** ideas take their plastic embodi- 
ment,** it has a spiritual source which makes the artist a priest of 
the divine. ** The artist paints with the brain and not with the 
hands,** said Michael Angelo contrary to Courbet's saying. 

The noble young science of archaeology, which has made such 
marvelous progress of late, but which, after all, is the serviceable 
handmaid of art and not art itself, this science, so helpful to art, 
so indefatigable in its research, so interested, and rightly, in the 
orientation of every exhumed stone, and so furiously combative in 
the claims of space occupied by the orchestra and proscenium of a 
Greek theatre — notwithstanding its brilliant discoveries, has served 
imperceptibly and unconsciously to set learning before beauty and 
thus obscure or render secondary the intrinsic idea of art. 

Looking at these four principles, viz., that art has its foundation 
in an innate spiritual susceptibility which corresponds to outward 
objects and forms ; that art is the interpretation of the idea, beauty 
and perfection of nature; that art finds its laws primarily in nature; 
and that art in its source is divine; we may judge somewhat, from 
these rough i)illars, what is the vast scope of art, how it reaches into 
heaven as well as makes our own thought higher, our life sweeter 
and this earth lovelier. And when we come to consider further 



76 

(which investigation I shall not, however, be able to follow out) 
the philosophical classification of art, this brings out more clearly 
its theoretic principles; for each form of art is grounded on a rea- 
son in the mental constitution, and depends primarily on the nature 
of the idea which strives for representation, so that every art has 
a body, as it were, in which its life freely develops itself, and in no 
other. The arts of expression by language differ from the arts of 
expression by form and color, and cannot be combined on the 
same lines of representation. Sculpture cannot perfect itself in the 
principles that apply to painting ; and a familiar example of this is 
the beautiful gate of the Baptistry of San Giovanni, in which the 
sculptor, by trying to unife the plastic and the graphic elements, or 
not keeping them distinct, fails of the highest effect. Yet the prin- 
ciples of all the arts are, in a measure, interchangeable, just as the 
laws of construction in architecture, bringing into play such ana- 
lytic qualities as order, mass and combination, may enter with 
effect into the composition of a picture and lend it unity of design 
and firmer tone. 

One German writer classifies artistic forms into two— the mathe- 
xnatic and the organic ; in this way art appears, as it were, a second 
nature, which represents and reviews her processes. Mr. Hay, in 
his Science of Proportion in Greek Art, goes so far as to say that 
**all fundamental beauty of form is derived from the vibrations of 
the musical chord, and is geometric or harmonic in its development, 
and cannot fail to be reducible to mathematical law." Rhythmic 
arts, at least, are governed by mathematical laws like architecture 
in its form in space, and music in its movement in time ; poetry 
also partakes of this regulated character. On the other hand, the 
arts which represent life, free life, such as landscape, animal exist- 
ence, and, above all, forms of human life in historic, genre, and 
|>ortrait painting, and especially in sculpture, come under the class 
of organic art, which arts are essentially imitative, but at the same 
time they stand in connection with higher ideas. Yet here, too, it 
is difficult to draw distinctions. Painting expresses, above all, (lual- 
ity and character; and yet in music there is as truly quality as 
quantity of sound, character as well as harmony. Colors have a 
genuine resemblance to tone, and colors form an octave which pro- 
duces concord or discord, and gives rise to as various sensations. 
Architecture, which is abstractly geometrical, becomes also highly 



76 

expressive of thought, feeling and character, almost as much so as 
painting and sculpture. 

Another classification separates all art into groups of technic, aes- 
thetic and phonetic, the first being those that minister to the pri- 
mary wants, the second to the aesthetic, and the third to those that 
express ideas by colors, forms and words — in fact, language. But, 
actually, no positive limits can be assigned to these varieties as a 
question of fact, and it is rather a matter of degree than of classifi« 
cation. While it is highly productive of thought to make this 
effort to classify, and is useful as bringing out more clearly the 
underlying principles of art, it is evident that a deep-grounded 
philosophic classification has not as yet been reached. 



Dr. John G. Morris, having been next introduced, presented 
a paper on " The Nature and Design of the Historical Societies 
of Our Country, and the Invaluable Benefit They Have Con- 
ferred on the Community," which is as follows : 

No one can reasonably object when a public speaker employs the 
heaven-inspired language of the Hebrew poet in illustration of a 
subject altogether secular and historical. In the loftiest strains 
which his language afforded, he invites all men of religious taste 
and piety to vi>it the magnificent house of worship at Jerusalem — 
to extend their walk around the impregnable walls and their massive 
abutments — to measure by the eye their height and thickness — to 
look upon the tall towers and their broad bulwarks — the ponderous 
gates of brass and all the other external wonders of that wonderful 
edifice — but the admiring visitor is invited to pass through the gates, 
and to contemplate the magnificent structures erected around the 
sanctuary, the grandest of all, and then to gaze with rapture on the 
unsurpassed sj)lendor and ravishing architectural glories of that 
house of God — and why all this ? Not merely to gratify a culti- 
vated taste, but to tell it to the generation following — to write the 
history of it that subsequent ages might know what had been done 
by their fathers. 

And this is the province of the historian of to-day, as it has been 
of all preceding times — to verify doubtful facts, to develop and re- 
cord unwritten events, to correct popular errors, to authenticate dis- 



77 

puted dateSi to delineate the character, influence and deeds of 
illustrious men ; in a word, " to walk about the towers thereof, to 
mark well her bulwarks and consider her palaces, that he may tell it 
to the generations following.*' 

This is the design of all historical societies, and many of them 
have already contributed much to the consummation of it. 

Allow me then, ye men of philosophy, on this auspicious day on 
which you will hear much of what your ancestors have told to the 
generations that came after them, and of what you are gathering 
for the benefit of those who will follow you, to speak of a theme 
closely allied to that which you cultivate. Philosophy and history 
are sisters, of whom history is the older, for history began in the 
primaeval Eden. They tell us that some ancient writer has said that 
history is philosophy teaching by example ; but history furnished 
the examples before philosophy or science could utilize them. 
Macaulay was of the same mind when he says : ** History, as it 
lies at the root of all science, is also the first distinct product of 
man's spiritual nature ; his earliest expression of what can be called 
thought. Before philosophy can teach by experience .... the 
experience must be gathered and intelligibly recorded." And 
that's history. 

I have thought that it would not be inappropriate on this occa- 
sion to present a brief dissertation on '* The Nature and Design of 
the Historical Societies of our Country, and the Invaluable Benefit 
They Have Conferred upon the Community." Of late years they 
have contributed raarvelously to the illustralion of our older history 
and are constantly piling up much rich material for future writers. 

The design of such foundations is not primarily to write history so 
much as it is to collect, arrange, classify, describe and preserve authen- 
tic materials ofwhatever kinds they may be, out of which history may 
be written. It is true, societies may publish what an individual or a 
committee has elaborated, and many local histoiies and cognate 
papers or treatises have been thus published, but, after all, the main 
design is to collect the timber, stone, and everything else out of 
which the historic edifice is built by the master workman, and this 
most useful work our principal societies have diligently and success- 
fully performed. They are composed of that class of men whom 
Bacon designates as '* industrious persons who, by an exact and 
scrupulous diligence and observation, out of monuments, names, 
words, proverbs, traditions, piivate records and evidences, frag- 



78 

ments of stories, passages of books, .... and the like, do save 
and recover much from the deluge of time." 

A historical society should be a ''snapper up of unconsidered tri- 
fles, and should not disdain to gather even the bubbles that float on 
the stream of current history, prizing them as the world will one 
day prize the gems into which they will be transferred by the magic 
of time." There are thousands of printed documents of one kind 
and another which few persons think of saving, but which if pre- 
served and systematically arranged into sets become valuable for 
reference in a very few years, and this is a kind of work requiring 
painstaking and patience, rather than the expenditure of much 
money. The breaking up of private collections is the great oppor- 
tunity of the historical librarians and members, who should always 
be on the alert for such chances. No scrap which contains a word 
or name or date of historic value should be allowed to be destroyed 
or to be thrown into the rag bag or sold to the gatherer of materials 
for the paper mill. 

Whilst the American antiquarian must necessarily feel deeply 
concerned in whatever relates to the history of the aborigines of our 
country, and we all know to what extent that subject has been illus- 
trated, especially in the Government publications, yet it is not the 
history of the Indians in our respective States that has engaged the 
special attention of our historical societies — though not entirely 
overlooked, especially by the societies in the Western and newer 
States — our main purpose is to rescue from oblivion the history of 
the first settlers of the country, the manners, habits, opinions, 
deeds, primitive institutions, the early establishments, their family 
papers, their schools and churches, parish records or newspapers 
and books, their roads, their country frolics, their holidays and di- 
versions, their civil and social condition, their town meetings and 
country fairs, their old family pictures, their great men and noble 
women in every department of active life. It is literally carrying 
out the capital motto of the Maine Historical Society, '* Antiquita- 
tis monumenta colligere." 

It is the province of the societies to collect and safely keep ac- 
count of all these and of many other things. A historical society 
need and should not collect a library of miscellaneous books, nor 
spend any money on an ornamental picture gallery or a museum of 
curiosities which do not illustrate the history of the State. If such 
objects are donated to the society as decorations, and the society 



79 

has room to exhibit them, they must not be refused, especially if 
with the donation provision is made for their safe keeping ; but a 
general picture or a statuary gallery is a very different thing from a 
collection of historical portraits or other pictures representing great 
historical events. Such a collection it is desirable to have. Popu- 
lar and miscellaneous books as well as most of the illustrated maga- 
aines and newspapers and quarterlies and monthlies must be sought 
for in libraries designed for more general use. A museum of house- 
hold relics of colonial and Revolutionary times, of old documents, 
ornaments, dress, weapons, furniture and many other things, such 
as we have lately had exhibited in Baltimore, will teach more history 
in an hour than a mere fancy picture gallery, of whatever extent or 
estimated value, will do in a week. 

What a fresh impetus has been given to the study of our national 
history within the last hundred years 1 It has been estimated by 
those capable of forming a correct judgment, that since the organiza- 
tion of the Government in 1789, under the Constitution, more than 
two hundred historical societies have been organized, the greater 
number of which continue in active existence. Most of them aim 
at the elucidation of the State or county or town in which they 
have been formed, and the principal means employed for accom- 
plishing the object has been the collection of historical books, of 
manuscripts, of museums, of historical memorials — in some instances 
including the natural history of the region; and the printing of 
historical documents. 

All these collections are rendered accessible to the public, and 
persons devoted to such studies have every desirable opportunity of 
gratifying their tastes, and every facility should be afforded. The 
red tape tying the documents should be short and the knot very 
loose. No student need go far to find everything that has been 
published concerning his own State, besides numerous valuable 
documents which have not yet been put in print, and to these he 
should have free access under liberal limitations. Of what use are 
such historic treasures to any body if they are to be locked up in 
a fireproof vault, and the use or exhibition of them environed 
with discouraging difficulties? 

Several of the States, as Maryland and Georgia, and perhaps 
some others, have made their library rooms or vaults of their State 
societies, places of deposit of valuable State historical records, at 
least to some extent, and it would have been well if our own State 



80 

of Maryland had adopted that wise precaution long ago. Manj 
precious documents would have been saved which are now irrecov- 
erably lost. This measure, of course, is not necessary where the 
capitol of the State has fireproof vaults in which such treasures may 
be safely kept, or where other measures of security are adopted, 
which is not the case in some State Houses we know. 

Some State societies have called the attention of their Legisla- 
tures to the propriety of publishing the colonial and other early 
records, to which they have liberally responded, and a few of them 
have even gone so far as to send competent agents to Europe to 
secure copies of old papers or catalogues of them from the record 
offices. Private munificence, in several instances, has rendered the 
same service, of which we have a notable example in our own col- 
lection in Baltimore, as a gift from George Peabody, to whom we 
are indebted for other similar favors. 

State societies have been established in more than half of the 
States, and they are designated State societies as different from local 
societies, either because they derive support from the State, or from 
the prominence which they give to the history of the State in their 
collections and printed contributions. Their place of meeting, 
their libraries and collections, and the principal seat of their opera- 
tions are usually at the capital of the State or in the largest city, 
and hence they are distinguished as State societies. 

There are some, also, which limit their collections to the records 
of the church denominations of their preference. Some of them 
have formed denominational libraries, and collections of ecclesias- 
tical relics, manuscripts, pictures, Church journals, synodical pro- 
ceedings, photographs of their clergy, histories of individual 
congregations or parishes, busts of some of their distinguished 
ministers, catechisms, hymn books, catalogues of their schools and 
colleges, re[)orts of their benevolent and missionary societies, all 
the writings of their authors in this country, and even the old furni- 
ture of the fathers of their Churches. Two of the most notable of 
these denominational historical societies, embracing all and even 
more of the specific subjects enumerated, which come within my 
l)ersonal knowledge, are those of the Moravians at Nazareth, and 
of the Lutherans at Gettysburg. There are some other Church 
historical societies, but they are almost exclusively confined to the 
collection of books and manuscripts. 

How are historical societies in general supported? Some have 



81 

endowments or olhcr property from which tbej draw intereit 
or rent — nch m thue of MassachusettSy New York, Pennsylvauia, 
and a few ochen. ' A few, such as Iowa, Minnesota and Wiaconsini 
and probaUy otheis, have special annual grants from their State 
Legisfaitores ; a few are provided with apartments in the State cap* 
itol rent free, which is to that extent an appropriation, but the 
ina|ority, I presume, are mainly supported by the membership fee, 
with occasional special contributions. 

It is natural to presume that American eneigy would produce im- 
portant and valuable nsmUs from such institutions. We, as a peo- 
ple, have never yet &iled to bring something good out of material 
capable of being manipulated. The labors which most of these 
associations have performed are simply marvelous, and the good 
they have achieved is worthy of all admiration. Not only have 
many of them acquired by purchase, or donation, or bequest, splen? 
did edifices, or, at least, most spacious and commodious buildings, 
in which they have gathered libraries, pamphlets, manuscripts, rec* 
orda, historical relics, museums of State antiquities and other 
treasures of priceless value, and have saved from destruction histor- 
ical monographs, biographies and genealogies. They have enriched 
the literature of history with hundreds of volumes of useful books, 
contisining many rare documents, of which but few knew anything 
before, but which are now open to all investigators, and many a 
precious book, which the poor student could not purchase, is now 
freely laid on the library table whenever he wishes to consult it. 
They have ransacked old depositories, and have rescued from dust 
and dampness and destruction many State and family records ; they 
have unearthed many buried treasures of more value than heraldic 
escutcheons or baronial insignia. They have awakened an interest 
in historical research before unknown, or at least not concentrated 
and systematic ; they have stimulated the zeal and encouraged the 
efforts of many a solitary student or obscure investigator; they 
have fostered the establishment of local and county societies in vil- 
lages where intelligent persons cannot attend the meetings of the 
State societies. 

But we dare not omit mentioning another result not less import- 
ant, and that is, the formation of ladies^ societies with the same 
general purpose in view. There are now eight or ten societies of 
Colonial Dames in this country, and although their researches are 

PBOC. AMEB. PHILOS. BOC. ZXXII. 143. K. PRINTED DEC. 1, 1893. 



82 

confined to the colonial period alone, yet they have done good ser- 
vice. They have not yet published the result of their studies, yet 
papers have been read, and it is presumed that the public will soon 
have the benefit of them. These patriotic American women arc 
not out of place when hunting up the musty documents of early 
American history ; their nimble fingers can gather the loose or tan- 
gled threads of ante- Revolutionary fragments, and weave them into 
beautiful historic tapestry. 

But it is not only general American history that engages the dili- 
gent study of many of these investigators, but there is another 
branch which, of later years, has gained many ardent votaries, and 
that is, family history or genealogy. Old parish records, lists of 
emigrants, rolls of regiments, rosters of officers, old city directories 
and almanacs, and every conceivable ancient document that can 
throw a gleam of light on a family name, a disputed date, a place 
of residence, a clue to title or rank, is examined with painstaking 
assiduity. Those of us who have the management of historical 
libraries receive numerous letters making inquiries into family 
history. People from far and near want to know all about some 
relative concerning whom they know little themselves, but presum- 
ing that we know all about them, or can easily learn it. The 
investigation of some cases would require hours of patient labor, 
and to all excepting such all possible aid should be given. 

I have playfully advised some of our resident investigators not to 
go too far back lest they might encounter ancestors whom they 
would not like to recognize, and in reply to that a bright lady from 
a neighboring county observed that she found the farther back she 
went the better her ancestors became, which pleased her vastly, for 
she thought some of those not far behind her were no better than they 
should have been. There are very few who go so far as it is said Dr. 
Johnson once did, although the same assertion is credited to some 
others ; when he was asked about his ancestors he gruffly replied: 
** That all he knew about them was, that some of them were hung, 
and the rest should have been." But it is true that no one not en- 
gaged in a historical library can have any conception of the number 
and character of the people who are inquiring into the history of 
their forefathers. One fact will show the interest which this subject 
has awakened. Before the year 1845 ^'^^ whole number of genea- 
logical societies in New England alone was not over thirty, and 
twenty years after that there were 400, and since that the number 



83 

has increased in other States also. It has been estimated that 
over 400 volumes, of 300 pages each, have been published by the 
various societies, and a much larger number of pamphlets and dis- 
tinct family monographs. 

The genealogies of not a few private families of distinction have 
been privately published, some of which are sent as donations to 
our libraries. 

The existence of many ancient documents and relics of all other 
kinds which are locked up in the closets of many private families is 
shown on the occasion of public exhibitions for the benefit of some 
laudable object. We had a notable example of this in Baltimore 
during Easter week. There was a grand display of Revolutionary 
relics, and yet it is presumed that not half of similar articles exist- 
ing in the State was sent to that exhibition, and the same may be 
said of some other States. We all remember what a collection was 
exhibited in the old State House, in Philadelphia, in 1876, and I 
believe all those objects were furnished by Pennsylvanians exclu- 
sively. 

To maintain a historical completeness in this paper, this would 
be the place to notice the principal historical societies of our country. 
The number of them is so large, and their history is so extensive, 
that it would require a volume to describe them, so that not even a 
beginning can here be made. 

Adjourned. 

Thursday, May 25 — i to 6 o'clock i».m. Reception l)y the 
University of Pennsylvania at the Library Building of the 
University. In the afternoon the Society and guests Mttended 
a reception and garden imrty, given at Manheini Club House 
bj Charlemagne Tower, Esq. 



81 



Fbiday, May 26, 1893, 11 a.m. 

President Fraley introduced Capt. Rousseau D'Happoncourt, 
who read a paper " On Determination of Gravity by Means of 
a Pendulum Apparatus," which is as follows : 

Die Bestrebungen, die Gestalt der Erde aus den Schwerebestim- 
mungen abzuleiten, sind verhaltnismassig neu, sie gehdren fast aus- 
schliesslich unserem Jahrhunderte an. Wahrend die Gradmes- 
sungen sich allmahlich innerhalb 2000 Jahren vom ersten Erkennen 
der Kugelgestalt der Erde bis zum heutigen Stande der Geodasie 
entwickelten, lieferten die Schwerebestimmungen gleich nach ibrem 
Entstehen ein vollkommen verlassliches Beobachtungs-Materiale zur 
Bestimmung der gesuchten Erdgestalt, denn es standen denselben 
bereits die hochentwickelten Theorien der Geodasie hilfreich zur 
Seite. 

So kommt es denn auch, dass wir beute am Schlusse desselben 
Jahrhunderts, bei dem Studium iiber die Schwere auf der Erde, das 
am Anfange dieses Jahrhunderts geschaffene Materiale noch ver- 
wenden konnen, ja sogar fast ausschliesslich verwenden miissen, da 
ein neueres Materiale nur sparlich vorhanden ist, und dieses nicht 
immer das alte an Giite und Verlasslichkeit iibertrifft. 

Wir konnen in dcMn Bestreben, die Schwerebestimmungen der 
Geodasie nutzbar zu machen, zwei Perioden : eine am Anfange und 
eine am Ende unscres Jahrhunderts, unterscheiden. Dieselben sind 
durch eine lange Pause von einander getrennt, wahrend welcher 
nichts oder nur sehr wenig Brauchbares geleistet wurde. 

In die erste Periode fallen jcne zahlreichen vorziiglichen Schwere- 
bcstimnuin^'cn, welchen wir zum grossten Theile unser heutiges 
Wissen iiber die Erdgestalt, wie dieselbe aus Schwerebestim- 
mungen sich ergibt, vcrdanken, und welche uns auch iiber die Ver- 
theilung drr Schwere auf der Erde iiberhaupt Aufschluss geben. 

Die Xamen jencr Manner, welche dieses wichtige und werthvolle 
Materiale der Wissenschaft geliefert haben, sind wohl Allen ge- 
laufig. 

Mit den grundlegenden Arbeiten Bessel's findet diese fruchtbare 
Periode ihren, man kann sagen y)U)tzlichen Abschluss. 

Erst durch die europiiisc he Gradme^^sung, jetzt internationale 
Ijdniessung, welche die Schwerebestimmungen in ihr Programm 




PROCEEDINGS AM. PHIL. SOC. VOL. XXXII, No. 143. 




I 



KARL CHEVELIEW HOUSSEAU O'HAPPONCOUI 



I 



anfgenoaimen hat, entwkkd te rich die xwdte Periode dieser Arbeiten, 
in welcher wir ons eben befinden. 

Wenn in Enropa im Aniknge dieser Periode die neueren Schwere- 
messoogen nur wenig gtite Resaltate lieferteny welche jenen der 
etsten Periode bezQglich der Genauigkeit nachstehen, so hatte dies 
seinen Grand darin, dass man glaubte, die so verlSsslichen relativen 
Bestimmnngen durch absolute ersetsen zu kdnnen. M5gen jedoch 
die absoluten Messangen noch so genau ausgeftihrt werden, immer 
haften denselben rnehr, und meist auch grdssere Fehler an, als den 
relativen ; sie eignen sich demnach nur wenig oder gar nicht zur 
ErfoTschung von Details; denn die unverroeidlichen Fehler der 
absoluten Bestimmungen sind meist gT6sser, als die zu suchenden 
sehr kleinen Unterschiede. Ueberdies hafteten den verwendeten 
Apparaten M&ngel an, durch welche die Ungenautgkeit der Resul- 
tate meist in ganz unbestimmbarer Weise vergrdssert wurde. 

Erst 1876 hat Peirce dnen der wichtigsten dieser M&ngel, n&m- 
lich das Mitschwingen des Stativs der Pendel-Apparate erkannt, 
und dem Einflusse desselben auf die Resultate Rechnung getragen. 

Von dieser Zeit an war man bemtiht, entweder den Einfluss des 
StabiliULts-Mangels des Pendelstatives durch anderweitige Messungen 
zu ermitteln, und dieserwegen die gefundenen Resultate zu corrigi- 
ren, oder, was viel naliirlicher ist, durch neue, bessere Constructi- 
onen der Apparate diesen scbadlichen Einfluss ganzlich zu beseiti- 
gen. 

Diese Bcraiihungen konnen bei uns als der eigentliche Beginn 
der zweiten Periode angesehen werden, in welcher neuester Zeit die 
relativen Schwerebestimmungen wieder den ihnen gebiihrenden 
ersten Platz einzunehmen beginnen. 

Im Grossen und Ganzen sind es dieselben Ziele wie friiher, die 
wir auch jetzt verfolgen, namlich die Erforschung der wahren Erd- 
gestalt; nur stehen uns gegenwartig viele Erfahrungen zur Seite, 
die uns den Weg vorzeichnen, welchen wir zur Erreichung dieses 
Zieles einzuschlagen haben. 

Friiher suchte man wesentlich die Abplattung der als Ellipsoid 
gedachten Erde zu bestimmen. Es batten demnach die Messungen 
den Zweck, die Constanten eines schon vorher als Erdgestalt defi- 
nirten analytischen Ausdruckes zu bestimmen, Strenge genommen 
gentigten hiezu selbst nur zwei Bestimmungen ; in jedem Falle war 
die Aufgabe durch eine verhaltnismiissig geringe Anzahl Beobach- 
tungen losbar. 



86 

Heute ist es nicht mehr die Abplattung allein, welche wir durch 
die Schwerebestimmungen ermittein wollen, sondern es ist wesent- 
lich der Verlauf des Geoides, welchen zu erforschen wir uns zur 
Aufgabe gestellt haben. Das Geoid ist jedoch eine sehr unregel- 
massig verlaufende Flache, welche sich bekanntlich durch keinen 
analytischen Ausdruck darstellen lasst. 

Wir konnen demnach ihren Verlauf nur dadurch kennen lemen, 
dass wir die Coordinaten einer sehr grossen Anzahl von Punkten 
derselben bestimmen ; und es ist daher im Gegensatze zu den friihe- 
ren Bemiihungen jetzt nothwendig, auf einer moglichst grossen 
Zahl iiber die ganze Erde gleichmassig und dicht vertheilter Orte 
die Intensitat der Schwerkraft kennen zu lernen. 

Wieder sind es die relativen Bestimmungen, welchen der grosste 
Antheil an der Losung dieser umfangreichen Aufgabe zufallt, und 
es treten die absoluten Bestimmungen immer mehr in den Hinter- 
grund ; denn die Geodasie verlangt nur die Vergleichung der Inten- 
sitat der Schwerkraft fiir moglichst viele Punkte der Erdoberfiache, 
keineswegs jedoch eine sehr grosse Genauigkeit in der Bestiramung 
ihres absoluten Werthes. Wir konnen den Werth der Beschleunig- 
ung (^) der Schwere um loo Einheiten der 5. Decimale andern, ohne 
dass dadurch die Resultale der Vergleichung, auf die es ankommt, 
merklich afficirt werden. 

Ob zwar wir daher den absoluten Werth der Schwere im AUge- 
meinen schon als bekannt anselien konnen, so sollen doch dieser- 
wegen die Bestimmungen desselben noch nicht als abgeschlossen 
betrachtet werden, umsoweniger, als die bisherigen Angaben fiir 
denselben noch betrachtlich von einander abweichen. Dies zeigte 
sich deutlich durch eine in neuesler Zeit ausgef iihrte Untersuchung. 
Es wurden niimlich von Wien ausgehend, sehr genaue relative 
Schwerebestimmungen auf mehreren Orten ausgefiihrt, auf denen 
der absolute Werth der Schwere friiher schon bestimmt war. Die 
grosse Verliisslichkeit der Resultate dieser relativen Bestimmungen 
zeigte sich gclegentlich einer Wiederholung derselben, mit ver- 
schiedencn Apparaten, zu verschiedenen Zeiten, und durch ver- 
schiedene Beobachter, welche das gleiche Resultat ergab. 

Wiiren die verschiedenen absohiten Bestimmungen vollkommen 
richtig, so nuissten die von ilinen mittels der gemessenen Unter- 
schiede fiir Wien, geographisches Institute abgelciteten Werlhe alle 
gleich scin. 



87 

Die Lange des Sekundenpendels Lw. f iir Wien, geographisches 
Institut, ergibt sich jedoch aus den Bestimmungen von : 

MM. 



I. Peters 


in Berlin, 


1870, 


mit Lw. 


( 


993745 


2. Lorenzoni 


•« Padua, 


1885, 


w 





.756 


3. Anton 


" Berlin, 


1878, 


« 




.760 


4. Peters 


" Altona, 


1869, 


<f 




•763 


5. Mahlke 


«< Hamburg, 


1891, 


<( 


.^ 


.782 


6. Peirce, 


" Berlin, 


1876, 


M 




•79* 


7. Bessel, 


" Berlin, 


1835. 


(< 


■^ 


.804 


8. Biot, 


«« Padua, 


1820, 


<l 




.805 


9. Sabine, 


«« Altona, 


1828, 


« 




.810 


10. Oppolzer, 


« Wien, 


1884, 


(( 




.834 




(Tiirkenschanze) 








II. Defforges, 


" Paris, 


1884, 


(( 




•835 


12. Orff, 


" Miinchen, 


1877, 


(( 




•837 



Wie wir sehen, zeigen die Resultate nicht unbedeutende Differen- 
zen, welche von systematischen Fehlern herzuriihren scheinen. 
Der Unvollkommenheit der Vergleiche der zu den absoluten 
Bestimmungen verwendeten Maassslabe, diirfte ein erhelicher An- 
theil an denselben zuzuschreiben sein. 

Es zeigt sich demnach die Nothwendigkeit, dass dieses fast aus- 
schliesslich in das Gebiet der Physik gehorende Problem, die abso- 
luten Bestimmungen der Intensitiit der Schwerkraft, nach moglichst 
verschiedenen Methoden der Lusung zugefiihrt werde. HiL4iei ist 
es ganz gleichgiltig, an welchen Orten die Bestimmungen vorge- 
nommen werden, da die erhaltenen Resultate stets mittels relativer 
Bestimmungen untereinander scharf verglichen werden konnen. 

Mit dcm Bestreben, den Verlauf der GeoTdflaclie aus den 
Schwerebestimmungen ableiten zu konnen, ist die Lusung niancher 
schwierigen Aufgaben eng verbunden. 

Sow'ohl die Discussion der alteren PendelbeobaclUungen, als audi 
die Ergebnisse neuerer Bestimmungen baben uns niimlich belebrt, 
dass der Verlauf der Schwerkraft auf der Erdobernache kcin rcLrel- 
massiger sei ; dass sowohl lokale als auch regionale Slorungen der- 
selben vorkommen und es erscheint unerlasslich, das Wesen derscl- 
ben genau kennen zu lernen. 

Wir kennen heute nocli sehr wenig den Einfluss, welchen die 
Conlinente und Meere, die Gebirge, Hoch- und Tiefebenen, sowie 
die verschiedenen geologischen Formationen auf die Schwere aus- 
iiben. 



88 

Die Reductionen, mittels welchen die BeobachtuDgen nothwen- 
digerweise vergleichbar gemacht werden miissen, sind uns gleichfalis 
nicht voUkommen bekannt, wenigstens weichen diesbeziiglich die 
Meinungen noch sehr voneinander ab ; endlich gibt es noch eine 
ganze Reihe von hochst interressanten, doch noch unerforschten 
Problemen, welche mehr in das Gebiet der Geophysik gehoren, die 
jedoch gleichfalls nur durch Schwerebestimmungen gelost werden 
konnen ; so z. B. das Verhalten der Schwere beim Eindringen in 
die Erde, also in den Schachten der Bergwerke, Tunnels, etc. Erst 
an drei Ortlichkeiten sind iiber diese interressante Aufgabe Versuche 
unternommen worden, namlich in den Bergwerken zu Harton in 
England, Pribram in Bohmen, und Freiberg in Sachsen. 

Wie wir sehen, ist die durch Schwerebestimmungen zu losende 
Aufgabe eine sehr grosse ; denn abgesehen von den sehr zahlreichen 
iiber die ganze Erde vertheilten Beobachtungen, welche uns das 
Materiale zur Bestimmung des Verlaufes der Geoidflache zu liefern 
bestimmt sind, benothigen wir auch eine grosse, nach Tausenden 
zahlende Zahl meist dicht beieinander gelegener Beobachtungs- 
Stationen, zur grtindlichen Erforschung der mit dieser Aufgabe im 
Zusammenhange stehenden Probleme. 

Mit den bis vor kurzer Zeit im Gebrauche gestandenen Appara- 
ten dieses Ziel zu erreichen, war aussichtslos, denn die Beobach- 
tungen waren sehr miihsam und zeitraubend, daher auch sehr kost- 
spielig. 

Mit Hilfe des neuen Sterneck*schen Pen delappa rates, der in 
vielen Staaten bereits in Verwendung ist, ist es moglich, mit Aus- 
sicht auf Erfolg, die Erreichung dieses Zieles anzustreben, indem 
die Beobachtungen bei sehr grosser Genauigkeit wesentlich verein- 
facht sind, und iiberall, auch auf schwer zugiinglichen Orten leicht 
ausgefiihrt werden konnen. 

Mit demselben war es in jiingster Zeit ermoglicht, dass in Oster- 
reich Ungarn seitens des k. u. k. mililargeographischen Institutes 
die ersten detaillirten Untcrsuchungen iiber das Verhalten der 
Schwere in verschiedenen Terrain- und geologischen Formen aus 
gefiihrt werden konnten. 

Es wurden die Alpen, die Karpaten, die ungarische Tiefebene, 
das Bihiar-Gebirge und noch andere interressante Ortlichkeiten mit 
einer Reihe von mehreren hundertenganeinander liegenden Schwere- 
stationen durchguert und hiedurch viele wichtige und interressante 
Aufschliisse iiber das Verhalten der Schwere erzielt. 



89 

Massendefecte und Massenanhaufungen under der Erdoberflache 
wurden constatirt, systematische Unterschiede der Schwere iiber 
primare Formen und Sedimenten aufgefunden, etc. 

Jedes einzelne verhaltnismassig leicht und schnell auf diesem 
noch unerforschten Gebiete zu erwerbende Resultat ist interressant, 
lehrreich und wichtig, u. z. nicht nur fiir die Geodasie, sondern 
auch (lir Geophysik und Geologic ; ja es kann heutzutage das Pen- 
del auch als ein unerlassliches geologisches Instrument angesehen 
werden. 

Derartige Apparate wurden bereits in grosser Anzahl von Wien 
aus nach vielen Staaten geliefert ; bei jedem einzelnen wurden die 
Constanten und die Schwingungszeiten der Pendel genau ermittelt, 
und zwar an jenem Orte in Wien, wo Oppolzer den absoluten 
Werth der Schwere sehr genau bestimmt hat. Hiedurch ist eine 
grosse Vereinheitlichung beziiglich der Angaben fiir die Schwere 
angebahnt. 

Gewiss wird sich binnen kurzer Zeit unser Wissen iiber diese und 
ahnliche Verhaltnisse klaren, umsomehr, wenn einmal, was in 
nachster Zeit zu erwarten ist, in mehreren Staaten an verschiedenen 
Orten ahnliche Detailstudien ausgefiihrt sein werden. Durch die- 
selben werden wir erst im Stande sein das zahlreiche iiber die ganze 
Erde vertheilte Beobachlungs-Materiale richtig zu verwerthen. 

Dieses zu beschaffen, ist gegenwiirtig die wesentlichste Aufgabe. 
Denn das von unseren Vorfahren ererbte Materiale, aus dem An- 
fange dieses Jahrhunderts ist viel zu sparlich und nicht immer 
strenge vergleichbar. 

Es muss ein neues, gleichmiissig iiber die ganze Erde vertheiltes, 
gleichwerthiges, Tausende von Slationen umfassendes Materiale zum 
Zwecke der Erforschung der wahren Erdgestalt geschaffen werden. 

Wenn auch zu hoffen is, dass bei dem regen Interresse, welches 
sich gegenwiirtig, nach so langer Zeit, allerorten fiir die Schwere- 
messungen wieder kundgibt, auf dem Testlande bei alien Cultur- 
staaten in nicht allzu langer Zeit sehr zahlreiche Messungen aus- 
gefiihrt sein werden, so repriisentirt die hiedurch untersuchte Flilche 
doch nur einen geringen Theil der gesammten Erdobeilliiche. Der 
weitaus grosste Theil derselben ist uns nur durch weite Reisen 
zugiinglich, die Ausfiihrung der Heobachtungcn daher fiir den Ein- 
zelnen viel zu zeitraubend und kostspielig. 

In richtiger Erkenntniss dieser Verhaltnisse und stets bestrebt 

PIIOC. AMER. PHIL08. SOC. XXXII. 143. L. PRINTED DEC. 1, 1893. 



90 

die Reisen Sr. Majestat Kriegsschiffe auch der Wissenschaft mog- 
lichst nutzbar zu machen, hat sich die k. u. k. Osterreichisch-unga- 
rische Kriegs-Marine-Verwaltung aus eigener Initiative bewogen 
gefunden, die Schwerebestimmungen in das Reise-Programm der 
Kriegsschiffe aufzunehmen. 

Es warden zu diesem Zwecke zwei Sterneck'sche Pendelapparate 
angeschafTt und Seeoffiziere im k. u. k. militar-geographischen In- 
stitute mit der Ausfiihrung der Schwerebestimmungen griindlich ver- 
traut gemacht. Gegenwartig befinden sich bereits zwei Schiffe mit 
completten Apparaten ausgerustet in den ostasiatischen-Gewassern, 
und ist die Ausriistung eines dritten Schiffes fur das mittellandische 
Meer bereits im Zuge. 

Auf zahlreichen Stationen werden Beobachtungen ausgefiihrt 
werden, und lasst das grosse Interresse der Seeoffiziere an der 
Sache, die gute Schulung derselben, sowie die Einfachheit des 
Apparates und der Beobachtungen den besten Erfolg erhoflfen. 

Hiemit hat die k. u. k. Kriegs-Marine den richtigen Weg gezeigt, 
auf welchem es moglish ist, in relativ kurzer Zeit das fUr die Wis- 
senschaft nothwendige, reichhaltige Materiale zu beschaffen. 

Moge ihre Initiative auf die anderen seefahrenden Nationen an- 
regend wirken, und eine baldige allgemeine Betheiligung an diesem 
Unternehmen zur Folge haben. Dann konnen wir hoffen, trotz 
der vielen Schwierigkeiten doch das angestrebte schone Ziel zu 
erreichen, denn was der Einzelne nicht vermag, gelingt leicht mit 
vereinten Kriiften. 

R. v. Sterneck, Oberstlieuienant, 

WiEN, im Januar 1893. 

Chevalier D'llapponcourt then read the following transla- 



tion prepared by himself: 



The attempts which have been made to ascertain the figure of the 
earth from determinations of gravity are of comparatively recent 
date, and belong ahiiost exclusively to the present century. The 
measurement of the lengths of degrees of the meridian has gradu- 
ally developed itself during 2000 years, from the first discovery of 
the rotundity of the earth m\) to the present position of the science 
of geudesy, but gravity observations, from the time of their com- 



n 

mencemeiity'luive miqdied fairly reliable data for the determination 
of the earth's figure, for they were already assisted by the highly 
developed theories of geodesy. 

Thus it comes about that even now, at the close of the same cen- 
tury, vre can still use, for the study of gravity on the earth, the 
material obtuned at the beginning of this century ; indeed, it is 
almost all that we can use, for new material only exists to a small 
extent, and this does not always exceed the old data in quality and 
trustworthiness. 

In the attempts to make gravity determinations useful to geodesy, 
two periods are to be distinguished ; one at the beginning, and one 
at the end of our century. These are separated from each other by 
a long interval, during which nothing, or very little of any use, 
was accomplidied. 

In the first period are included those numerous and excellent de- 
terminations of gravity to which we owe, for the most part, our 
present knowledge of the figure of the earth as indicated by grav- 
ity determinations, and which also afford us information as to the 
distribution of gravity over the earth generally. 

llie names of those men who have furnished these imporrant and 
valuable materials to science are well known to every one. 

This fertile period comes, we may say, to a sudden termination 
with the fundamental investigations of Bessel. 

The second period of these inquiries, which brings us down to 
the present time, was developed, first, by the measurement of de- 
grees of the meridian in Europe, which has now become the inter- 
national measurement of the earth, and has included gravity 
determinations in its programme. 

During the second period of these inquiries, the determinations of 
gravity in Europe have yielded but few good results, inferior to those 
of the first period as regards accuracy, because it was supposed that 
the relative determinations which were previously employed, and 
which are so trustworthy, might be replaced by absolute measure- 
ments. But however accurately absolute measurements are carried 
out, they are always affected by numerous, and for the most part 
also by greater, errors than the relative ones ; they are therefore but 
little, if at all, suited for the investigation of details ; for the un- 
avoidable errors of the absolute determinations are mostly larger 
than the very small differences which they are intended to ascertain. 
Moreover, there exist in the apparatus employed defects by which 



92 

the inaccuracy of the results is increased in a way which it is gener- 
ally quite impossible to determine. 

In 1876, Peirce first perceived one of the most important of these 
defects, viz., the oscillation of the framework of the pendulum ap- 
paratus, and took that in account upon the results he obtained. 

From this time it has been endeavored either to deduce the 
influence of the want of stability of the pendulum framework by 
further measurements, and by these means to correct the results ob- 
tained, or, what is more natural, to remove altogether this injurious 
effect by a better construction of the apparatus. 

We may regard these efforts as the beginning of the really valu- 
able work of the second period, in which relative determinations of 
gravity resumed the first place, which properly belongs to them. 

On the whole, we still pursue the same object as before, viz., the 
investigation of the true figure of the earth, but we have now the 
advantage of much experience which indicates to us the line that 
we should follow for the attainment of the object in view. 

Formerly, we really endeavored to determine the difference be- 
tween the longest and shortest diameters of the earth, which was 
considered to be an ellipsoid. Accordingly the object of the meas- 
urements was to determine the constants of an analytical expression, 
previously defined as the figure of the earth. Theoretically speak- 
ing, two determinations were quite sufficient for this purpose; and 
in any case the problem could be solved by a relatively limited 
number of observations. 

At the present day it is not only the oblateness that we wish to 
deduce by determinations of gravity, but it is really the shape of the 
geoid which we have set ourselves the task of investigating. The 
geoid is, however, a surface which is very irregular in shape, and 
which we know will not admit of representation by any analytical 
expression. 

Thus we can only ascertain its course by the determination of the 
ccordinates of a very large number of points; and it is therefore 
now necessary, contrary to former efforts, to ascertain the intensity 
of the force of gravity at as great a number of places as possible, 
uniformly and clost^ly arranged over the whole earth. 

It is, again, the relative determinations to which the greatest 
share in the solution of this compiehensive problem falls, and the 
absolute determinations continually recede into the background; for 
geodesy requires only the comparison of the intensity of the force 



of gnvily at as many poiatB of the earth's sariaoe ai ponible, bat 
in no wise very great accnracy in the determination of their abso- 
lute vahie. We may change the value of the acceleration (g) of 
gravity by loo oniti of the fifth decimal^ without thereby percep- 
tibly affecting the mnlts of the comparison on which it depends. 

Although* thereforei we may regard the absolute value of gravity 
in general as already known, yet we must not on this account con- 
aider iti determination as definitely set at rest, especially as the re- 
salts hitherto obtained still differ considerably from each other. 
This is clearly shown by the following investigalion, carried out 
quite recently. Starting from Vienna, very accurate relative deter- 
mioations of gravity were carried out at many stations at which 
the absolute value had been already previously determined. 

The thorough trustworthiness of the results of these relative de- 
terminations was ptoved on the occasion of their repetition with 
different apparatus, at different times, and by different observers, 
which led to the same result. 

If the various absolute determinations had been perfectly correct, 
the results deduced from them by means of the differences deter- 
mined for Vienna Geographical Institute must all be the same. 

The results are as follows, expressed in the lengths of the seconds 
pendulum L.W., for Vienna Geographical Institute, as deduced 
from absolute determinations by 



MM. 



I. Peters 

* 


in 


Berlin, 


1870, 


L.W, 




993-745 


2. Lorenzoni 


M 


Padua, 


1885, 


« 




.756 


3. Anton 


• 1 


Berlin, 


1878, 


« 


^= 


.760 


4. Peters 


« 


Altona, 


1869, 


tt 


— 


.763 


5. Mahike 


M 


Hamburg, 


1891, 


II 




.78a 


6. Peircc 


<l 


Berlin, 


1876, 


tt 




.791 


7. Bessel 


« 


Berlin, 


'835. 


tt 




.804 


8. Biot 


M 


Padua, 


1820, 


tt 




.805 


9. Sabine 


(• 


Altona, 


1828, 


it 


-^ 


.810 


10. Oppolzer 


•• 


Vienna, 


1884, 


tt 




.834 




(TUrkenschanze) 








II. Defforges 


(• 


Paris, 


1884, 


tt 




.835 


12. Orff 


•< 


Munich, 


1877, 


tt 




.837 



As we see, the results exhibit some important differences, which 
appear to be attributable to systematic errors. We may put down 
some of them to imperfection of the comparisons of the scales used 
for the absolute determinations. 



94 

This shows the necessity of referring this problem, viz., the abs<h 
lute determination of the intensity of the force of gravity, which 
belongs almost exclusively to the domain of physics, to as many 
different methods of solution as possible. For this purpose it docs 
not matter at which places the determinations are made, as the 
results obtained can always be closely compared with each other 
by means of relative determinations. 

The solution of many difficult problems is closely connected 
with the endeavor to ascertain the form of the geo'id surface by 
means of gravity determinations. 

The discussion of the older pendulum observations, as well as the 
results of more recent determinations, have taught us that the distri- 
bution of the force of gravity on the surface of the earth is not 
regular, but that local and regional disturbances occur, and it ap- 
pears indispensable to ascertain their nature accurately. 

Even at the present time we know little about the influence 
which the continents and seas, the mountains, plateaus and low 
plains, as well as the various geological formations, exert upon gravity. 

The reductions which must necessarily be applied to the obser- 
vations, in order to make them comparable with each other, are 
not thoroughly understood ; at least, opinions about them still dif- 
fer considerably. I^asUy, there is still a whole series of highly in- 
teresting but yet unexamined problems, which belong more to the 
domain of terrestrial physics, but which can also only be solved by 
determinations of gravity; so, for instance, the behavior of gravity 
beneath the surface of the earth, such as in the shafts of mines, in 
tunnels, etc. Experiments have been undertaken in this interest- 
ing problem in only three localities in Europe, viz., in the mines 
at Harton in England, Pribram in Bohemia, and Freiberg in 
Saxony. 

As we see, the problem to be solved by determinations of gravity 
is a very serious one; for, apart from the very numerous observa- 
tions distributed over the whole earth which are available for fur- 
nishing materials for the determination of the form of the surface 
of the geoid, we require for the thorough investigation of the prob- 
lems in connection w^th this subject, a large number of observing 
stations, amounting to thousands, and in close proximity to each 
other. It was impracticable to attain this end with the apparatus 
in u^e up to a short time ago, for the observations were very trouble- 
s(jme, and required much time, and were consequently costly. 



95 

By the help of Sterneck's new pendulum apparatus, which is 
already in use in many countries, it is possible to aspire to the 
attainment of this object with a prospect of success, as observations 
are materially simplified and yet possess very great accuracy and 
can be easily made everywhere, even at places which are difficult of 
access. 

With this apparatus it was practicable, quite recently, for the 
Vienna Military-Geographical Institute to carry out in Austro- 
Hungary the first detailed investigations on the distribution of 
gravity in various soils and geological formations. 

A series of several hundred closely connected gravity stations 
was established in the Alps, the Carpathians, the Hungarian low- 
lands, the Bihar mountains, and other interesting localities, and 
by this means many important and interesting results relating to 
the distribution of gravity were obtained. 

The existence both of deficiency and of excess of mass beneath 
the surtace of the earth was proved ; systematic differences of grav- 
ity over primary formations and sedimentary deposits were discov- 
ered, etc. 

Every individual result which is relatively easily and quickly 
obtainable in this yet unexplored domain is interesting, instructive 
and important, not only as regards geodesy, but also for terrestrial 
physics and geology; in fact, the pendulum may, at tlie present 
day, be regarded as an indispensable geological instrument. 

Instruments of this pattern are already supplied in great numbers 
from Vienna to several countries ; the constants of each, and the 
vibration times of the pendulums, are accurately determined at the 
place, in Vienna, where Oppolzer has very accurately determined 
the absolute value of gravity. By this means, a great uniformity 
of results is effected. 

Within a short time, our knowledge of these and similar condi- 
tions will certainly be more definite if similar detailed experiments 
are carried out at different places in several countries, which may 
shortly be expected. By these means we shall, for the first time, 
be in a position to utilize properly the numerous data distributed 
over the whole earth. 

This is the most essential task at the present day; for the mate- 
rials inherited from our predecessors since the commencement of 
the present century are far too scanty and are not always strictly 
comparable with each other. 



96 

For the purpose of determining the true figure of the earth, we 
must obtain a mass of ne^ material of uniform character, uniformly 
distributed over the whole earth, and representing thousands of 
stations. 

If, as it is to be hoped — owing to the keen interest which, after 
so great a lapse of time, is again exhibited on all sides with regard 
to determinations of gravity — very numerous measurements are 
undertaken at no very distant period by all civilized countries on 
the continent of Europe, the area thus investigated only represents 
a small portion of the whole surface of the globe. By far the 
greatest part of the globe is only accessible by distant voyages, and 
the execution of the observations by means of private persons 
would take too much time and money/ 

The Austro- Hungarian Admiralty has always had a true percep- 
tion of the circumstances above mentioned, and has taken the 
initiative by including observations of gravity among the duties to 
be performed by ships at foreign stations, in order to make the 
voyages of the ships belonging to their navy as useful to science as 
possible. For this purpose two of Sterneck's pendulum instru- 
ments have been procured, and the officers of the navy have been 
made thoroughly familiar, at the Vienna Military Geographical In- 
stitute, with the carrying out of gravity determinations. At the 
present time, there are already two ships in the China seas which 
are furnished with complete apparatus, and the equipment of a 
third vessel for the Mediterranean is already in progress. 

Observations will be taken at numerous stations, and we may 
fairly hope for very good results, from the great interest the officers 
have taken in the subject and their good education, as well as from 
the simplicity of the apparatus and of the observations themselves. 

The Ministry of Marine has thus shown the right way by which it 
is possible to secure for science, in a relatively short space of time, 
a copious amount of necessary data. 

I may, in conclusion, express the hope that their initiative may 
stir up other maritime powers and result in a speedy, general par- 
ticipation in this undertaking. We may then hope that, in spite of 
the many difficulties, the important object in view may soon be 
attained; for what individuals cannot do may be easily accom- 
plished by united forces. 

(Signed) R. v. Sterneck, Oberst Lieutenant. 

Vienna, January, 1893. 



97 



President Fralej next introduced Dr. Isaac Roberts, who 
addressed the Society as follows : 

I am delegated by the Royal Astronomical Society of England to 
convey to you their hearty good wishes on this anniversary of your 
Society, and hope that your career in the future will be even more 
prosperous than in the past. 

I have brought with me a few specimens of the work that has been 
done in England, so that those present at the meeting may have an 
opportunity of judging somewhat of the way in which we work there. 
The subject involves a series of photographs, and the most convenient 
place for exhibiting them happens to be at the back of this room ; it is 
therefore probable that the audience will desire to turn their backs on 
you, Mr. President, for a while, so that they may see on the photo- 
graphs the references which I may have to make, and, with your 
permission, I shall have to be within reach of the photographs so 
that I may point them out. 

My remarks may be entitled, "Illustrations of Progress Made 
During Recent Years in Astronomical Science.*' I am rather at a 
disadvantage in not knowing to what extent the field of astronomical 
science has been exhibited to you at the meetings which have i)re- 
ceded this one, and I therefore feel the risk that I incur of repeating 
mucli of what may have been already laid before you in form and 
substance better than I can submit it. I shall, therefore, assume 
that reference to the progress made in astronomical science between 
the time of the foundation of this Society and about the year 1850 
mav bv me be omitted. 

The selection of the year 1850 as the time for the t.onnnLMK cnient 
of my narrative will be appreciated, because it was in that year that 
your illustrious countryman, George P. Bond, ])ro(lucc(l with the 
fifteen-inch Harvard refractor, a very successful ])hoto^naph of the 
moon, which was exhibited at the great l^xhihition in London, in 
1851. Another of your illustrious (ountryincn. Dr. J. W. Dr.ipcr, 
of New York, had, as early as the year 1840, taken ])hotOL(ra})hs of 
the moon, and in the subsequent year he suc( ceded in the ai)j>li- 
cation of the photographic method to the delineation of the ^olar 
spectrum. Bond also, in 1850, photograi)hed, with the fifteen-inch 
Harvard refractor, the bright stars Castor and Vega, and, in 1S57, 
initiated the photography of double stars. 

PBOC. AMEB. PHIL08. 80C. XXXII. 143. M. TRINTSD DEC. 14, 1893. 



98 

Of course, in England and in France, celestial photography was 
successfully carried on concurrently with similar work in America, 
and it would be difficult to assign a sharp line of demarcation which 
would place any one of these countries far in advance of the others 
in the keen but noble efforts to enlarge the boundaries of knowledge 
by the application of the newly-discovered powers of photography. 
Warren De la Rue, in England, in 1853, produced excellent photo* 
graphs of the moon, and, in 1858, instituted the method of photo- 
graphing sun spots, which was effected continuously until 1872. In 
France, Foucault and Fizeau also photographed the sun, in 1845 > 
and in America, Rutherford, in 1S64, made an important step in 
advance by the construction of a telescope with an objective of 
eleven and a half inches aperture, corrected, not for visual observa- 
tion, but exclusively for photographic work. This was improved, in 
the year 1885, ^X ^^^ brothers Henry, of Paris, who constructed a 
photo-telescope of thirteen inches aperture, and with it succeeded 
in photographing stars of the sixteenth magnitude, in May, of that 
year ; and it so happened that I also had a reflecting telescope made, 
having an aperture of twenty inches, with which I commenced, in 
May, 1885, to chart the stars in the Northern hemisphere of the sky 
on a scale about double that adopted by Argelander. But Dr. Gill, 
the Director of the Cape Observatory, and the late Admiral 
Mouchez, Director of the Paris Observatory, proposed and admir- 
ably carried into execution a scheme of charting the stars by photo- 
graphic instruments of identical aperture, focal length and chro- 
matic corrections as those adoi)ted in the Paris instrument made by 
the Henrys. There are now eighteen of those telescopes in obser- 
vatories, situated in different parts of the world, regularly engaged 
in taking photographs of the sky, so as to produce a great chart of 
all the stars down to the fourteenth magnitude. Therefore, the 
charting which I had commenced is superseded by a more efficient 
method, and my twenty- inch reflector, practically, is turned to use 
in photograi)hing nebuUie and clusters of stars, an employment for 
which it is better adapted than the thirteen-inch photo-refractors 
used in tlic charting. 

I'he merits of the reflector in photographing faint stars and faint 
nel)u]osity was pointed out by Dr. Common, in England, in the 
year i<SS3, and my experience since fully confirms his. I must not 
here attempt even a cursory tlescription of the great work done dur- 
ing recent years in the i)]iotographi ng of solar, stellar and nebular 



PricadiD|t Itnei, ChllDi. Sdc. 



EBB&TA is the OrieDt&tion and Order of the Plates. 



rLATii«L,iv..tiii.,it.,xi., lii., liii. — AurM point al Ihebotlom ; .SV.uMal Ihelop; 
(Kr//io the left hand; £ir/ tothc right baod. Thiscorresinnds tutlie 
DrienlalioEi of Ihc objccl as viewed in an aslrononiical telescojtc. 

Ti-Arm v., vi., V — .\er/h point at lap; Seuli a\ bottom; £ail \a the left hand; 
Writ to the right band. 

I'lATB \i.—Fi>T M 13 Ilcrculii n^J M 15 I'egasi. UorlA point is midway 
bclween bottom and left hand; South midway between lop and rigbt 
hand; Wetl bclxecn Uip and left haud ; Eoil between bottom and 

right band. 



1'I.ATB 



ii. — For M 15 Pegasi reaU M I3 Herrulis, Nerfi (wint is st right hum! 
tid«i ^oHfl al the left hand; 'C»/ at tbc bottom; £<ri/ at the lop. 



ii. — North point is midvf.iy between botloii 
between top nnd right hand ; li'tsr belwcc 



and left-hand side ; 
lop and kft hand 



rtal<' Ullol-ertg). 




!■•.■• 



M 



Ptittriiip Hmer. Phllit. Im. 



U m\\, h Itt 




99 

si:)€ctra. The field is too extensive and the ardent workers too 
numerous for inclusion in this brief statement. I shall, therefore, 
as the representative of the Royal Astronomical Society of England, 
introduce to your notice a selection of thirteen photographs, which 
are copies of some which have been presented to the Society and 
described at the meetings of the Fellows at various times during the 
past seven years, and I may be permitted to add, that they represent 
the fullest information we yet possess concerning the objects they 
portray. 

The first (PI. i.) is a photograph of the stars in the Milky Way 
in Cygnus. When you examine it closely, you will find it is almost 
covered with stars, not one of them visible to the sight without the 
aid of the telescope, many of them invisible even with powerful 
telescopes. This is an area of the sky that would be covered by one 
of your smallest silver coins, held between the finger and thumb, at 
arm's length, between the eye and the sky; the area of sky covered 
by such a piece would be about equal to what this photograph rep- 
resents. The centre of the photograph is in R. A. 19 h. 45 m., 
decl. N. 35 deg. 30 m., and covers a sky area of about 2 dog. 3 m. 
by I deg. 45 m. It has been enlarged from the negative to a scale 
of 26 seconds of arc to i millimeter, and was taken with the 
twenty-inch reflector, on August 14, 1887, with an exposure of sixty 
minutes. A photograph comparable with this, was taken by the 
brothers Henry, in Paris, in August, 1885, with the thirtecn-inch 
photo-refractor, and was one of the early marvels of celestial pho- 
tography. It showed about 3000 stars on the sky area just described, 
but the photograph taken with my twenty-inch reflector, and now 
exhibited, shows no less than 16,000 stars on the same coincident 
area of the sky. Allowing for di (Terence in ai)erture between the 
two telescopes, there is still a wide margin in favor of the reflec tor 
for this kind of work. 

Tlie next photograph (PI. ii.) is known as M. 15, in the constel- 
lation Pegasus, in R. A. 21 h. 25 m., decl. N. 11 deg. 41 ni. The 
scale is 6 seconds of arc to i millimeter, and llu- field is 18 minutes 
of arc in diameter. The photograj)h was taken with the- twenty-inch 
reflector, on November 4, 1890, with an ex[josnre ot' two hours, and 
shows a fine example of a globular (luster, but the written descrij)- 
tions of it, from eye observations, do it scant justice, and thi-rc are 
no drawings available for comparison. The photograph shows the 
central part of the cluster to be involved in nebulosity, as is also 



the case with olher globular clusters. Surrounding the cluster ate 
curves and festoons of stars, whichisacharacicristicof theseobjccUv 
Eye observations do not reveal the exisleiice of the involved nebu- 
losily which, on the plaie, is sufficiently dense to obscure the slare, J 
though they are visible through the nebulosity on the negative. I 

The next photograph (PI. iii.) is of the cluster known as M. 13, 
in the constellation Hercules, and is in R. A. 16 h. 38 m., decl. N. 
36 deg. 39 m. The scale is 6 seconds of arc to i millimeter, and the 
field or circle is iS minutes of arc in diameter. The photograph 
was taken with the twenty -inch reflector and an exposure of one hour, 
on May aa, 1887, and delineates 01 if the finest globular clusters 
in the heavens, containing thousam-ls of stars densely paclteil 
together at the centre and with cur' near streams of stars radiatiDg 
from it. Lord Rosse detected three rk lanes or rifts in its interior, 
forming something like the letter V, which is distinctly shown i 
the photograph and more strikingly visible on the negative, 
drawing can possibly do justice to an 1 bject like this, which Is || 
trayed by photography in one hour. Moreover, it shows the cloi 
involved in nebulosity obscuring the stars at the centre, a fact 11 
observers had hitherto failed to perceive. 

The next photograph (PI. iv.) is known as Herschel VI., 
and No. 34, in Perseus, having R. A. a h. 1 1 nn., decl. N. $$4 
38 m. The scale is 24 seconds of arc to i millimeter, and the p 
tograph covers the sky area of 1 deg. 54 m. by i deg. 38 m. ' 
was taken with the twenty-inch reflector, on January 13, 1890, ' 
an exposure of three hours. These gorgeous clusters, in 
hand of Perseus, reveal one of the most brilliant objects in t 
heavens. To chart their component stars by eye observations ft 
measurements would be an exceedingly protracted task, and ev* 
then it would only be imperfectly done. The photograph gives I 
perfectly accurate picture of these thousands of Stars in amyBhoit 
time, the relative position and magnitude of each one being cw- 
rectly delineated, so as to form a reliable basis for future invcstiga- 
lion concerning their variability and relative movements.' 

Next {PI. V.) is a photograph of the ring nebula, M. 57 Lyne. 
It is in R. A. 18 h. 49 m., decl. N. 31 deg. 53 m. The scale is 4 
seconds of arc to i millimeter, and the diameter of the field is is 
minutes of arc. The photograph was taken July 27, 1891, with the 
twenty-inch reflector and an exposure of thirty minutes. The 
nebula is the best known and brightest of the class of aoBabv 



fn)BediD|ii imu H\% lit. 




C'LCBTBR M. 15, Peoasi. 



I Plate HI ilic^rU)- 



Pmctfliiiip lmc[, Pbllot. Sac. 




MiniiiiM' 



ttf >•'!' 



(Wis. ill' 





, FMe rl (KcAerU). 



Ptg«iln{i tier. PbilDS, Sac 



Vol UIll, h. Iti. J 




Sfiiul Nebula, 



Plate rn iRoberU). 



■yv- 



i 



101 

nebulae, and the photograph confirms in general outline the obser- 
vations of Herschel and Lord Rosse, but there is no indication of 
the filamentous projections shown on one of the drawings. On the 
other hand, the central star inside the ring is conspicuous on the 
photograph though not shown on the drawings. 

The next photograph (PI. vi.) is that of the crab nebula, M. i, 
in the constellation Taurus. This nebula is in R. A. 5 h. 28 m., 
decl. N. 21 deg. 57 m. The scale is 8 seconds of arc to i millime- 
ter, and the field is 24 minutes of arc in diameter. The photo- 
graph was taken with the twenty-inch reflector, on February 2, 1892, 
and an exposure of three hours. In Lord Rosse's drawing, which 
is familiar as a popular illustration, the nebula somewhat resembles 
a pineapple, with hair-like appendages ; but the photograph shows 
it to be irregular, oval in outline, with a deep indentation on the 
following side, and immediately opposite to this is a protuberance 
of faint nebulosity. The nebula, generally, is very bright and 
granular in structure, with patches of unequal density involved, and 
the outer margin is faint and ill-defined. 

Next is the photograph (PI. vii.) of the spiral nebula, M. 51 
Canum. This nebula is in R. A. 13 h. 25 m., decl. N. 47 deg. 45 
m. The scale is 8 seconds of arc to i millimeter, and the field is 
24 minutes of arc in diameter. It was taken with the twenty-inch 
reflector, April 28, 1889, with an exposure of four hours. This 
nebula is the most striking of the spiral form, and the published 
drawings of it by Lassell and Lord Rosse arc, perhaps, the best 
known and in outline arc in fair agreement with the i)hotographs. 
Both the drawings, however, fail to give an adequate idea of the 
real structure of this remarkable object, which is here correctly 
depicted for the first time. The stars and condensed patches of 
nebulosity follow closely all the whorls of the nebula, and are strik- 
ingly seen on the photograph, though only ini[)erfertly shown on 
the drawings. 

Next is the photograph (PI. viii.) of the nebuhe, M. 81, S2, and 
a nebulous star in Ursa Major, with centre in R. A. 9 h. 46 ni., 
decl. N. 69 deg. 39 m. The area of the sky includefl is alxjut i 
deg. 16 m. by i deg. 4 m. Tlie scale is 16 seconds of arc to i 
millimeter. The photograj)!! was taken with tlie twenty-inrh 
reflector, March 31, 1889, with an exposure of three hours and 
thirty minutes. The nebula south is M. 81, which is on this pho- 
tograph shown for the first time to be a sjnral with a dense nucleus. 




The ncbuU on the north is M. 8i, and appears as a bright ray, 
due to its being viewed edgewiae bom our position on the earth. 
A nebulous star ii also visible on the &outh, near the edge of tliR 
[^te. 

Next is the photogr^h (PI. ix.) of the dumb-bell nebula in Vul- 
- pecnla. It is in R. A. 19 b. 55 m., decl. N. 22 deg. 25 in. 
covers a sky area of i deg. s6 m. by i deg. 1 3 m. The scale is j 
seconds of arc to i millinieter. It was taken with the tweaty-l] 
reflector, on October 3, 1888, with an exposure of three hot 
The drawings of the nebuU by Hent^el and Lotd Rosse are fi 
iar as illtntratiotis in text-books, but when they are compaied-^ 
the photograph they fail to show the outlines and details whl 
reveals. The brighter part is not sbown in the shape of a ^ 
bell, strictly, but as a vast, globular mass, surrounded by A 1 
nebulous ring, which is seen as a projection at both sides J 
' encroaching on the' globular mass, ivhich is aJso broken op-fi 
flocculent patches. 

Next is the photograph (Fl. x.) of the nebula: io 
The sky area shown is i deg. 36 m. by i deg. 13 m., on aft 
18 seconds of arc to i millimeter. The photograph was taken % 
the twenty-inch reflector, December S, 1888, with ar 
four hours. The stars visible to the eye in the Pleiades are i 
number, and in 1859 Tempel discoverefi that the st.^r Afftvfie A 
involved in faint nebulosity. Some further traces of nebulousU 
in the group were suspected in a vague, indefinite way, by \ 
and other observers using large telescopes. In 1885, the 1 
obtained aphotograph which showed a trace of nebulosity 1 
three of the bright stars ; namely, thrff streamers across JlAv] 
and a little projection from Maia, also a hc>ru-like projection fi 
Electra. My first photograph — taken in December, 1886, '. 
three hours' exposure — proved the enistence of extensive \uA» 
patches and streamers scattered over the wliole group and probi 
forming parts of one vast nebula. The present photograph exblU 
these features as far as they are at present known. 

Next are two photographs (Pis. xi. and xii.) of the great 11 
in Orion. The sky area covered is i deg. 16 m. by 1 deg. 4 n 
a scaie of 16 seconds of arc to i niillimeier. I'l. xi. was taken « 
the twenty-inch reflector, December 34, 1888, with an exposure of 
eighty-one minutes. The other (Pi. xii.), with an exposure of three 
hours and twenty-live minutes, was taken on February 4, 1889, 



iip Im, PtllDi. Su. 




DtTUBBBI.L NeIK^LA M. 27. VULPBCQ 



lilt IX l"''""''")' 



103 

shows the structure and details of the central nebulosity with greater 
clearness than the first. The second shows vastly more extensive 
nebulosity than the first, but the central part is too dense on the 
negative to print on the paper enlargement. The stars and all 
details of the central nebulosity are, nevertheless, clearly visible on 
the negative. These two photographs, when correlated with each 
other, show the great nebula more completely and truly than it was 
previously known ; and, though many drawings have been made and 
ably discussed by Prof. Holden in his elaborate monograph on the 
Orion nebula, they only show how utterly untrustworthy eye obser- 
vations are. The first photograph of this object was obtained by 
Dr. Draper, in 1880, with an eleven-inch refractor, his best one 
being obtained in March, 1882, with an exposure of 137 minutes. 
The next advance was by Dr. Common, in 1883, with his three- 
foot reflector and an exposure of 37 minutes. This, in turn, has 
been much distanced by the present photograph, which shows an 
enormous extension of nebulosity and much delicate detail not 
before seen. 

On the photograph of the great nebula in Andromeda (PI. xiii.), 
the sky area covered is i deg. 54 m. by i deg. 38 m., on a scale of 
24 seconds of arc to i millimeter, and was taken with the twenty- 
inch reflector, December 29, 1888, with an exposure of four hours. 
The nebula is one of the largest in the heavens, and has been known 
ever since the invention of the telescope as a long, oval nebulosity, 
ill-defined at the margin. Bond, in 1847, ^^^^ Trouvelot, later, 
with the fifteen-inch Harvard refractor, detected two large, longi- 
tudinal rifts on one side of it. No advance was made beyond this 
until my photograph, taken on October 10, 1887, revealed its true 
form for the first time. The nebula is shown to be symmetrically 
oval and encompassed by elliptical rings, separated by dark divi- 
sions extending completely around it. There are a great many stars 
involved, apparently, in the nebula, which the pliotograj)h shows in 
their true relative positions, together with the structure and details 
of the nebulosity. 

In conclusion, I shall only be uttering a truism when I >ay tiiat 
we are yet only at the threshold of knowledge of the stellar universe, 
though the progress made during the past ten years encourages us 
to hope that ere the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Phil<jv)[>h- 
ical Society of Philadelphia shall be held much will be known con- 
cerning the movements of the solar system in space, the general drift 



104 

of the stars, the changes in star clusters and in nebulae, together 
with solutions more or less complete of many other questions that 
are now obscure to us. The material which we are now laboriously 
accumulating will then be available in reliable form to unravel the 
knowledge that is now beyond our grasp. 

May I ask you, Mr. President, to accept these photographs for the 
library of the American Philosophical Society, with the best wishes 
of the Royal Astronomical Society of England ; and, if you can 
make them available to those who are teaching the science among 
you, so that they may be able to make, say, lantern slides for lecture 
illustrations from them, they are entirely at your service, subject 
only to such restrictions as you and the Council may choose to 
exercise. 

President Fralev : I accept them on behalf of and with the 
thanks of the American Philosophical Society. 



Prof. George F. Barker next read to the Society a paper on 
" Electrical Progress since 1743." 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: — I take great pleasure in respond- 
ing to the invitation of the Committee of Arrangements to prepare 
for the Sesquicentennial Anniversary of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society a [)apcr upon the development of electrical science since 
1743, with es|)ecial reference to the part taken in this development 
by the members of this Society. 

Surrounded as we are to-day with the numberless applications 
whi( h have been made of electricity to the wants of man, it is not 
easy to 'to back one hundred and fiftv vears and to realize the 
actual condition of the science of electricity at that early date. It 
is true that (Gilbert had already shown, in his remarkable book, De 
Magncte, publi^licd in 1600,* that ^^ not only amber and agate 
attract small bodies, but diamond, sapphire, carbuncle, opal, ame- 
thyst, Bristol gem, beryl, crystal, glass, glass of antimony, sjvar of 
various kinds, sulphur, mastic and sealing wax** do so also. He 
had already invented the words, '* electricity *' and ** electrical," 
and had differentiated between electric and magnetic forces by 

* />'. yi-\[]ii>>i, M'uini tiiin'i'if Ciiiii'nifi'i.' ' ' 1^' Mii'tii'i iii'iitii' (1 t'ffnrf, Ix>ndini, AtiDO MD<^. 



105 

showing that the electric force attracts all light bodies while the 
magnetic force attracts iron only. If, now, to these observations 
of Gilbert we add those of Von Guericke, in 1672,* that electrical 
repulsion exists as well as attraction ; of Boyle, the same year^f that 
the attraction between the electrified body and the light body is 
mutual; and that of Newton, in iSj^^X, that the electric action 
will pass through glass, we have before us an epitome of electric 
science at the close of the seventeenth century. 

But the era of activity had begun. The light and sound of the 
electric spark were observed as early as 1708, by Wall,§ and their 
resemblance to lightning suggested. Hawksbee noticed, in 1709,11 
the light which is produced when mercury is shaken in a glass tube, 
and had improved on the electrical machine of Von Guericke by 
using a globe of glass in place of one of sulphur. Gray, in i729,^r 
discovered the property of conduction, and divided bodies into 
electrics per se and non-eUcirics or conductors. Dufay discovered, 
j^ '733> "that there are two kinds of electricity, very different 
from one another; one of which I call vitreous^ the other resinous, 
electricity. The characteristic of these two electricities is that 
they repel themselves and attract each other." ** 

This, then, constituted substantially the whole of the electrical 
knowledge.of the world when the American Philosophical Society 
was established. Franklin, himself, took up the subject a few years 
later. He tells us that, '* in 1746, being at Boston, I met there 
with a Dr. Spence, who was lately arrived from Scotland, and 
showed me some electrical experiments. They were imperfectly 
performed, as he was not very expert ; but, being on a subject quite 
new to me, they equally surprised and pleased me. Soon after my 
return to Philadelphia, our library company received from Mr. Peter 
Collinson, F.R.S., of London, a present of a glass tube, with some 
account of the use of it in making such experiments. I eagerly 
seized the opportunity of repeating what I had seen at Hoston, 
and, by much practice, acquired great readiness in performing 

* KrjifHmcnta Afagdrburtjica, Arapterdam, 1672, lib. iv, c. ir». 

^ Boylt'i Wi/rk^, Vol. iv. p. S52 (edition of 1772, published in I^nidon in .-ix v«»liiint'.t). 
I Philo^jphical TYansactioiu, 1676, Wiedemann, *' L^hrc von dcr KlcHrin'ht," Vol. i. 
p. i, 18W. 
I PhU. Tranf., v, 409, 1708. 
I Phymico-rMchanical Exiterimenti, 1709. 
' Phil. Tram., vii, 449, 1727. 
«* Mimoirea de C Academic dct Sciauxt, 1783, p. 457. 

FROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. N. PRINTED DEC. 14, 1898. 



106 

those alio which wt had an accoant of frdm'Knglandt aJding a 
namher of new ones. I say moch practice, tat my booK waa ooo- 
tinually full for some time with peraons who came to aee theae new 
wonders. To divide a little this incwnbranoe among my friendly 
I caused a number of similar tubes to be blown in oor glaaa hoosei 
with which they furaikhtd themselves^ so that we had, at length, 
several performers. Among these, the principal waa Mr. Kinpeidy, 
an ingenious neighbor, who, being out of bosinem, I enco ur aged to 
undertake showing the experiments for money, and drew op for 
him two lectures in which the experiments were ranged in soch 
order and accompanied with explanations in sncb method aa that 
the foregoing should assist in comprehending the following; He 
procured an elegant apparmtus for this purpose, in which all die 
little machines that I had roughly made ibr mysdf were ncady 
formed by instrument makers." * He continues: "Obliged aa we 
were to Mr. CoUinson for the present of the tube, etc., I thought 
it right he should be informed of our success in using it, and wroie 
him several letten containing accounts of our experiments, "f 

Franklin's first letter to CoUinson is dated July ii, 1747. In it 
he says : •* We rub our tubes with buckskin and observe alwmya to 
keep the same side to the tube and never to sully the tube bj^ hand- 
ling ; thus they work readily and easily, without the least fiuigne, 
especially if kept in tight pasteboard cases, lined with flannel and 
fitting close to the tube." In a footnote he adds, '' Our tubes are 
made here of green glass, 27 or 30 inches long, as big as can be 
grasped." 

* Memoirs of the Life and WrUinga (tf Benjamin Frankltnt LL.Dn P.BJS. Written hf 
himRclf to a late period and continued to the time of his death by hfi grtndicm, WUltaM 
Tumple Franklin. Third edition, in six volumes. London, 1818. Vol. 1, p. 2S7. 

t yew ExpeHmcntB and Observations on Electricity, made at Fhtladelphfa^ In AmcriCtt, 
by Benjamin Franklin, LL.D and F.R.8. London, 17G9. Franklin himadf Mfi of than 
letters: "Mr. CoUinson gave them to Cave for publication in hib GeHttemnCi Magmimt: 
but he chose to print them i^cparately in a pamphlet and Dr. FotheiYtU wrote the Pioflras^'* 
In this Preface I>r. FothergiU says : ** The experiments which oor aotbor lelatet anaiQiS 
of them pectiliar to himself ; ttiey are conducted with Judgment and the InSncnOM IhMi 
them plain and conclusive ; though sometimes proposed under the tennt of Miiipo^lloiii 
and conjectures 

" He exhibits to our consideration an Invisible, subtle matter, dimemfnated tluoagh «n 
nature In various proportions equally unobsert-ed, and, whilst all tboee hodlee to whieh It 
peculiarly adheres are alike charged with It, inoffensive. 

" Ue i^hows, however, that If hu unequal distribution is by any mctni bfooglit Sboot; 
If there Is a coacervatlon in one part of space, a less proportion, Yactllty or WWlf ta 
uuother ; by the near approach of a body capable of conducting the COtOVrfttsd part to 
the emptier space. It l>ecomes, perhaps, the most formidable and Irreditllrte afMift InlhS 
univene. Animals are in an Instant struck breathless, bodies almoit ImpenrkNH bj mf 
force yet known are perforated, and metals fused by It in a moment" 



107 

The precise form of the electrical machine used by Frankh'n ap- 
pears to be a matter of some doubt. Parts of several machines are 
known, all reputed to have belonged to Franklin. Three or four 
quite similar frames are in existence, all provided with multiplying 
wheels for giving rotation to the electric used, which was mounted 
upon an axis placed above the wheel. One of these frames is in 
possession of the Franklin Institute, another is owned by the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and a third is in the physical cabinet of 
the College of New Jersey, at Princeton. In only ihe first of these, 
however, is the electrical portion preserved. The electric is a glass 
globe, having a leather cushion for its rubber and provided with a 
curved rod for the collector. Moreover, these frames or stands all 
resemble very closely that which is described and figured as '* the 
cylindrical machine as constructed by Franklin," in Snow Harris* 
J^'rictional Electricity,'^ But, as shown, this latter machine is pro- 
vided with a cylinder as the electric, and not a globe. Again, in 
January, 1879, Miss Mary D. Fox presented to the University of 
Pennsylvania several pieces of electrical apparatus, said to have be- 
longed to Franklin, and to have been deposited at the house of her 
father, George Fox, at Champlost, to whom ihey were bequeathed 
by William Temple Franklin, the grandson of Benjamin Franklin, 
together with many of his valuable papers, now in possession of the 
American Philosophical Society. f One of these pieces of apparatus 
I have the pleasure of exhibiting. It is evidently the collector (or 
prime conductor, as it was formerly called) of an electrical ma- 
chine ; and, as is evident from its construction, could have been 
used only with a machine provided with a plate electric. 

In the earliest electrical machine, made in 1672 by Von Guer- 
icke, the electric consisted of a globe of sulphur, mounted on a 
horizontal axis and rubbed with the hand. In 1709, Hawksbee 
replaced the sulphur globe by one of glass. Franklin, in his first 
letter to Collinson, thus speaks of his electrical machine: ''Our 
spheres are fixed on iron axes which pass through them. At one 
end of the axis there is a small handle witii wliich you turn the 
sphere like a common grindstone. This we find very coniniodious, 
as the machine takes up but little room, is portable and may be en- 

» A TrralU': on Frlctional Etedricity in Theory and Pradict, by Sir William Snow Harris. 
F.R.S., London, 1867, p. 104. 

t See Proceedings Amer. Philos. Soc., i, 253, July 17. 18:0. " The Franklin pai>ers were 
bequeathed by will to George Fox, father of C. P. Fox, by Temple Franklin, grand.son of 
Benjamin Franklin." 



108 

closed in a tight box when not in use. 'Tis true the sphere does 
not turn so swift as when the great wheel is used ; but swiftness we 
think of little importance, since a few turns will charge the vial 
sufficiently.*' He adds, in a footnote: "This simple and easily 
made machine was a contrivance of Mr. Syng's." 

The addition of a metallic collector to the globe machine was 
made by Boze in 1742,^ and the use of a leather cushion as the 
rubber was introduced by Winkler in i744.t And, although 
Hawksbee had used a cylindrical electric, yet it did not come into 
use apparently until Wilson again made use of it in 1752.^ ^^ ^^ 
not until 1756 that De la Fond§ made a machine having a plate 
electric; in which he was closely followed by Ingenhaus (i764),|| 
Cuthbertson (1770),^ and Le Roy (1772).** The addition of a 
multiplying wheel is generally attributed to Nollet, in i746.tt 

In this connection, it is interesting to note that, with the elec- 
trical apparatus given to the University by Miss Fox, there was a 
set of copper- plate impressions of certain experiments in heat and 
electricity. As these engravings could not be identified with any 
of the researches made by Franklin, it was for some time doubtful 
what their origin was and what their connection with Franklin 
himself. Finally, several years later, in looking over the very com- 
plete antiquarian scientific library of Prof. H. Carrington Bolton, 
of New York, the writer observed that facsimiles of these plates 
served as the illustrations of a book entitled, ^^ Recherches Physiques 
sur le Feu. Par M. Marat, Docteur en Medecine et Medecin des 
Gardes du Corps de Monseigneur le Comte d'Artois. A Paris, Rue 
Dauphine, MDCCLXXX, pp. 204 avec VI planches." Thus estab- 
lishing the fact of scientific intercourse between Franklin and 
Marat, afterwards one of the chief actors in the French Revolu- 
tion. •;+ 

* />/' EhiHririli'H narh ilinr Ei\t<hrknn<j urui Forrjami, etc., Wittenberg, 1714. 

\ (h >iink' II fin lit n Ki'jnisrfni/tt.n .... Hfbxl B« schnibung zwcycr iicuen dcctriichcn 
Muf^i'f.ii.f II. \a ip/ii,', 1741. 

\ A Ti'-iti^' on Ehiiririfi/, London, M')'!. 

( I'lirlf ih" I'/if'noini Hi H IJi itriijin c, 17')'), "Jd (•(!., p. 47. 

- /'/(//. Ti-'uin., xiv, :>'.»s, 177'.'. 

•" Harri*-' Fiirtinnnf Eh i triri'i/, J), r,^. 

»* ytiiiiiiin A lit f Ai'diit mi' , rrcinii^'to I'artie, p \W, 1772. 

tl^ I.frniis ilr I'/ii/sii/in , Paris, 17t)7. 

;tlii !i 111- iijoniiiduiii ii»a<l«' »it Tas'-y, Pt'OcinlMT l.T, 177H. Franklin says: "Received a 
pjir<'i 1 triiii Mil inikn<»\vii ]»liilo>oplMr frtfttTward.s di«-('(»vi'n'<l t«^ l.)C .Vara/, of Mibsicnuent 
n<ii<-ii-'U>- iii'-iiioiy], whc sn!>iiiit< to my conoid" uition a memoir on tiie subject of clrmrn- 
fnri/ tir>, < .,iiiaiiiiiii; «'X|K'rimiiit> in a dark cliamlM-r. It .m.hmiis to be well written. And is 
m iJiLilisli. uiih u littif tinctiin; of French idiom. I wish to fceo the experiments. 
uilLwiil uliicli I cannot w«.'ll jiidm- of it " {Mrmoint, Vol. ii, p. DO). 



100 

It appcaiB, Chen, that in acarcely more than a year Franklin had 
mastered the theory and practice of electrical science and had be- 
come an investigator. In his letter to Collinson of July 1I9 1747* 
he describes an experiment showing ''the wonderful effect of 
pointed bodies both in dramitg off and in ihromng off the electri- 
cal fire." Moreoter, it is in this first scientific letter that he pro- 
pounds his theory of electricity. '' We say B (and bodies like 
circumstanced) is electrified potiHvely; A, negatively. Or, rather, 
B is electrified //hi ; A, mimu. And we daily, in our experiments, 
electrise bodies fhts or wumms^ as we think proper. To electrise 
phts or mmtSf no more needs to be known than this, that the parts 
of the tube or sphere that are rubbed do, in the instant of the fric- 
tion, attract the electrical fire and therefore take it from the thing 
nibbing ; the same parts, immediately as the friction upon them 
ceases, are disposed to give the fire they have received to any body 
that has leas." 

In 1745, Kleist,* and, in 1746, Cuneus,t had observed the phe- 
nomena of electrical condensation, and Muschenbroek had con- 
structed the Leyden jar. The experiments of Franklin, made in 
1747, showed that '* at the same time that the wire and top (inside) 
of the bottle is electrified /^Ji/rW^ or //«/, the bottom of the bottle 
(outside) is electrified negatively or minus in exact proportion ; /. /., 
whatever quantity of electrical fire is thrown in at top, an equal 
quantity goes out of the bottom." ''None can be thrown into 
the top when none can get out at the bottom/' .... "Again, 
when the bottle is electrified, but little of the electrical fire can be 
drawn out 9X the top by touching the wire unless an equal quantity 
can at the same Ximtgetin at the bottom.'' By these and similar 
experiments he completely analyzed the phenomena in question. 
He continues : ** So wonderfully are these two states of electricity, 
ih^pius and minus, combined and balanced in this miraculous bot- 
tle, situated and related to each other in a manner that I can by no 
means comprehend I If it were possible that a bottle should in 
one part contain a quantity of air strongly comprest, and in another 
part a i)erfect vacuum, we know that the equilibrium would be in- 
stantly restored within. But here we have a bottle containing at 
the same time a, plenum of electrical fire and a vacuum of the same 
fire ; and yet the equilibrium cannot be restored between them but 

« Venurhe u, Abh. d. Wattuf. Ge$eUieh., Danzig, 1745, Vol. 11, p. 40S. 
fMimoiraderActtdemUdetSeUneet, 1746, i>. 2. 



110 

by a communication without ; though the plenum presses violently 
to expand and the hungry vacuum seems to attract as violently in 
order to be filled." 

Again, Franklin was the first to prove that the phenomena of 
condensation have their seat in the dielectric and not in the metaU 
lie coatings. " The whole force of the bottle and power of giving 
a shock," he says, "is in the glass itself; the non-electrics, in 
contact with the two surfaces, serving only to give and receive to 
and from the several parts of the glass ; that is, to give to one side 
and take away from the other." This opinion he supports by 
striking and conclusive experiments. '< It is amazing," he con- 
tinues, " to observe in how small a portion of glass a great electri- 
cal force may lie. A thin glass bubble, about an inch diameter, 
weighing only six grains, being half filled with water, partly gilt 
on the outside and furnished with a wire hook, gives, when electri- 
fied, as great a shock as a man can well bear. As the glass is thick- 
est near the orifice, I suppose the lower half — which, being gilt, 
was electrified and gave the shock— did not exceed two grains; for 
it appeared, when broke, much thinner than the upper half." .... 
''Allowing that there is no more electrical fire in a bottle after 
charging than before, how great must be the quantity in this small 
portion of glass ! It seems as if it were of its very substance and 
essence. Perhaps if that due quantity of electrical fire, so obsti- 
nately retained by glass, could l>e separated from it, it would no 
longer be glass ; it might lose its transparency, or its brittleness, or 
its elasticity. Kxperimenis may possibly be invented hereafter to 
discover this." Can we state to-day, in any clearer language, the 
electrical coiiditi».'n in the Leyden jar? 

At the close of this -.nvestiiiation, he writes as follows: **Cha- 
grincd a little that wo have been hitherto able to produce nothing in 
this way of i:>e to :va:.k'.::J. ; and the ho: weather coming on, when 
elecirica'. cxivri-.rinr.s .»:o I'lot <o .-greeab'.e, it is proposed to put an 
end to thorn to: :".:> sLas.^p. Svir.ewhat humorously in a party of 
pleasiiio o*/. the l\i:.ks c" ^\^.;».^^, Spirits, at the same lime, are 
to l^e t::c\: b\ a stwrk s<"t t:o:v. >:de to side ihrouch the river, with- 
out ar.\ othor cor.v:,:^ t. : iIm:: t -e water: an exj'^eriment which we 
sotv.e t::r.e s:"co : e::>::vod to t".o .i:v.-ronun: of many. A turkey 
IS TO l>e ki. od to: c.:- J. ".o: In :".:' .->.•.••-; .-.;/ y^.vc and roasted bv 
tho .'.v.- .-•...;. '.;. c ':<:.;' .; ft: v :..:'.;. d Iv the electriiied bottle; 
w he :*4 : h. e h c* a '. : h s c : .i . . : h c : a v. ; .. s ; " c c t : : c . an s in Ef^ia » </, Holland^ 



Ill 

J^ramcg and Gtrmmmj^ are to be drank in tlectr^ed bumpers under 
the dischaige of guns from the tUdfUal haUtry.^^ 

It was in 1749 that Franklin came to the conclusion that light- 
ning and the electrical fire are identical. ''To determine the 
qoestion/' he sajrs,* "whether the clouds that contain lightning 
are electrified or not, I would propose an experiment to be try'd 
where it may be done conveniently. On the top of some high 
tower or steeple place a kind of centry box big enough to contain 
a man and an electrical stand. From the middle of the stand let 
an iron rod rise and pa«, bending, out of the door and then up* 
right twenty or thirty feet, pointed very sharp at the end. If the 
electrical stand be kept clean and dry, a man, standing on it when 
such clouds are passing low, might be electrified and afford sparks, 
the rod drawing fire to him from a cloud. If any danger to the 
man should be apprehended (though I think there would be none), 
let him stand on the floor of his box and now and then bring near 
to the rod the loop of a wire that has one end fastened to the leads, 
be holding it by a wax handle ; so the sparks, if the rod is electri- 
fied, will strike from the rod to the wire and not affect him." 

On the loth of May, 1 752, M. D'Alibard, the translator of Frank- 
lin's letters to Collinson, placed in a garden at Marly, near Paris, a 
pointed bar of iron, forty feet high, supported upon an electrical 
base. At twenty minutes past two in the afternoon, a storm cloud 
passed over the rod, and the observers drew sparks from it and ob- 
tained with it all the common electrical phenomena. f 

Shortly after, M. DeLor, who had repeated many of Franklin's 
experiments before the king, Luuis XV, raised at his house, in 
Paris, a bar of iron ninety-nine feet high, placed upon a cake of resin 
two feet square and three inches thick. On the i8th of May be- 
tween four and five in the afternoon, a storm cloud passed over the 
bar, and M. DeLor drew sparks from the bar which produced the 
same noise, the same fire, and the same crackling ; the longest of 
these sparks being nine lines. 

On July 20, Canton erected upon his house in London, a tin 
tube between three and four feet in length, fixed to the top of a 
glass one of about eighteen inches. To the upper end of the tin 
tube, which was not so high as a stack of chimnies on the same 

* ften Ob^ervatfom and Eeperimenta on BfectHcUy, p. 66 

tSee the letter of the Abbe Maceas, Nitv Experinuntt and Ob§ervatUm$ on Etedricity, 
p. 107. 



112 

house, he fastened three needles with some wire; a tin cover being 
soldered to the lower end to keep the rain from the glass tube, 
which was set upright in a block of wood. No electrification ap- 
peared upon this apparatus during the storm until after the third 
thunder-clap. Then, on applying his knuckle to the edge of the 
cover, Canton felt and heard an electrical spark, the length of 
which was about half an inch ; the experiment being repeated four 
or five times in the space of a minute. 

On August 12, Mr. Wilson, of Chelmsford, in Essex, during a 
thunder-storm, about noon, observed several electrical snaps from 
an iron curtain rod, one end of which he had put into the neck of 
a glass phial held in the hand, and to the other end of which he 
had fastened three needles. The sparks were taken from the rod to 
the finger of one hand, the other hand supporting the rod. 

In communicating these experiments of Canton and Wilson to 
the Royal Society,* Watson says : ** After the communications which 
we have received from several of our correspondents in different 
parts of the continent, acquainting us with the success of their ex- 
periments last summer in endeavoring to extract the electricity from 
the atmosphere during a thunder-storm, in consequence of Mr. 
Franklin's hypothesis, it may be thought extraordinary that no 
accounts have been yet laid before you of our success here from the 
same experiments.*' And he then proceeds to state that, ** though 
several members of the Royal Society, as well as myself, did, upon 
the first advices from France, prepare and set up the necessary ap- 
paratus for this purpose," they were defeated in their expectations 
because of the uncommon coolness and dampness of the air in 
London ; only one thunder-storm, that of July 20, having occurred 
during the season. 

The celebrated kite experiment was made during the summer of 
1752, in Philadelphia. Dr. Franklin, himself, thus describes it: 
*' Make a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms so long 
as to rea( h to the four corners of a large, thin silk handkerchief 
when extended ; tie the corners of the handkerchief to the extremi- 
ties of the cross, so you have the body of the kite ; which, being 
properly ar( ommodated with a tail, loop and string, will rise in 
the air like those made of paper; but this, being of silk, is fitter 
t(; bear the wet and wind of a thunder gust without tearing. To 

* run. Tiani*., xlvii. 17.V2. Sec ul.vo Xdc ExparimaUs and ObtniHitione on Electricity^ 



113 

the top of the upright stick of the cross is to be fixed a very sharp- 
pointed wire, rising a foot or more above the wood. To the end 
of the twine, next the hand, is to be tied a silk ribbon, and where 
the silk and twine join a key may be fastened. This kite is to be 
raised when a thunder gust appears to be coming on, and the per- 
son who holds the string must stand within a door or window, or 
under some cover^ so that the silk ribbon may not be wet ; and 
care must be taken that the twine does not touch the frame of the 
door or window. As soon as any of the thunder clouds come over 
the kite, the pointed wire will draw the electric fire from them, and 
the kite, with all the twine, will be electrified, and the loose fila- 
ments of the twine will stand out every way and be attracted by an 
approaching finger. And when the rain has wet the kite and twine 
so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it stream 
out plentifully from the key on the approach of your knuckle. At 
this key the phial may be charged ; and, from electric fire thus 
obtained, spirits may be kindled and all the other electric experi- 
ments be performed which are usually done by the help of a rubbed 
glass globe or tube, and thereby the sameness of the electric matter 
with that of lightening completely demonstrated.** * 

'* In September, 1752, I erected an iron rod to draw the light- 
ening down into my house,** Franklin writes to Collinson, a year 
later, ** in order to make some experiments on it with two bells, to 
give notice when the rod should be electrify'd, a contrivance ob- 
vious to every electrician. Ifound the bells rang sometimes when 
there was no lightning or thunder, but only a dark cloud over the 
rod ; that sometimes, after a flash of lightning, they would sud- 
denly stop, and at other times, when they had not rang before, 
they would, after a flash, suddenly begin to ring; that the elec- 
tricity was sometimes very faint, so that when a small spark was 
obtain'd another could not be got for some time after; at other 
times the sparks would follow extremely quick ; and once I had a 
continual stream from bell to bell the size of a crow (juill. Even 
during the same gust there were considerable variations." The fol- 
lowing winter he charged two phials, one with lightning from the 
iron rod, the other, equally, by the electric glass globe, and sus- 
pended a cork ball between the wires issuing from the top. He 
observed the cork ball play briskly between them, proving the 

*Xew Ezpcriments and Obxrvationt on Electricity, p. 111. Inciter of date October ll>, 17o2 
PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 800. XXXII. 143 O. PRi:?TED DEC. 18, 1803. 



114 

charge from the clouds to be negative. Subsequent experiments 
showed that while in general the charge from the clouds is 
negative, it is sometimes positive. 

In 1 749, Franklin applied his knowledge of the power of points 
to the practical protection of buildings. He says : " If those things 
are so [/. e., 'if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the 
same '] may not the knowledge of this power of points be of use 
to mankind in preserving houses, churches, ships, etc., from the 
stroke of lightning by directing us to fix on the highest points of 
those edifices upright rods of iron, made sharp as a needle, and 
gilt to prevent rusting, and from the foot of those rods a wire 
down the outside of the building into the ground, or down round 
one of the shrouds of a ship and down her side till it reaches the 
water? Would not these pointed rods probably draw the electrical 
fire silently out of a cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, 
and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible 
mischief?*' 

In 1753, Franklin formally recommended that pointed rods be 
placed on buildings to prevent their being struck by lightning. 
But the suggestion does not seem to have come very rapidly into 
favor, since in a subsequent letter to Kinnersley, written from 
London, in 1762, Franklin says: "You seem to think highly 
of the importance of this discovery, as do many others on our 
side of the water. Here it is very little regarded ; so little that 
though it is now seven or eight years since it was made public, I have 
not heard of a single house as yet attempted to be secured by it.*** 
In 1777, at a meeting of the Royal Society Wilson protested 
against the pointed conductors of Franklin, and endeavored to 
prove the superior advantages of knobs to points, and the greater 
safety to be derived from blunt as compared with sharp lightning 
conductors. His experiments attracted considerable attention and 
evoked sharp discussion ; and during this discussion *' the pointed 
lightning conductors were taken down from the queen's palace.** f 
They were never replaced, notwithstanding the condemnation of the 
pretended improvement by the Royal Society in their reports in favor 
of pointed conductors, and their being consequently generally em- 
ployed for the protection of the powder magazines throughout the 
( ountry. On being urged to reply to Wilson's assertions, Franklin 

• -V<-'rr Kxperiments and O'jS'.rcationtt on KUctricitU, \k 416. 
\ Mnnniis, Vol. ii. p. 7U, 



115 

replied : '' I have never entered into any controversy in defense of 
nny philosophical opinions. I leave them to take their chance in the 
world. If they are right, truth and experience will support them ; 
if wrong, they ought to be refuted and rejected. Disputes are apt 
to sour one's temper, and disturb one's quiet. I have no private 
interest in the reception of my inventions by the world, having 
never made, nor propose to make, the least profit by any of them. 
The king's changing his pointed conductors for blunt ones is, 
therefore, a matter of small importance to me. If I had a wish 
about it, it would be that he had rejected them altogether as inef- 
fectual. For it is only since he thought himself and family safe 
from the thunder of heaven that he dared to use his own thunder in 
destroying his innocent subjects.'** 

These scientific and political conditions acting together, gave 
rise to the well-known and pointed epigram : 

«« While you, Great George, for safety hunt. 
And shaqp conductors change for blunt. 

The empire's out of joint. 
Franklin a wiser course pursues, 
And all your thunder fearless views 

By keeping to the point, '^^ 

It was in recognition of the importance and value of Franklin's 
electrical investigations that the Royal Society not only elected 
him a member of that learned body, but also awarded to him the 
Copley gold medal, f 

Of similar interest are Franklin's experiments on the physiologi- 

•jrmo/r#. Vol.ii, p 81. 

t Franklin's own account of the action of the Royul Society is iis follows: "Dr. 
Wright, an English physician, when at Paris, wrote to u friend who was of the Koyal 
Society an account of the high esteem my experiments were In among tlu; learned 
abroad, and of their wonder that my writings had been so little noticed in Kn^dnnd. 
The Society on this resumed the consideration (»f ttie letters that had been read to them ; 
and the celebrate<i Dr. Watson drew np a summary account of them and of all I liad 
afterwards sent to England on the subject ; wliich he aceomimnied witti some praiH<.> 
of the writer. This summary was then printe<l in their Tran.'-actioiiH ; and sonn- 
members of the Society in l/ondon, partictilarly tlie very inKJiiious Mr. Canton, having 
verified the experiment of procuring lightidng from the <'l(Mids by a ix>inted io<l, and 
acquainte<l them with the syecens. they soon made me mort' than ani( nds for the slight 
with which tlioy had l)efore treated me. Without my luiving made any application lV>r 
that honor, they chose me a memlK*r, and voted that I should 1k» excused tlu- customnry 
payments, which would have amounted to twenty-live guineas; and ever since have 
given me their Tran.«'aetion8 gratis. They also presented me with tlic gold medal of Sir 
Godfrey Copley for the year 17r»3, the delivery of which wns accomimnied by a very 
haudaome speech of the President, Ix>rd Maccleslield, wherein 1 was highly honored" 
(Memoir$, Vol. i, p. 241). 



IIG 

cal action of the electric discharge. In a letter to the Royal 
Society he gives an account of these experiments.* ** He made 
first several experiments on fowls, and found that two large, thin 
glass jars gilt, holding each about six gallons, were sufficient, 
when fully charged, to kill common hens outright ; but the turkeys, 
though thrown into violent convulsions, and then lying as dead for 
some minutes, would recover in less than a quarter of an hour. 
However, having added three other such to the former two, though 
not fully charged, he killed a turkey of about ten pounds weight, 
and believes that they would have killed a much larger. He con- 
ceited, as himself says, that the birds killed in this manner eat un- 
commonly tender." ** In making these experiments he found that 
a man could, without great detriment, bear a much greater shock 
than he had imagined ; for he inadvertently received the stroke of 
two of these jars through his arms and body, when they were very 
nearly fully charged. It seemed to him an universal blow 
throughout the body from head to foot, and was followed by a vio- 
lent, quick trembling in the trunk, which went off gradually in a 
few seconds. It was some minutes before he could recollect his 
thoughts, so as to know what was the matter; for he did not see 
the flash, though his eye was on the spot of the prime conductor 
from whence it struck the back of his hand ; nor did he hear 
the crack, though the bystanders said it was a loud one ; nor 
did he particularly feel the stroke on his hand, though he afterward 
found it had raised a swelling there of the bigness of half a pistol 
bullet. His arms and the back of the neck felt somewhat numbed 
the remainder of the evening, and his breast was sore for a week 
after, as if it had been bruised. From this experiment may be 
seen the danger, even under the greatest caution, to the operator, 
when making these experiments with large jars, for it is not to be 
doubted but several of these fully charged would as certainly, by 
increasing them in proportion to the size, kill a man as they before 
did a turkey." 

With reference to the practical application of these experiments, 
Franklin subsequently wrote the following letter to MM. Dubourg 
and D'Alibard : f ** My answer to your questions concerning the 
mode of rendering meat tender by electricity, can only be founded 
upon conjecture ; for I have not experiments enough to warrant the 

♦ Xt u' K.rp*Timait8 and Obscrvaliojie. p. Zy'3. 
i Memoirs, Vol. vi, p. 22^. 



117 

facts. All that I can say [at present is that I think electricity 
might be employed for this purpose ; and I shall state what follows 
as the observations or reasons which make me presume so. It has 
been observed that lightning by rarefying and reducing into vapor 
the moisture contained in solid wood, in an oak for instance, has 
forcibly separated its fibres and broken it into small splinters ; that 
by penetrating completely the hardest metals, as iron, it has sepa- 
rated the parts in an instant so as to convert a perfect solid into a 
state of fluidity; it is not then improbable that the same subtile 
matter passing through the bodies of animals with rapidity should 
possess sufficient force to produce an effect nearly similar. 

" The flesh of animals killed in the usual manner is firm, hard, 
and not in a very eatable state because the particles adhere too 
forcibly to each other. At a certain period the cohesion is 
weakened, and in its progress towards putrefaction, which tends to 
produce a total separation, the flesh becomes what we call tender, 
or is in that state most proper to be used as our food. 

" It has frequently been remarked that animals killed by lightning 
putrefy immediately. This cannot be invariably the case, since 
a quantity of lightning sufficient to kill may not be sufficient to tear 
and divide the fibres and particles of fiesh, and reduce them to that 
tender state which is the prelude to putrefaction. Hence it is that 
some animals killed in this manner will keep longer than others. 
But the putrefaction sometimes proceeds with surprising celerity. 
A respectable person assured me that he once knew a remarkable 
instance of this. A whole flock of sheep in Scotland being closely 
assembled under a tree, were killed by a flash of lightning ; and it 
being rather late in the evening, the proprietor, desirous of saving 
something, sent persons early the next morning to flay them ; but 
the putrefaction was such and the stench so abominable that they 
had not the courage to execute their orders, and the bodies were 
accordingly buried in their skins. It is not unreasonable to pre- 
sume that between the i>eriod of their death and ihat of their 
putrefaction a time intervened in'which the flesh might be only 
tender, and only sufficiently so to be served at table. Add to this 
that persons who have eaten of fowls killed by our feeble imitation 
of lightning (electricity) and dressed immediately, have asserted 
that the flesh was remarkably tender 

"As this kind of death is nevertheless more sudden and conse- 
quently less severe than any other, if this should operate as 



4 




tli compassionate persons to employ it for anin 
J their use, tlicy may conduct the process thus : 

"Having prepared a ballery of six large glass jars (each fronr* 
:weniy to twenty-four pints) as for the Leyden ex])erimen[, and 
having esia' ished a communication as usual from Ihe interior sur- 
face of e. with the prime conductor ; and having given them a 
a full chf ^which, with a good machine, may be executed in a 
few miniKc-- and may be estimated by an electrometer), a chain 
which coiT inicatea with the exterior of the jars must be wrapped 
round the ehs of the fowl ; after which the operator, holding it 
by the wing: ned back and made to touch behind, must raise it 
so high thai the head may receive the first shock from the prime 
conductor. The animal dies instantly. Let the head be immedi- 
ately cut off to make it bleed, when it may be plucked and dressed 
immediately. This quantity of electricity is sup|>osed sufficient for 
a turkey of ten pounds weight, and perhaps for a lamb. Experi- 
ence alone wilt inform us of the requisite proportions for animals of 
different forms and ages. Probably not less will be required to ren- 
der a small bird which is very old tender than for a larger one which 
is young. It is easy to furnish the requisite quantity of electricity by 
employing a greater or less number of jars. As six jars, however, 
discharged at once are capable of giving a very violent shock, the 
operator must be very circumsiieci lest he should happen to make 
the experiment on his own ftesh iostead of that of the fowl." 

Franklin's experiments upon the effect of the electric dischaigc 
upon the human subject he thus describes in « letter to a Mend in 
Charleston, S. C, written in 1755:* "The knocking down of the 
six men was performed with two of my large jars not fully chs^ed. 
I laid one end of my discharging rod upon the head of the fint; 
he laid his hand on the head of Ihe second ; the second hii hmnd 
on the head of the third ; and so to the last, who held in his hawl 
the chain that was connected with the outside of the jars. WhcB 
they were thus placed, I applied the other end of my rod to the 
prime conductor and ihey all dropt together. When they got up 
they all declared they had not felt any stroke, and wondered how Ibejr 
came to fall ; nor did any of them either hear the crack or see Uk 
light of it. You suppose it is a dangerous experiment; bat I had 
once suffered the same myself, receiving by accident an equal Mroke 



119 

through my head that struck me down without hurting me. And I 
had seen a young woman that was about to be electrified through 
the feet (for some indisposition) receive a greater charge through 
the head by inadvertently stooping forward to look at the placing 
of her feet, till her forehead (as she was very tall) came too near 
my prime conductor : She dropt^ but instantly got up again com- 
plaining of nothing. A person so struck sinks down doubled or 
folded together as it were, the joints losing their strength and stiff- 
ness at once, so that he drops on the spot where he stood, instantly, 
and there is no previous staggering, nor does he ever fall length- 
wise. Too great a charge might indeed kill a man, but I have not 
yet seen any hurt done by it. It would certainly, as you observe, 
be the easiest of all deaths." 

If the condition of electrostatic science when the American Phil- 
osophical Society was founded was as primitive as we have above 
pointed out, that of the other departments of electricity was far 
more so. Galvani had not observed the twitching of the frog*s 
legs as, suspended by a copper wire, they swung to and fro against 
the iron railing of his laboratory balcony. Volta had not made 
bis important discovery that the contact of two metals developed 
electrification ; and hence had not at this time constructed his cele- 
brated pile. True, metals had been fused by the discharge of the 
electric battery, needles had been magnetized by it, and animals 
had been shocked and even killed by it, as in the experiments made 
by Franklin and others soon after 1743. But now various other 
modes of electrification were to be discovered and coordinated and 
the identity of the result, by whatsoever means obtained, was to be 
experimentally established. 

Among the members of this Society whose names appear promi- 
nent as investigators in these new fields we should mention Robert 
Hare, Joseph Henry, Joseph Saxton, David Rittenhouse and Alex- 
ander Dallas Bache. 

Robert Hare was elected a member of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society in 1803. In 1821 he ])ublished an important paper 
** On Some New Modifications of Galvanic Apparatus." * In this 
paper he states that he had observed that, while the maximum effect 
of a single galvanic pair was reached as soon as the plates were 
immersed in the liquid, a series of troughs which had to be succes- 

*Amer. Jour. Science and Arts, lii, 105, 1821. 



120 

sively immersed never reached their maxima together, the effect of 
the earlier ones being lost before that of the later ones came on. 
In order to remedy this difficulty, he prepared eighty concentric 
coils of copper and zinc plates and attached them to a system of 
levers so that they could be simultaneously immersed. The zinc 
sheets were nine inches by six in size, and the copper sheets four- 
teen inches by six, a quarter of an inch interval being left between 
them. Each pair, as rolled up, was two and a half inches in diam- 
eter, and eighty glass jars were arranged to receive the eighty coils 
of plates when they were lowered. A piece of charcoal a quarter 
of an inch thick and one and a half inches long was inserted be- 
tween the ends of the lead pipes which served as conductors. On 
lowering the plates '^ no vestige of the charcoal could be seen. It 
was ignited so intensely that those portions of the pipes by which 
it had been embraced were destroyed.** 

He then had a trough constructed having a partition through the 
middle. In this trough he placed the eighty coils, forty of them 
being on each side of the partition. Although, when in action, 
this battery produced only a moderate sensation, and did not ignite 
charcoal as easily, a most intense ignition took place whenever a 
metallic point on one pole was brought in contact with a piece of 
charcoal on the other. And when a cylinder of platinum, nearly 
a quarter of an inch in diameter and tapering a little at the end, 
was placed in the circuit, it was at once fused and burned so as to 
sparkle to a considerable distance around and to fall in drops. 
When the two troughs were separated by an interval of four inches, 
so as to improve the insulation, charcoal was so vividly ignited that 
the eyes of the experimenter were affected for forty-eight hours, the 
charcoal assuming a pasty consistence. 

In accordance with the theory which he had propounded in 1818,* 
Dr. Hare explained these differences in effect by the hypothesis 
tiiat the fluid extricated by Volta's pile is a compound of caloric 
and electricity. According to this theory, **the galvanic fluid," 
he says, **owes its proi)erties to caloric and electricity, the former 
predominating in j)ro|)ortion to the size of the pairs, the latter in 
|)r()i)orli()n to the number, being in both cases excited by a power- 
ful a( id. Hence in batteries which combine both qualifications 
suffi( ienily, as in all those intervening between Children's large 

* Anur. Juar. Scktirt and Arts, i, 413, 1S18. 



121 

pun of two feet eight incbet by six feet and the two thousand 
foar-inch pairs of the Royal Institution, the phenomena indicate 
the presence of both fluids. In De Luc's column, where the sise of 
the plates is in«gnificant and the energy of interposed agents feeble, 
we see electricity evolved without any appreciable quantity of caU 
one. In the calorimotor, where we have siie only, the number 
being the lowest possible, we are scarcely able to detect the presence 
of electricity. When the fluid contains enough electricity to give 
a projectile power adequate to pass through a small space in the air, 
or through charcoal, which impedes or arrests the caloric and favors 
its propensity to radiate this principle, heat is evolved. This ac* 
counts for the evolution of intense heat under those circumstances 
which rarefy the air, so that the length of the jet from one pole to 
the other may be extended after its commencement. Hence, the 
portions of the circuit nearest to the intervening charcoal or 
heated space are alone injured ; and even non-conducting bodies, 
as quartz, introduced into it are fused, and hence a* very large wire 
may be melted by the fluid received through a small wire impercep- 
tibly afiected." 

To these two forms of galvanic generators, which difiered as ma- 
terially in the effects which they produced as they did in their con- 
struction. Dr. Hare gave the names '' calorimotor " and ''defla- 
grator." The calorimotor was constructed first in 1818. He was 
led to this form of instrument by reflecting that, '' as the number 
of pairs in Volta's pile had been extended, and their size and the 
number and energy of interposed agents lessened, the ratio of the 
electrical effects to those of heat had increased till, in De Luc's 
column, they had become completely predominant ; and, on the 
other hand, when the pairs were made larger and fewer (as in Chil- 
dren's apparatus) the calorific influence had gained the ascendency; 
he was, therefore, led to go farther in this way and to examine 
whether one pair of plates of common size, or what might be 
equivalent thereto, would not exhibit heat more purely and demon- 
strate it to be, equally with the electric fluid, a primary product of 
Galvanic combinations.*'* This conception he put into practice 
by constructing a single galvanic pair, consisting of twenty copper 
plates, each about nineteen inches siquare, all soldered to the same 
metallic bar, so as to constitute, electrically, a single copper plate, 

« Amer, Jour, Science and Arte, 1, 416, July, 1818. 

PBOa AMER. PHILOS. SOO. XXZII. 148. P. PBINTSD DBC. 18, 1898. 



alternating, at intervals of half an inch, wiih twenty similar rine 
plates, all united to another meiallic bar. He found, on immcreing 
these plates in the same portion of acid contained in a vessel with- 
out partitions, that, while a wire connecting the polra was intensely 
ignited, only a slight taste was produced on the tongue, not greater 
than that produced by a piece of silver and one of zinc an inch 
square. Hence he concluded that when the plates are arranged 
without alternation the effect is no greater than might be expected 
from one ])air of plates. He then caused ten of the zinc plates on 
the one side to be connected with ten of copf>er on the other, the 
ten remaining plates of the same name on each side being connected 
with each oiher ; the connection between these large plates, one of 
copper and the other of zinc, being effected by a wire. When 
these two alternating pairs were plunged in acid, in a common ves- 
; became vividly ignited. Substan- 
adopted in the construction of a large 
m for the laboratory of Yale 
s direction. The plates were 



sel without partitions, the \ 
tially, this arrangement v 
calorimotor ordered by Prof. Siliin 
College and made under Dr. Haj 



eighteen inches square; nine of zinc, on one side, alternated with 
ten of copper, and ten of zinc, on the other side, alternated with 
eleven of copper; the entire forty plates having in all ninety square 
feet of surface. The plates of the same name were connected by 
large bars of tin, the whole being supported on a balanced frame 
so as to be lowered readily into a cubical box withont partitioBS. 
" This iDstrument," says Prof. Silliman, " gives no shock, prodoca 
no chemical decompositions, and does not move the gold-Ietf 
electrometer, nor does it ignite charcoal points, however stnaH, 
although in close contact, or strike through the smallest layer <rf air 
to pass even to the best conductor. But when any metallic substance 
with a bright surface is brought into perfect contact, by screwing it 
firmly into the jaws of the vices that terminate its poles, and tbe 
plates are then immersed in the acid, intense ignition follows snd 
combustion also, if the metal is combustible in common air. FlM- 
inum wire is instantly ignited and melted, a large steel knitting 
needle is destroyed before the plates are half immersed, and, by a 
full immersion, iron nails of the size called nincpenny and tenpenny 
are ignited and burn vividly till the connection is destroyed by 
burning in two."* Further, it was observed that the calorimotor 
produced fine magnetic effects. 

■ Semenlt qf OianUirif, VoL 11, p. S70, Hew Qftven, 1S3L. 




123 

The deflagraforof Dr. Hare was (irst described in 182 1,* and as 
above mentioned consisted of eighty concentric coils of copper and 
zinc, each coil having its glass jar of acid ; the coils being attached 
to a common beam which was raised and lowered by means of levers. 
Subsequently he adopted the form of flat, hollow, copper cases into 
which the zinc plates were made to slide, being secured in their 
places and prevented from actual contact with the copper by 
grooved pieces of wood which receive the edges of the zinc and 
rest against the inside of the copper cases ; each zinc plate being 
connected to the next copper case by a metallic strip. These cases 
were supported in frames and well insulated from one another, these 
frames being movable and capable of being lowered into the troughs 
containing the acid, or being stationary, and the troughs raised in 
order to immerse the plates. This construction was the one adopted 
in the deflagrator made by Dr. Hare for the laboratory of Yale Col- 
lege. In his last form of instrument, called the Cruikshank defla- 
grator, the copper and zinc plates, soldered together in pairs at their 
edges, were flxed in a box supported on pivots ; so that by rotating it 
through 90^, the acid surrounding the plates flowed into a second 
and similar box attached to the first and at right angles to it. By 
reversing the motion the acid flowed again upon the plates, f 
*' Both in producing ignition and combustion,'* says Prof. Silliman, 
'* the deflagrators far surpass any other form of galvanic instru- 
ments. Combustion is exceedingly vivid ; the metallic leaves van- 
ish in splendid coruscations; a platinum wire several feet in length 
fixed between the poles while the metals are in the air becomes red 
and white hot, and melts the instant they are immersed; the largest 
wire of this metal fixed in one pole and touched to charcoal in the 
other, melts like wax in a candle and is dissipated in brilliant scin- 
tillations; a watch-spring or a large steel knitting-needle fixed in 
the same manner and touched to the charcoal point burns com- 
pletely away with a torrent of light and sparks ; a stream of mer- 
cury flowing from a funnel is deflagrated with brilliant light, and 
an iron wire is fused and welded to another under water." I It was 
with this instrument that Prof. Silliman, in 1821, observed for the 
first time the transfer of the carbon from the positive to the nega- 
tive pole, this carbon rapidly collecting on the negative side into a 

* Amer. Jour. Science and Arts, Vol, Hi. p. 105, 1821. 

fAmer. Jour. Science and Aiis, Vol. vii, 347 (1824) ; Vol. xxxll, 285 (1837). 

: Elementi qf Chemistry, Vol. il, p. 672. 1831. 



124 

knob or projecting cone or cylinder, which frequently becomes 
half an inch or more long before it falls and gives place to another. 
On the positive pole a corresponding cavity is formed, out of which 
the vaporized matter rises and collects upon the negative pole. 
The carbon thus deposited ** is in shining, rounded masses, aggre- 
gated often like a cauliflower. It has a semi-metallic appearance, 
is harder than the charcoal, heavier, much less combustible, and 
burns away slowly when ignited in the air.** 

In the light of the electrical science of those days, these con- 
structions by Dr. Hare, the results obtained by their means and the 
theories which he offered in explanation of the phenomena, are all 
of very considerable interest. The principal effect of the calori- 
motor, obviously, was to produce a great flow of heat with very 
little electrical excitement. But experiment had pointed out that 
not only alternation of the plates but a repetition of the pairs to at 
least two was necessary to produce an intense calorific effect ; the 
quantity being as the size and the intensity as the number of the 
series. True, Davy had shown in 1808 this necessity of repetition, 
and had stated that *' the intensity increases with the number and 
the quantity with the extent of the series. ** * And Children the 
following yearf had confirmed this view and elaborated it. ** The 
absolute effect of a voltaic apparatus,** he says, ** seems to be in 
the compound ratio of the number and size of the plates, the in- 
tensity of the electricity being as the former, the quantity given 
out as the latter; consequently regard must be had in its construction 
to the purposes for which it is designed. For experiments on p)er- 
fect conductors very large plates are to be preferred, a small number 
of wicks will probably be sufficient ; but where the resistance of im- 
perfect conductors is to be overcome the combination must be great 
but the size of the plates may be small ; but if quantity and inten- 
sity be both required, then a large number of large plates will be ne- 
cessary." It should be remembered, moreover, that the law of Ohm 
was not enunciated until 1827,;}; and that of Joule not until 1841. § 
And, further, that we owe to these laws the simplification of the 
ideas upon the subject of the energy relations of electricity which 
existed before they were discovered. Ohm's law teaches us that the 

* Pfn'luitopftiral Tninmrdonn, l.SO>^, p. 3. 

\ It)., Vol. ix. p. ;V2 H^'J). 

I Dk (j<\lvanis>'hf: K'Uc inathcmalisrh bearbcitft, Berlin, 1827. 

ll'ltiL Mag., xix, p. 2G0 IS-il). 



125 

current which flows through any circuit depends directly upon the 
electromotive forces contained in the circuit and inversely upon 
the resistances of the circuit. Evidently, therefore, when a con- 
siderable resistance is to be overcome, as when a long, fine wire is 
in circuit, the current necessary to fuse this wire, for example, can 
be secured only by increasing proportionately the electromotive 
force, /. e.y by increasing the number of pairs in series in the bat- 
tery. While, when the external resistance is small, as is the case 
when a large metallic wire joins the terminals, very little electro- 
motive force, and therefore only a few pairs, is required ; but by 
making the plates large the resistance of the battery is diminished, 
and so the current in the entire circuit is increased. In the defla- 
grator then, the result was attained by increasing the number of 
the plates in order to secure a high electromotive force. In the 
calorimotor the size was increased in order to decrease the total re- 
sistance and so to increase the current. Again, the law of Joule 
gives us the relation between the amount of current flowing through 
a circuit and the development of heat in it ; asserting that the heat 
thus developed is directly proportional to the resistance in the cir- 
cuit and to the square of the current. Consequently the heating 
effects of Dr. Hare's calorimotor are due to the large current which 
it was the object of its construction to produce. While in the 
deflagrator, although the current is less, and therefore the total 
heating effect is less also, yet the current is urged by a greater pres- 
sure and hence exerts a greater disruptive effect. Another point 
should be noted in connection with these distinctions thus empha- 
sized in Dr. Hare's generators. Electrical energy may be repre- 
sented by the product of the current and the electromotive force. 
To transmit a given amount of this energy to a distance, either a 
strong current having a low electromotive force may be employed, or 
a weak current having a high electromotive force, provided the pro- 
duct be the same in both cases. But by the law of Joule, the en- 
ergy dissipated as heat, being proportional to the scpuiie of the 
current, would entail a serious loss in the former case. Hence the 
economical transmission of electrical energy requires the use of 
generators developing a high electromotive force. 

Joseph Henry became a member of the American Philosophical 
Society in 1835, although it was ten years earlier than this that he 
began his electrical researches at the Albany Academy. Oersted, 



126 

in iSfp,"" had observed the tendency of a magnetic needle to place 
itself perpendicular to a wire conveying an electrical current. 
Amp^ref had studied the mutual action of currents upon each other, 
and had thus created the science of electrodynamics. Schweigger 
had multiplied the number of convolutions of the wire about the 
needle, increasing proportionately in this way the effect. J Arago 
had succeeded in producing magnetism from an electrical current 
by winding the wire carrying this current in a loose helix and 
placing pieces of iron wire in the axis of this helix ; thus creating 
the ** electromagnet. '*§ Sturgeon had further developed this idea 
by coating the iron bar, which was bent into a horseshoe form, with 
a non-conducting substance, and winding the wire directly on the 
bar, thus increasing the closeness of the contact. || Henry's first 
paper in electric science was a communication made to the Albany 
Institute, October lo, 1827, "On Some Modifications of the Elec- 
tromagnetic Apparatus.**^[ In this paper he suggested several im- 
provements in the construction of the electromagnet, which greatly 
increased its efiiciency. In the first place he adopted the multiple 
arrangement of turns proposed by Schweigger in his galvanometer; 
and in the second, instead of insulating the bar to be magnetized, 
he insulated the conducting wire itself, covering the whole surface 
of the iron with a series of coils in close contact. Sturgeon's 
electromagnet of 1825 consisted of a stout iron wire bent into a U 
form, having a copper wire wound loosely round it, forming 
eighteen turns. Henry's electromagnet of 1829 was made of 
a piece of round iron about one-quarter of an inch in diameter, 
bent into the form of a horseshoe, and tightly wound with 
thirty-five feet of wire covered with silk, forming about four 
hundred turns. Later in the same year, Henry still further 
increased the power of his electromagnet, by winding the wire 
upon the iron core, not in a single strand, but in several ; the 
current flowing simultaneously through the different strands. 
Using a U-shaped bar of iron, half an inch in diameter and 
about ten inches long, wound with thirty feet of tolerably fine 
copper wire, he observed that with a cell containing two and 

* S^fiwriiign; J., xxix, 27;i. l'^20 ; Gilb. Ann.. Ixvi, 205, 1820. 

t Ann. C/iitn. I'hijs., >v. oO, 170, 1S20; xviii, fW, 3i:^ 1821 ; ixvl, 390, 1824. 

I AUgtm. LUrmtnrzntnno. No. 206. Nov., 1820 : Schiccigg., J., xxxi, 12, 1826. 

J> .inn. rhim. J'fit/n., xv, 9:? (1S20). 

, Tnm.s. S^>r. Knronr. Arts, xliil, 38 (1825). 

«" TranK. Altxiny InstitiUf, Vol. i. pp. 22. 23 (1827). 



127 

a hair iqoare inches of linc sorikce, thu magnet wonld sustain fonr- 
teen poonds. He then wound upon the core a second and similar 
wire, the ends of which were connected to the same cell ; and now 
the magnet lifted twenty*eight poands. With a single pair of 
plates 4x6 inches thb magnet lifted thirty-nine ponnds^ or more 
than fifty times its own weight This increase of power by mnlti* 
plying the number of wires without increasing the length of each, 
as Henry points out, produces its effect in two ways : ** first, by 
conducting a greater quantity of galvanism, and secondly, by giving 
it a more proper directbn/'* Thus was constructed what Henry 
called his " quantity " magnet. 

Still larger electromagnets were constructed upon this plan 
in 1830 and 1831. The former magnet consisted of a bar of soft 
iron two inches square and twenty inches long, bent into the form 
of a horKshoe, and weighing twenty-one pounds. AroAnd this was 
wound five hundred and forty feet of copper wire arranged in nine 
coils of sixty feet each; each strand being coiled in several 
layers, and occupying about two inches of the length of the core. 
The ends of these coils being left separate and numbered, 
the coils could be combined in any way desired so as to form one 
continuous coil, or a double coil of half the length, a triple coil 
one-third the length, etc. When a single pair of coils were put in 
series the electromagnet lifted sixty pounds; but when the coils 
were arranged in multiple, forming a double circuit, a lifting power 
of two hundred pounds was developed. The cell used with this 
magnet was composed of two concentric cylinders of copper, having 
a zinc cylinder between them ; the exposed zinc surface being about 
0.4 square foot, and the acid required about half a pint. With all 
the coils in parallel the magnet with this battery lifted six hundred 
and fifty pounds ; and with a pair of plates exactly an inch square 
the magnet lifted eighty-five pounds. f 

The 1 83 1 magnet was made for the laboratory of Yale College. J 
The iron horseshoe was about a foot in length, and was made from 
a bar of octagonal iron three inches in diameter. It was wound 
with twenty -six strands of copper wire, each about twenty-eight feet 

* Am, Jour, Science and Ari$, xlx, 402, Jan., 1831. 

\Am. Jow. Science and ArU, xlz, 4(M, 4U5, 1831. See also the excellent memorial ad- 
dress on "The Scientific Work of Joseph Henry," delivered before the Philosophical 
flodetj of Washington, Oct 26, 1878, by Wm. B. Taylor, to which the author would here 
acknowledge his indebtedness. BuU, PhU. Soc., Wathington, Vol. ii, p. 230. 

XAm, Jour. Seienee and Arte, xx, 201, April, 1831. 



128 

long. With a single cell of the construction Jost described, and 
exposing about five feet of active zinc surface, this magnet lifted 
twenty-three hundred pounds. It was of this magnet that Stntgeoo 
himself wrote thus : " By dividing about eight hundred feet of con- 
ducting wire into twenty-six strands, and forming it into as many 
separate coils around a bar of soft iron about sixty pounds in weight, 
and properly bent into a horseshoe form. Prof. Henry has been 
enabled to produce a magnetic force which completely eclipses every 
other in the whole annals of magnetism ; and no parallel is to be 
found since the miraculous suspension of the celebrated Oriental im- 
postor in his iron coffin. "^^ 

In his " quantity" magnet Henry sought to reduce the resistance 
to a minimum, and so to obtain a very considerable current even 
from a very small pair of plates. But he perceived that this was 
not the whole truth. And in January, 1831, he published a re- 
markable paper t in which he showed for the first time that a coil 
composed of several short circuits in parallel, while least effective 
with a battery of many pairs of plates, was most responsive, on 
the contrary, to a single voltaic cell ; and, oti the other hand, that a 
coil whose parts were all in series, which produced only trifling 
effects with a single pair, was highly effective with a battery of 
many pairs. Employing for example a small electromagnet having 
a core of quarter inch iron wound with about eight feet of copper 
wire, Henry found that with a single zinc plate, exposing about 
fifty-six square inches of surface, this magnet lifted four and one- 
half pounds. On interposing five hundred feet of copper wire be- 
tween the magnet and the cell it lifted only two ounces ; and with 
one thousand feet interposed only half an ounce. On using a 
trough battery of twenty- five pairs of plates, on the other hand, 
the zinc surface exposed being the same as before, the magnet lifted 
only seven ounces when directly connected. But when the one 
thousand feet of wire was interposed the magnet sustained eight 
ounces. In other words, the current from the battery produced 
a greater magnetic effect after traversing this length of wire than it 
did without it. He calls an electromagnet having its coil contin- 
uous in length an ** intensity '* magnet; and he says: "In de- 
scribing the results of my experiments, the terms * intensity ' and 
' quantity ' magnets were introduced to avoid circumlocution, and 

♦ Phil. Mag. and Annala of PhUosophj/, xl, 199. March, 1832. 
i Am. Jour. Science and Artt, xix, 400, Jan., 1831. 



129 

were intended to be med merely in a technical sense. By the 
imiemtiiy magnet I designated a piece of soft iron so surrounded 
with wire that its magnetic power could be called into operation by 
an * intensity ' battery, and by a quaniitf magnet a piece of iron 
so surrounded by a number of separate coils that its magnetism 
could be fully developed by a 'quantity' battery."* Clearly, 
therefore, we owe to Henry the credit of having first worked out 
practically the functions of two entirely different kinds of electro- 
magnets ; one having several separate coils of no great length, desig- 
nated as a '' quantity '' magnet, the other provided with a continu- 
ous coil of very considerable length, designated as an " intensity " 
magnet. '' The latter and feebler system (requiring for its action 
a battery of numerous elements) was shown to have the singular 
capability (never before suspected or imagined) of subtle excitation 
from a distant source. Here for the first time is experimentally 
established the important principle that there must be a proportion 
between the aggregate internal resistance of the battery and the 
whole external resistance of the conjunctive wire or conducting 
circuit; with the very important practical consequence that by com- 
bining with an ' intensity ' magnet of a single extended fine coil 
an * intensity ' battery of many small pairs, its electro-motive 
force enables a very long conductor to be employed without diminu- 
tion of the effect. This was a very important though unconscious 
experimental confirmation of the mathematical theory of Ohm, 
embodied in his formula expressing the relation between electric 
flow and electric resistance, which, though propounded two or three 
years previously, failed for a long time to attract any attention 
from the scientific world. "f 

The practical outcome of these experiments was a most important 
one. Although Ampere, at the suggestion of Laplace, had exam- 
ined the question and had shown the possibility of making a tele- 
graph by deflecting a needle through a long length of conducting 
wire, yet further experiments by Barlow proved that lengthening 
the conducting wire did actually produce a diminution of the effect. 
Even with only two hundred feet of wire he found such a sensible 
diminution as to convince hira of the impracticability of the scheme. 
From Henry's experiment just described, however, '* it appears that 

• Smithmmian Report for 1857, p. 103. 

t W. B. THylor'B address, Memorial of Joseph Henry, published by order of Congress, 
WaihlDgton, 1880, p. 227. 

FBOa AMBB. PBIL08. 80C. XXXII. 148. q. PRINTED DEC. 18, 1893. 



130 

the current from a galvanic trough is capable of producing greater 
magnetic effect on soft iron after traversing more than one-fifth of a 
mile of intervening wire than when it passes only through the wire 
surrounding the magnet." In speculating on a result apparently so 
paradoxical^ Henry suggests that the ** current from a trough pos- 
sesses more * projectile ' force (to use Prof. Hare's expression) and 
approximates somewhat in * intensity * to the electricity from the 
common machine." ** But be this as it may," he concludes, *'the 
fact that the magnetic action of a current from a trough is at least not 
sensibly diminished by passing through a long wire is directly appli- 
cable to Mr. Barlow's project of forming an electromagnetic tele- 
graph ; and it is also of material consequence in the construction 
of the galvanic coil. From these experiments it is evident that in 
forming the coil we may either use one very long wire or several 
shorter ones, as the circumstances may require ; in the first case, our 
galvanic combination must consist ofa number of plates so as to give 
* projectile * force ; in the second, it must be formed of a single 
pair." * 

In 1832, Henry described the production of electrical effects 
from the action of magnets.f Having wound upon the middle of 
the soft iron armature of his large electromagnet an insulated 
copper wire about thirty feet long, he observed that whenever the 
magnet was charged by the battery current a deflection of about 
30° to the west took place on a galvanometer connected with the 
ends of this wire. This deflection was but momentary, however, 
the needle returning to zero, although the magnet remained excited. 
On opening the circuit, a momentary deflection to the east took 
place. *' From the foregoing facts," he says, ** it appears that a 
current of electricity is produced for an instant in a helix of copper 
wire surrounding a piece of soft iron whenever magnetism is in- 
duced in the iron, and a current in an opposite direction when the 
magnetic action ceases; also that an instantaneous current in one 
or the other direction accompanies every change in the magnetic 
intensity of the iron." 

It was while engaged in these experiments that Henry observed 
the phenomena due to the induction of one portion of the wire 
upon another, now called ''self-induction." He says: '* When a 
small battery is moderately excited by diluted acid, and its poles 

* Avvv. Jour, i^rimcc awl Jrf>, xix. 403, 404, Jan., IS^il. 
\ Aiiur. Jour. Sci' ucc and Ard^, xx'n, AO'-^, July, 1^32. 



181 

(which should be tenninated by cups of mercury) are connected by 
a copper wire not more than a foot in length, no spark is perceived 
when the connection is either formed or broken; but if a wire 
thirty or forty feet long be used (instead of the short wire) though 
no spark will be perceptible when the connection is made, yet when 
it is broken by drawing one end of the wire from its cup of mer- 
cury, . a vivid spark is produced." '' The effect appears somewhat 
increased by coiling the wire into a helix ; it seems also to depend 
in some measure on the length and thickness of the wire. I can 
account for these phenomena only by supposing the long wire to 
become charged with electricity which by its reaction on iiself pro- 
jects a spark when the connection is broken."* 

In 1875, ^^ ^^c meeting of the National Academy in Philadel- 
phia, I showed to Professor Henry the large electromagnet then re- 
cently acquired by the University of Pennsylvania. I asked him 
to place one of his hands upon one of the magnet-terminals, and 
then, holding the conductor in the other, to break the circuit. He 
did so, and, naturally, received a decided shock. He looked at me 
rather reproachfully, as I thought, for the advantage I had taken of 
him. "Pardon me. Professor Henry," I said, ''but I desired to 
introduce to you one of your own children. He was a little fellow 
when you knew him and was quite unable to assert himself. But 
now he has grown to man's estate and is capable, as you see, of deal- 
ing a pretty vigorous blow." With a genial smile, he granted me 
complete absolution. 

One of the most important of Henry's investigations, made after 
he removed to Princeton, was his research on successive induction, 
an account of which was published in the Proceedings of the Amer. 
Philoi, Soc, for November, 1838. In this research he employed 
five annular spools of different sizes of fine wire (about one-fiftieth 
of an inch thick) varying from one-fifth of a mile to nearly a 
mile in length (which might be called intensity helices) ; and six 
fiat spiral coils of copper ribbon, varying from three-quarters of an 
inch to one inch and a half in width and from sixty to ninety-three 
feet in length (which might be called '* quantity" coils). ** With 
the single larger ribbon coil in connection with the battery, and 
another ribbon coil placed over it, resting on an interposed glass 
plate, at every interruption of the primary circuit an induction 
spark was obtained at the rubbed ends of the second coil, though 

• Afner. Jour, Sdaux and ArU, xxU, 40S, July, 1882. 



132 

the shock was feeble. With a double wire spool (one within the 
other) of 2650 yards, placed above the primary coil (having about 
the same weight as the copper ribbon), the magnetizing effects dis- 
appeared, the sparks were much smaller, ' but the shock was almost 
too intense to be received with impunity.* " * Evidently, the in- 
duced secondary in this case was a current of great ** intensity '* 
and of proportionately small "quantity.** Hence these experi- 
ments showed that it is possible to induce an intensity current from 
one of quantity and a quantity current from one of intensity, a 
principle underlying our modern induction coils and transformers. 

Further, Henry used the secondary induced current as an initial 
current, and so induced from it a tertiary current. " By connect- 
ing the secondary coil with another at some distance from the pri- 
mary, so as not to be influenced by it directly, but forming, with 
the secondary, a single closed circuit, not only was the distant coil 
capable of producing, in an insulated wire helix placed over it, a 
distinct current of induction at the interruption of the primary, 
but sensible shocks were obtained from it.** **Bya similar but 
more extended arrangement, shocks were received from currents of 
a fourth and a fifth order; and, with a more powerful primary cur- 
rent and additional coils, a still greater number of successive in- 
ductions might be obtained.** '* It was found that, with the small 
battery, a shock could be given from the current of the third order 
to twenty-five persons joining hands ; also shocks perceptible in 
the arms were obtained from a current of the fifth order." f As 
Henry, himself, remarks, **The induction of currents of different 
orders of sufficient intensity to give shocks could scarcely have been 
anticipated from our previous knowledge of the subject." By in- 
geniously introducing a small magnetizing helix into each circuit, 
Henry found that the direction of these successive currents was 
alternately reversed with reference to each other. 

It was while endeavoring to repeat these successive inductions by 
means of ordinary electricity that Henry was led to one of his most 
important discoveries. His apparatus consisted of an open glass 
cylinder, about six inches in diameter, provided with two long 
narrow strips of tin foil pasted around it in corresponding heliacal 
courses, one of these strips being on the outside and the other on 
the inside, directly opposite to the first. The extremities of the inner 

* M' mortal (if Piui/f f^mr lit nrtj, p, J 17. 

f Tran!'. Amrr. I'hUos. Soc, Vol. vi (N. S.), p. 3U3, 1838. 



133 

Strip were connected to a small magnetizing helix, while the ends 
of the outer strip were arranged so that the discharge of a half- 
gallon Leyden jar could be passed through the strip. The magneti- 
zation of a needle in the helix indicated an induced current through 
the inner tin-foil ribbon, and the direction of this magnetization 
showed the direction of this current. By means of a second and a 
third cylinder, provided with heliacal tin-foil ribbons, Henry was 
able to show the production of induced currents of the third and 
even of the fourth order. 

While the results in general were quite similar to those obtained 
with the voltaic current, a puzzling difference was observed with 
reference to the direction of the currents of the different orders, as 
shown by the magnetized needles. " These currents," he says, 
*' in the experiments with the glass cylinders, instead of exhibiting 
the alternations of the galvanic currents, were all in the same direc- 
tion as the discharge from the jar; or, in other words, they were 
all plus.** By suitably varying the experiments, the direction of 
the induced currents was found to depend notably on the distance 
between the conductors, the induction ceasing at a certain distance 
(depending upon the amount of the charge and the character of the 
conductors), and the direction of the induced current beyond this 
critical distance being contrary to that of the primary current. 
** With a battery of eight half-gallon jars,'* he says, *'and parallel 
wires about ten feel long, the change in direction did not take place 
at a less distance than from twelve to fifteen inches, and, with a still 
larger battery and longer conductors, no change was found, although 
the induction was produced at the distance of several feet." Using 
Dr. Hare's battery of thirty-two one-gallon jars and a copper wire 
about one-tenth of an inch thick and eighty feet long, stretched 
across the lecture room and back on either side towards the battery, 
a second wire stretched parallel with the former for about thirty- 
five feet and extended to form an independent circuit (its ends con- 
nected with a small magnetizing helix) was tested at varying dis- 
tances, beginning with a few inches until they were twelve feet 
aj^art; at which distance the induction in this parallel wire, tl.ough 
enfeebled, still indicated, by its magnetizing |)Ower, a direction 
corresponding with the |)rimary current.* 

Continuing his researches in this direction, Henry presented a 
paper to the American Philosophical Society, in June, 1842, giving 

• Tram. Amcr. PhUos. Soc., vl (N. S.), Art. Ix, p. 303, 1838. 



131 

an account of these anomalies in electrical induction and the re- 
sults of his investigation of them. While, with the larger needles 
subjected to the magnetizing helix, the polarity was always con- 
formable to the direction of the discharge, he found that when very 
fine needles were employed an increase in the force of the electricity 
produced changes of polarity. In these researches not less than a 
thousand needles were magnetized in the testing helices. This per- 
plexing phenomenon was finally cleared up by the important dis- 
covery that an electrical equilibrium was not instantaneously effected 
by the spark, but that it was attained only after several oscillations 
of the flow. 

In a recent lecture before the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 
Dr. Oliver Lodge says, in speaking of the oscillatory character of a 
Leyden jar discharge : * "It was first clearly realized and distinctly 
stated by that excellent experimentalist, Joseph Henry, of Wash- 
ington, a man not wholly unlike Faraday in his mode of work, 
though doubtless possessing to a less degree that astonishing insight 
into intricate and obscure phenomena ; wanting also in Faraday's 
circumstantial advantages. This great man arrived at a conviction 
that the Leyden jar discharge was oscillatory by studying the singu- 
lar phenomena attending the magnetization of steel needles by a 
Leyden jar discharge, first observed in 1824 by Savary. Fine 
needles when taken out of the magnetizing helices were found to 
be not always magnetized in the right direction, and the subject is 
referred to in German works as * anomalous magnetization.' It is 
not the magnetization which is anomalous, but the currents which 
have no simple direction ; and we find in a memoir published by 
Henry in 1842 the following words: 

** * This anomaly, which has remained so long unexplained, and 
which at first sight appears at variance with all our theoretical ideas 
of the connection of electricity and magnetism, was, after consider- 
able study, satisfactorily referred by the author to an action of the 
discharge of the Leyden jar which had never before been recognized. 
The disc harge, whatever may be its nature, is not correctly repre- 
sented (employing for simplicity the theory of Franklin) by the sin- 
gle transfer of an im[)onderable fluid from one side of the jar to 
the other ; the phenomenon requires us to admit the existence of 
a principal discharge in one direction and then several reflex actions 
backwards and forwards, each more feeble than the preceding, until 

♦ Mo'hrn \'i' us of Klfrtricifij, p. 3<)9. I^iidoii and New York, 1S89. 



135 

the equilibrium is obtained. All the facts are shown to be in ac- 
cordance with this hypothesis, and a ready explanation is afforded 
by it of a number of phenomena which are to be found in the older 
works on electricity, but which have until this time remained unex- 
plained.'"* 

Dr. Lodge continues : '' If this were an isolated passage it might 
be nothing more than a lucky guess. But it is not. The conclu- 
sion is one at which he arrives after a laborious repetition and seri- 
ous study of the facts, and he keeps the idea constantly before him 
when once grasped and uses it in all the rest of his researches on 
the subject. The facts studied by Henry do, in my opinion, sup- 
port his conclusion, and if I am right in this, it follows that he is 
the original discoverer of the oscillatory character of a spark, 
although he does not attempt to state its theory. That was first 
done, and completely done, in 1853, by Sir William Thomson; 
and the progress of experiment by Feddersen, Helmholtz, Schiller 
and others has done nothing but substantiate it." f 

These investigations of Henry established the fact that *' in every 
case of the electrostatic discharge the testing needles were really 
subjected to an oscillating alternation of currents and consequently 
to successive partial demagnetizations and remagnetizations." He 
at once made use of this singular reflux of current to explain the 
apparent change in the inductive action caused by distance. If 
*' the primitive discharge wave be in excess of the magnetic capacity 
of the needle in a given position, the return wave might be just suf- 
ficient to completely reverse its polarity and the diminished succeed- 
ing wave insufficient to restore it to its former conditi(;n ; while' at a 
greater distance the primitive wave might be so far reduced as to jubt 
magnetize the needle fully, and the second wave, being still more en- 
feebled, would only partially demagnetize it, leaving still a portion 
of the original polarity ; and so for the following diminished os( il- 
lations." X 

** One more extract I must make from that same memoir by 
Henry," says Dr. Lodge, ** and it is a most interesting one ; it ^hows 
how near he was or might have been to obtaining s(;me of the results 
of Hertz ; though, if he had obtained them, neither he nor any other 
experimentalist could possibly have divined their real signilicance. 

• Procrf'iings Amer. Philo$. Sor., Vol. ii. ]>. I'/.J, June 17. 1kJ2. 

t Moflmt View* of Elfciricity, p. oTO, I»iidon and Ntnv York, 1^^'J. 

; W. B. Taylor, loc. cit., p. 2Jx>. 



136 

It is, after all, the genius of Maxwell and of a few other great theo- 
retical physicists, whose names are on every one's lips, which 
endows the simple induction experiments of Hertz and others with 
such stupendous importance. Here is the quotation : 

** * In extending the researches relative to this part of the investi- 
gations, a remarkable result was obtained in regard to the distance 
at which induction effects are produced by a very small quantity of 
electricity ; a single spark from the prime conductor of a macliine 
of about an inch long, thrown on to the end of a Circuit of wire in 
an upper room, produced an induction sufficiently powerful to mag- 
netize needles in a parallel circuit of iron placed in the cellar be- 
neath at a perpendicular distance of thirty feet, with two floors and 
ceilings each fourteen inches thick intervening. The author is dis- 
posed to adopt the hypothesis of an electrical plenum * [in other 
words, of an ether], * and from the foregoing experiment it would 
appear that a single spark is sufficient to disturb perceptibly the 
electricity of space throughout at least a cube of 400,000 feet of 
capacity; and when it is considered that the magnetism of the 
needle is the result of the difference of two actions, it may be fur- 
ther inferred that the diffusion of motion in this case is almost com- 
parable with that of a spark from flint and steel in the case of 
light.* Comparable it is indeed," says Lodge, ** for we now know 
it to be the self-same process." 

A few months later Henry ** succeeded in magnetizing needles by 
the secondary current in a wire more than three hundred feet distant 
from the wire through which the primary current was passing, ex- 
cited by a single spark from an electrical machine." * The primary 
wire used for this purpose was the telegraph line which he had 
stretched seven years before across the campus of the college 
grounds in front of Nassau Hall ; the secondary or induction wire 
being suspended in a parallel direction across the grounds in the 
rear of Nassau Hall, its ends terminating in buried metallic plates. 
The building itself intervened between the wires. 

Moreover, Henry studied induced currents produced by atmos- 
pheric electricity. By a very simple arrangement he was enabled 
to magnetize needles strongly in his study, whenever a lightning 
flash took ])lace within a radius of twenty miles and when the thun- 
der was scarcely audible. **The inductions from atmospheric dis- 

* Proco dings vlm^r. Philos. Soc, Vol. ii, p. 2'JO, Oct. 21, 1812. Vol. iv, p. 260, June 19, 1846. 



137 

charges were found to have the oscillatory character observed with 
the Leyden jar; and by interposing several magnetizing helices 
with few and with many convolutions, Henry was enabled to get 
from a needle in the former the polarity due to the direct current, 
and in the latter that due to the return current, thus catching the 
lightning, as it were, upon the rebound." In speaking, subse- 
quently, of the phenomena attending electrical oscillation in dis- 
charge, extending as they do to a surprising distance on all sides, 
Henry remarks : "As these are the results of currents in alternate 
directions, they must produce in surrounding space a series of plus 
and minus motions analogous to, if not identical with, undula- 
tions;'** a reference to modern theories clearly prophetic. In 
1845, ^^ showed that the charge passed along the surface of the 
wire and not through its whole mass. 

As a fitting sequel to the investigations of Hare and of Henry 
which have now been detailed^ and especially to the experiments of 
the former on "quantity" and "intensity** batteries, taken in 
connection wiih those of the latter on " quantity ** and " intensity '* 
magnets, it is interesting to notice the experiments upon the elec- 
tromagnetic telegraph which were subsequently made by two other 
members of the American Philosophical Society, John William 
Draper (elected in 1844) and Samuel Finley Breese Morse (elected in 
1848). The story is told by Professor Draper himself, in an address 
delivered, in 1853, ^^ ^^^ alumni of the University of the City of New 
York. He says: " Fourteen years ago, there stood upon the floor 
of the chemical laboratory of our University a pair of old-fashioned 
galvanic batteries. Like the cradle of a baby, they worked upon 
rockers, so that the acid might be turned on or off. A gray-haired 
gentleman had been using them for many years to see whether he 
could produce enough magnetism in a piece of iron, at a distance, 
to move a pencil and make marks upon paper. He had contrived 
a brass instrument that had keys something like a piano in minia- 
ture, only there was engraven on each a letter of the alphabet. 
When these were touched, the influence of the batteries was sent 
through a copper wire and a mark answering to a letter was made a 
long way off. .... But, long after the telegraph instruments were 
perfected, it was doubtful whether intelligence could be sent to any 
considerable distance. It is one thing to send an electric current 

* Proceidings Amer. Ab90C. Adv. Science, Albany meeting, 18.'>1, p. 89. 

PROC. AICER. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. R. PRINTED DKC. 18, 18D3. 



188 

a few yards and a totally different affair to send it a thousand milcL 
Experiments which had been made nnder the auspices of the Rmsiaii 
government, by Professor Jacobi, of the University of Dorpat. had 
led to the inference that the law of the conducting power of wim 
originally discovered in Germany was conect; and, in. addition* 
a corroborative memoir had been read by Lens before the Imperial 
Academy of Science! at St. Petersburg. AX this time, lo little was 
known in England as regards this important point, that some of 
the most eminent natural philosophers connected with universities 
there embraced the opposite view. I may not be able to make the 
precise point in dispute clear; it was this: A current passing 
through a certain length of wire suffers a certain amount of Iqsb. If 
it should go through a wire a thousand times as longp will the km 
be a thousand times as great? The Russians said, yes; the Eng- 
lish said, no. If the former was the case, it was universally con- 
eluded that the electric telegraph would not be practicable for any 
considerable distance. A series of experiments was made in the 
University of New York which established beyond all question the 
truth of the Russian view. But at that time the higher mathemat- 
ics were cultivated in our laboratory as well as mere experimenting; 
and, on submitting the results to such a mathematical discussion, 
the paradoxical conclusion was brought out that it is a necesary 
consequence of that law that, after a certain length of wire has 
been used, the losses become imperceptible. Encouraged by this, 
a party of gentlemen went with the inventor of the telegraph to a 
rope-walk, near Bloomingdale, one summer morning and there 
tested the truth of these conclusions on lengths of wire varying 
from one to some hundreds of miles. The losses of the currents 
were measured by the quantity of the gas set free in the decompo- 
sition of water. The result was completely successful, and tele- 
graphing for any distance became an established certainty." 

Joseph Saxton was elected a member of the American Philosoph- 
ical Society on October 20, 1837, shortly after his return from 
London to assume the office of constructor and curator of the 
standard weighing apparatus of the Philadelphia Mint ; a position 
which had been tendered to him by the Director, Dr. R. M. Patter^ 
son. Before going abroad he had made several inventions of note, 
and, in association with Isaiah Lukens,* had constructed the clock 

♦ Elected to the Amer. Phllos. Soc, October 20, 1820. 



189 

■ 

which still occupies the beliry of Independence Hall. He reached 
London in 1831 and shortly afterwards became connected with the 
Adelaide Gallery of Practical Science, having charge of its exten- 
sive collection of philosophical apparatus. It was here that he met 
Telfordy Brunei and other eminent English engineers. By them 
he was introduced to the meetings of the Royal Institution and was 
admitted into friendly relationship with its FuUerian professor of 
chemistry, Michael Faraday. The primary facts of magneto-elec- 
tric and of dynamo-electric induction had already been discovered 
by Faraday in 1831. Saxton took a great interest in these discov- 
eries and followed them up by constructing the first operative mag- 
neto-electric machine. In his appreciative biographical memoir of 
Mr. Saxton, Professor Henry thus speaks of his great scientific in- 
vention : 

" It was a part of the general principle discovered by Mr. Far- 
aday that, if an insulated or coated wire were wound with many 
coils around a cylinder of soft iron, which is suddenly magnetized 
by touching its ends with a magnet, the same effect would be pro- 
duced as that described by thrusting in and drawing out a perma- 
nent magnet. A current in one direction would be excited in the 
coil when the core became magnetized, and a current would be 
produced in an opposite direction the moment the magnetism 
ceased- Mr. Saxton adopted for the inducing magnet to be em- 
ployed in his machine a compound one, consisting of a number of 
steel bars bent into the form of a horseshoe, magnetized separately, 
and then screwed together so as to form one powerful combination. 
For the inducing part of the apparatus he bent a cylindrical rod of 
iron of about three-fourths of an inch in diameter twice at right 
angles so as to produce the form of a U, the parallel legs of which 
were at the distance of that of the centres of the two poles of the 
permanent magnet. Around each of these legs he wound thirty or 
forty yards of insulated copper wire. Now it is evident from the 
principle before stated that when the two ends of the legs of this U 
of soft iron are brought in contact with the poles of the permanent 
magnet, an instantaneous current will be produced in the natural 
electricity of the wires, each in a direction opposite to the other. 
Again, when the soft iron U is drawn suddenly away from the 
poles of the permanent magnet, a reverse current will take place in 
each. of the coils. But a more intense effect will be produced 
if the legs of the soft iron horseshoe or U be made to rotate before 



140 

the face or poles of the permanent magnet so as to slide off of one 
on to the other. In this case the effect will be double that of sep- 
arating it from a single pole ; since if, in passing from the first pole 
it loses its magnetism, in passing on to the second it may be con- 
sidered as being demagnetized still further, since it is changed into 
the opposite magnetism. A similar result will be produced with the 
other leg of the horseshoe. To excite, therefore, the greatest 
possible amount of electrical induction, Mr. Sax ton fastened the U 
to a revolving axis passing through its crown, to which a rapid ro- 
tation could be given by means of a driving wheel and pulley. In 
order, however, to obtain manifestations of the induced currents 
produced in the copper wire, the two ends of the coils were so 
soldered together as to give a single current in one direction through 
the entire length of the coils. One of the remaining ends was then 
permanently soldered to a circular disk fastened concentrically to the 
revolving axis by an insulating collar, with its plane perpendicular 
to it. This plate dipped into a cup of mercury. The other end 
of the wire was soldered directly to the revolving shaft or axis. In 
this arrangement the insulated dibk formed one pole of the long 
wire and the revolving shaft the other ; but as they were not con- 
nected no electrical excitement was observed when the bobbins 
were revolved. To make and break the connection at the proper 
moment, two wires were soldered diametrically opposite each other 
on a ferule which fitted tightly with friction on the revolving shaft. 
These wires standing out at right angles to the shaft were cut off at 
such a length that at each revolution the ends would plunge into 
the same cup of mercury with the revolving disk, and thus complete 
and break the circuit twice with each revolution of the bobbins. 
These wire points were then so adjusted by turning the ferule on 
the shaft as to cause them to enter and leave the mercury at the 
moment when the magnetism was increasing or diminishing most 
rapidly, and consequently when the current had the greatest in- 
tensity. 

** With this instrument he was able to exhibit a brilliant electrical 
spark, to decompose water, to show the electrical light between 
charcoal points, and to give a rapid series of intense shocks. The 
instrument was exhibited to the public for the first time at the 
meeting of the British Association at Cambridge, in June, 1833, 
where it excited much interest. It was permanently placed in the 
Adelaide Gallery in August of the same year. The poet Coleridge, 



141 

who was present at its exhibition in Cambridge, spoke with en- 
thusiasm not only of the magnitude of the discovery of the in- 
ductive electrical effects of magnetism — one of the claims of Fara- 
day to imperishable reputation — but also of the ingenious invention 
of Mr. Saxton by which the transient electrical currents might ex- 
hibit their effects in so brilliant and so powerful a manner." * 

Notwithstanding the attention which this machine of Saxton's 
received in scientific circles, no description of it was published 
until 1836. In October of that year a philosophical instrument 
maker of Londoi), named Clarke, published a description of a 
magneto electrical machine practically identical with that of Sax- 
ton, and differing only in the fact that the magnet was placed ver- 
tically, with the poles downward, instead of horizontally. Not 
only does he not mention Mr. Saxton by name, nor even allude to 
his machine, publicly exhibited three years before, but he says with 
great affectation of originality : ** From the time Dr. Faraday first 
discovered magnetic electricity to the present my attention has 
been entirely devoted to that important branch of science, more 
especially to the construction of an efficacious magnetic electrical 
machine, which after much anxious thought, labor and expense, I 
now submit to your notice. **t Naturally Saxton was prompt to 
take notice of this disingenuous statement. In the next number of 
the same journal he says, referring to Clarke's paper: *' A reader 
unacquainted with the progress which magneto-electricity has made 
since this new path of science was opened by the beautiful and un- 
expected discoveries of Faraday, might be misled, from the paper 
1 have alluded to, to believe that the electromagnetic machine there 
represented was the invention of the writer, and that the experi- 
ments there mentioned were for the first time made by its means. 
No conclusion, however, would be more erroneous. The machine 
which Mr. Clarke calls his invention differs from mine only in 
a slignt variation in the situation of its parts, and is in no respect 
superior to it. The experiments which he states in such a manner 
as to insinuate that they are capable of being made only by liis ma- 
chine, have every one been long since performed with my instru- 
ment, and Mr. Clarke has had every opportunity of knowing the 
truth of this statement. 

•"Memoir of Joseph Saxton," by Joseph llenry, Biographical Memoirs Nat. Arail. 0/ 
Scieneri, Vol. i, pp 287-317, Washington, 1877. 
t PhUoitijpfdcaL Magazine, HI, ix, -^62, Octol)er, 1836. 



142 

'* Though my machine is tolerably well known to the public fn» 
its constant exhibition at the Adelaide«street Gallery since Aogiat, 
1833/' Saxton continues, '' and my claims as its inventor have beea 
acknowledged by Professors Faraday, Daniell and Wheatstone, in 
papers of theirs published in the Phil»s9^cal TVamacHaKs^ yet as no 
description of it has yet been published I will thank yon to insert 
the following in the ensuing number of the Phil^saphicfUMsgmnu^^* 
Then follows an illustrated description of the Saxton machine 
of 1833. 

In this article he says : '* The first electromagnetic machinei 
that is, an instrument by which a continuous and rapid soccesrion 
of sparks could be obtained from a magnet, was invented by U* 
Hypolite Pixii, of Paris, and was first made public at the meeting 

of the Academic des Sciences on September 3, 183s It 

differs from mine principally in two respects: first in M. Pixii's 
instrument the magnet itself revolves and not the armature ; and 
secondly, the interruptions instead of being produced by the revo- 
lution of points, were made by bringing one of the ends of the 
wire over a cup of mercury, and depending on the jerks given to 
the instrument by its rotation for making and breaking the contact 
with the mercury." With regard to the double armature in bis 
machine, Saxton says that he was led to it by the following circom* 
stances: '< In November, 1833, Count di Predevalli brought from 
Paris one of M. Pixii's machines, and it was sent to the Adelaide- 
street Gallery in order that its effects might be compared with 
those of mine. Mine was found to excel in the brilliancy of the 
spark, while M. Pixii's machine was more effective in giving the 
shock and affecting the electrometer. M. Pixii's machine had a 
larger keeper and a much greater extent of copper wire. Shortly 
after Mr. Newman, of Regent street, made a smaller instru- 
ment on my construction, which gave the shock more power- 
fully than my large one did ; this also had a greater length of coil, 
but the effect was at that time partly attributed to the better insula- 
tion of the wire. I then convinced myself by some experiments 
that the increased shock solely depended on the length of the 
wire. The cause of the difference of effect in the two cases ad- 
mitted no longer of dispute after the publication of the experi* 
raents of Dr. Henry, of Philadelphia, of Mr. Jennings and of Dr. 
Faraday ; as their investigations fully proved that the spark is best 

• rhil. Mag., Ill, Ix, 860, November, 1836. 



143 

obtained from a magneto-electric coil when short, and the shock 
when it is long." 

Many other ingenious instruments were constructed by Saxton 
while he was connected with the Adelaide Gallery. He made the 
apparatus with which Wheatstone's celebrated experiment of meas- 
uring the speed of electric transfer through a wire was performed, 
by which was established the fact that this transfer requires time for 
its accomplishment. He constructed for the Gallery a compound 
steel magnet which sustained the weight of five hundred and twenty- 
five pounds; and also a magnetic needle several feet in length, hav- 
ing a mirror on its end, by which he exhibited for the first time on 
a magnificent scale the daily and hourly variations of the magnetic 
force of the earth by the movements of a reflected beam of light. 
This use of the mirror, however, he had made use of as early as 
1825, thus anticipating the similar application made by Ganss. One 
modification of the revolving mirror thus early used by Saxton con- 
sisted in fastening a small mirror to a rotating axis obliquely, so 
that when a beam of light was thrown upon the mirror, and suffi- 
cient speed given to it, a large circle of light would be projected on 
the ceiling. When, by a powerful train of wheel work, very rapid 
rotation was produced, any fluctuations taking place in the inten- 
sity of the light could at once be detected. He showed, for exam- 
ple, that when the light came from charcoal points forming the 
poles of a voltaic battery, the circle of light exhibited a mottled or 
dotted api:)earance, indicating a rapid alternation of intensity in 
the electrical discharge. 

In a diary kept by him during his residence in London, he gives 
** a method of determining the position of the interior magnetic 
poles of the earth by projecting, in the form of a large circle, a 
section of the earth through the magnetic meridian. On the cir- 
cumference of this drawing he next projected the di[) of the needle 
in different latitudes from the equator to the pole, and by i)iol(;nL;- 
ing thcife projections until they meet in the interior of the earth, 
determining the positions of the centres of magnetic influence m 
the two hemispheres. By this process he arrived at the cone lusion 
that the magnetic polarity of the earth is deeply seated in the in- 
terior, and that consequently the magnetism of the globe may be 
represented by a comparatively short magnet, the axis of which 
passes through the centre of the globe." Moreover, he made "a 
drawing of an arrangement of apparatus for obtaining an electrical 



•' . 1 



IH 



spark from the magnetism of the earth. This consists in the n^ 
revolution of a large bar of soft iron on a horisontal axis at right 
angles to its length, in the plane of the meridian, the bar being 
surrounded with a very long wire insulated with a covering of sUk, 
an arrangement being made to break the circuit at the instant of 
the bar receiving the greatest amount of magnetic indnction. He 
succeeded, by thb arrangement, in producing currents of electricity 
of considerable power, but for the want at the time of a snffident 
length of insulated wire, he was unable to increase the intensity suffi- 
ciently to produce the spark." * 

Although Saxton's preeminent ability as a mechanician had se- 
cured for him the tender of the office of director of the printii^ 
machinery of the Bank of England, he preferred to return to the 
United States and to accept the office of constructor and cuntor of 
the standard weighing apparatus of the Philadelphia MinL Daring 
his connection with the Mint he constructed *' the large standard 
balances still used in the annual inspection of the assays and die 
verification of the standard weights for all the Government assay 
and coining offices in the United States. The knife edges of these 
implements are of the hardest steel, turning upon plates of agate; 
and such sensibility has the apparatus that when loaded with fifty 
pounds it turns with one-tenth of a grain ; or, in other words, with 
the three-millionth part of its load." 

Already, in 1834, he had been awarded the John Scott medal of 
the Franklin Institute for a reflecting pyrometer, in which he had 
utilized the mirror method of observation to determine the temper- 
ature by means of the linear expansion of a metallic rod when 
under the influence of heat. In 1843, upon his appointment by 
Professor A. D. Bache to the office of Superintendent of Weights and 
Measures, he applied this mirror method to the construction of the 
standard bars used by the Coast Survey in such a way as to secure 
an unvariable length in the bar when subjected to different temper- 
atures. This was done so successfully that the different measure- 
ments of a base line five miles in length did not differ by more 
than half an inch. 

In 1858, Saxton presented to the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, at its Baltimore meeting, a paper giving 
an account of the principal applications which he had made of the 

• Henrj's Biographical Meiuoir, loc. cU., p. SOS. 



145 

revolving mirror to minute measurements. In applying this prin- 
ciple to the adjustment of the measuring rods of the Coast Survey, 
as well as for certain other minute measurements, he had made use 
of a graduated scale instead of a beam of light, the reflected image 
of which^ considerably magnified, was observed by means of a 
telescope. With this improvement, an elongation which does not 
exceed the one hundred thousandth part of an inch becomes a very 
distinct and measurable magnitude. The same apparatus was ap- 
plied, at the request of General Meigs, to determine the expansion 
of diflferent specimens of marble cut into prisms of the same length 
and cross section. The principle involved is evidently applicable 
in all cases where changes in length, in angle or in position are to 
be determined. Saxton himself applied it in the Magnetic Observ- 
atory of Girard College to indicate changes in the magnetic dip 
and also to magnify the motion of the axis of an aneroid barome- 
ter. For this latter purpose, the case of the instrument is removed 
and a mirror about one-half an inch square is attached to the first 
axis of motion. The aneroid is then fastened to a bracket on the 
wall, the axis carrying the mirror being placed horizontally. At a 
distance of about fifteen feet from the mirror a telescope is perma- 
nently adjusted, so that the image of a divided scale placed imme- 
diately below the object glass can be seen in the mirror. With this 
arrangement, the slightest change in the pressure of the air becomes 
apparent. The opening or closing of a door, or a gust of wind over 
the house, produces marked disturbances in the pressure of the at- 
mospheric column, the extent of which can be readily measured.* 

Besides the representative investigations of Franklin in Electro- 
statics, of Hare in Electrokinetics, of Henry in Electromagnetics, 
and of Saxton in Magneto electrics, which have now bcea con- 
sidered, members of the American Philosophical Society have 
made important researches in Magnetism, and especially in the 
magnetism of the earth. 

David Rittenhouse became a member of the Philosophical 
Society on the 19th of January, 1768. On the 6th of February, 
1 781, he read a paper before the Society, entitled ** An Account of 
Some Experiments on Mignetisui,"t in which he set forth his 
theory of the magnetism of iron. In this i)aper he says: *' I sup- 

• Henry's Bic^fraphical Memoir of Saxton, loc. cU , p. 312. 
t TriifU. Anier. Philos. Soc., I, il, 178, 1781. 

PROC. ASiEK. PQILOS. 800. XXXII. 143. S. PHIMTED DEC. 2S, 18D3. 



146 

poie then that magnetical particles of matter are a neoevary ooo- 
stituent part of that metal which we call iron, though thej are 
probably but a nnall proportion of the whole man. These mag- 
netical particles, I suppose, have each a north and a south pole, and 
that they retain their polarity however the metal may be fined or 
otherwise wrought. In a piece of iron which shows no signs of 
magnetism, these magnetical particles lie irregularly with their poles 
pointing in all pofisible directions ; they therefore mutually deirtraj 
each other's effects. By giving magnetism to a piece of iron we do 
nothing more than arrange these particles, and when this ta done 
it depends on the temper and situation of the iron whether that 
arrangement shall continue, that is whether the piece of metal diaD 

remain for a long time magnetical or not By applyiqg 

a magnet to a piece of iron,'* he continues, ** it becomes mag- 
netical ; for the magnet acting strongly on the above- mentioned par^ 
tides, that action arranges them properly ; overcoming the resistance 
of the surrounding pans of the iron, and this resistance afterwards 
serves to secure them in their proper situations and prevents thdr 
being deranged by any little accident..' ' Moreover, " iron or soft 
steel receives magnetism more easily than hardened steel, bnt will 
not retain it. May not this be," he suggests, ** because the magneti- 
cal particles are not so closely confined in soft as in hardened steel, 
and on that account more easily admit of arrangement or derange- 
tnent ?** In one of his experiments, Rittenhouse took a soft steel 
ramrod, having no sign of magnetism, and^ holding it in the line 
of the dip, struck it on one end with a hammer. The lower end 
became a north pole, and when laid on a watch crystal "it 
traversed very well." ** From all this," he reasons, "does it not 
seem very probable that during the concussion of the stroke and 
whilst the magnetical particles of the rod were most disengaged 
from the surrounding mailer, the active power above mentioned 
seized them and arranged them properly, where being confined, the 
rod afterward remained niagnetical." With reference to this 
** active power," he says in a footnote: "There is some power, 
whencesoever derived, diffused through every part of space which 
we have access to, which acts on these magnetical particles, impelling 
one of their poles in a certain direction with respect to the earth, 
and the oiher pole in the opposite direction. The direction in 
which this power acts I take to be the same with that of the dip- 
ping needle." 



147 

In his article on '^Magnetism/' published in ^t Encyclopedia 
Britannica^ Professor Chrystal says : ** The notion of molecular mag- 
nets seems to have been suggested by Kirwan ; but it was not until a 
definite form was given to it by Weber that it acquired any impor- 
tance." The views of Kirwan here referred to are contained in 
a paper entitled '* Thoughts on Magnetism/' published in the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy iox 1797. In this paper 
Kirwan states as follows : ** A magnet therefore is a mass of iron or 
of iron ore, whose oxygenation does not exceed twenty per cent, or 
thereabouts, whose particles are arranged in a direction similar to 
that of the great internal central magnets of the globe. This I call 

the magnetic arrangement Hence a magnet attracts iron 

when within the sphere of its action by forcing, in virtue of its at- 
tractive power, a certain proportion of its integrant particles into a 

disposition and arrangement similar to that of its own 

The disposition of ]>arts in a particular magnet, being similar to 
that which obtains in the great internal general magnet, extends in 
the direction of from north to south. Hence magnets, when 
at liberty to move with a certain degree of freedom, and iron 
when a sufficient number of its particles are arranged in that 
direction, and has sufficient liberty to conform to it, points to those 
poles. Hence this property is called polarity The mag- 
netic power is greater or lesser according to the number and homo- 
geneity of the particles similarly and magnetically arranged 

The power of a magnet (everything else being equal) depends on 
the number of its surfaces magnetically arranged and the accuracy 

of that arrangement The arrangement is accurate when 

the synonymous surfaces are exactly parallel to each other and 
originally conformed to and parallel with those of the great 

general magnet Any motion communicated to the integrant 

particles of iron placed in a proper situation helps them to assume 
the magnetic disposition already impressed upon them by the great 
general magnet."* 

These quotations from Kirwan's paper appear to show that 
the views he held on the nature of magnetism were va^aie and in- 
definite; and therefore seem to justify Prof. Chrystal's conclusion 
that the molecular theory in the form proposed by Kirwan did not 
acquire any importance. Especially would this be so in view 
of the fact that in 1600 Gilbert, in his book '^ De Magnete^'' 

♦ TroM. Rot/ul Irish Acad., \i, 177, 1797. 



148 

showed that if a magnet be broken each piece becomes a complete 
magnet. The opinions of Rittenhouse, however, seem to be 
greatly more clear and precise. The idea of " magnetical 
particles " each having a north and a south pole^ and each retaining 
its polarity, even when the metal is fused, is a perfectly definite one. 
When a piece of iron shows no magnetism, it is because the 
particles lie irregularly, and mutually neutralize one another's 
action; the process of magnetization consisting simply in 
arranging these particles so that their similar poles face similarly. 
If now we take into the account the fact that the paper of Ritten- 
house antedates that of Kirwan by about sixteen years, it would 
seem clear that to our fellow-member belongs indisputably the 
credit of the origin of the molecular theory of magnetism. 

Alexander Dallas Bache was elected a member of the American 
Philosophical Society, April 17, 1829; only a few months after he 
had taken up his residence in Philadelphia as Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. His 
attention was early directed to the subject of Terrestrial Magnetism 
by the remarkable investigations in this direction made by Gauss 
and Weber. And, in 1830, he erected and equipped a little mag- 
netic observatory in the garden attached to his residence, in which 
observations were made regularly for a period of four or five years. 
It was in this observatory that, aided by his wife and by his pupil, 
John F. Frazer, he determined with accuracy, for the first time in 
this country, the periods of the daily variations of the magnetic 
needle. Here, also, by another series of observations, he deter- 
mined the connection of the fitful variations of the direction of the 
magnetic force with the appearance of the aurora borealis. His 
first memoir on the subject was presented to the American Philo- 
sophical Society in November, 1832, and contains the results of 
hourly observations on tlie declination.* These observations were 
made with a very long needle provided with a graduated arc at each 
end. Terrestrial magnetism soon became with him a favorite sub- 
ject and one to which he continued to make valuable contributions 
at intervals during his whole life. Even in his journeys he carried 
wiih him portable instruments with which he determined the mag- 
netic constants of the points he visited. *' What he accomplished 
in later years for this favorite branch of science,*' says Dr. Gould, 

•'•(Hi the Diuniftl Variation of tbe Magnetic Needle," Trans. Amrr. Philot. Soc. (New 

SeruVi, Vol. V, j). 1, 



149 

" the world knows; and it is certainly not too much to say that, of 
what we know to-day of the distribution, intensity and periodic 
and secular changes of terrestrial magnetism, we are indebted quite 
as much to Bache as to any other one man." 

In connection with his colleague, Courtenay, then Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania, he undertook an 
elaborate investigation of the value of the dip and the horizontal 
intensity of the earth's magnetism at several places in the United 
States, the results of which were published in two extended memoirs 
printed in the Transactions of the Society.* 

On his thirtieth birthday, July 19, 1836, Bache was elected Pres- 
ident of Girard College, then about to be put into operation under 
the provisions of the will of Stephen Girard ; and, receiving in- 
structions to visit Europe in order to examine similar institutions 
there, he resigned his chair in the University and spent two years 
abroad. While in Europe he found opportunity to determine the mag- 
netic dip and horizontal intensity at twenty-one stations, with the 
same apparatus and by the same methods which he had employed in 
America; the results of which determinations he communicated to 
the Society in a paper entitled, *' Observations of the Magnetic 
Intensity at Twenty-one Stations in Europe." f These observa- 
tions were made with the view of ascertaining the relative direction 
and strength of the magnetic force in Europe and America by the 
comparison of parallel series of observations in the two countries 
with the same instruments. They also served, in most instances, to 
settle with greater precision than had previously been attained the 
relative magnetic condition of the stations at which they were 
made. 

It was while waiting for the College to go into operation that 
Prof. Bache entered into active cooperation with the great under- 
taking of the British Association, ** to determine, by contempora- 
neous observations at widely separated points, the fluctuations of the 
magnetic and meteorological elements of the globe. This cor)per- 

♦ "Observations to Determine the Magnetic Dip at Baltiinon?, Philu<lel[)liia. New Yorli, 
West Point, Providence, SpriiiRfield and Albany," Tram. Amer. riiilos. s<>r. (N.u Series), 
V, 209. 1834. 

*'On the Relative Horizontal Intensities of Terrestrial Magnetism at Seveml Plaees in 
the United St*ites, with the Investigation of Corrections for Temperature and Com iwirisons 
of the Methods of Oscillation in Full and Rarefied Air," Trans. Amcr. Philos. Soc. (New 
Series), V, 427, 1836. 

t Trans. Amer. Philos. Sjc. (New Series), vii, 75, 1810 ; Proceedings Amer. Philos. Soc, i, 185. 



160 

atioQ, in irhich» no doubt, a feeliitg of national pride mingled itadf 
with his ardor for the advancement of icienGe« oomiited primarilj 
in the establishment of an observatory, to which the tmsteet ot 
Girard College contributed a foil set of instruments, oomUniiig all 
the latest improvemoits, and which was supported by the Ameriaui 
Philosophical Society and by a number of liberal and intelligent in- 
dividuals. The observations which were here continued at short 
intervals, both by day and night, for five years, form a rich nine 
of statistics from which, until within the last few years of his life^ 
the professor drew a highly interestiug series of results without 
exhausting the material." * Of this Girard College Magnetic Ob> 
servatory, in which, by the untiring labors of Proflnsor Bacbe him* 
srlf and his efficient assistants, this great wealth of valuable scientific 
material was gathered, no vestige remains. Not only is there no 
trace of the building itself or any of its parts to be found within 
the walls of that institution, but tliere is even a considerable difiov 
ence of opinion as to its exact location. No single spot in VbihF 
delpbia surpasses this in scientific interest. Maj we not hope thst 
the trustees of Girard College will see to it that the exact site of 
this observatory is accurately determined and that at least a tablet 
be placed thereon to mark a spot so important as a magnetic cen- 
tre? f 

In November, 1843, Professor Bache was appointed Superintend- 
ent of the Coast Survey of the United States; and, a month later. 
Superintendent of Weights and Measures. " The volume of testi- 
monials and recommendations/' says Dr. Gould, ''upon the 
strength of which this appointment was made, has been shown me; 
and their number and character has made a deep impression. I 
cannot believe that such a weight of recommendation was evor 
brought at any time in support of a candidate for office on purely 
intellectual grounds. I can think of no man in the country, emi- 
nent in physical science^ or holding a prominent scientific position, 
whose name was not signed to some one of that voluminous mass of 
memorials asking the appointment of Professor Bache. All the sci- 

•" Biographical Memoir of Alexander Dallas Bache," by Joseph Henry, BfognfkMl 

Memoirs yat. Acad. Sciences, Vol. 1, p. 181 Read April 16, 1869. 

t Mr. Charles H. Cramp, of this city, and Mr. George Dayidson, of San Trmndmeo, boCh 
members of the American Philosophical Society, were assistants to Prof. Bache in thii 
ol)<H.>rvHtory. Mr. Cramp recently gave to the writer an extremely intereftlng Meouit of 
the Imilding and of the instruments contained within it, as well as Of tiie meUiodiOf 
observation which were pursued in the determinations. 



151 

entific societies and colleges, together with several of the learned 
associations of Europe, gave their influence and added their 
endorsement to the request.*** It is gratifying to know that his 
appointment to this position was first suggested by the members of 
the American Philosophical Society. 

Among the many directions in which the operations of the Coast 
Survey were now to be extended, Professor Bache very naturally in- 
eluded terrestrial magnetism; observations of the dip and the varia- 
tion of the needle and of the intensity of the earth*s magnetism 
being introduced as a part of the regular routine. He retained his 
own personal interest in these matters, and contributed from time 
to time scientific memoirs upon them to the learned bodies of which 
he was a member. 

Of the memoirs thus communicated a few may here be men- 
tioned. At the Albany meeting of the American Association, held 
in 1856, a paper was presented by Professor Bache, in conjunction 
with J. E. Hilgard, " On the General Distribution of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism in the United States, from Observations Made in the United 
States Coast Survey and Others.** At that time the number of 
magnetic stations established by the Survey amounted to one hun- 
dred and sixty, distributed, though somewhat irregularly, along the 
entire sea coast of the United States, on a great portion of which 
magnetic observations were now made for the first time. The 
object of the paper was to deduce from the Coast Survey observa- 
tions, in connection with others of recent date, the general distri- 
bution of terrestrial magnetism in the United States, as far as the 
data available will warrant the conclusions. With regard to the 
method and instruments used, only a brief notice is given. ^^ In 
observing the declination^ the magnetic meridian has generally been 
obtained by means of collimator magnets, using Gauss and Weber's 
transportable magnetometer; while the astronomical meridian was 
derived from the triangle sides of the Coast Survey or obtained 
by direct observations. The dip has been observed with needles of 
from six to ten inches in length, made by Gambey and by Barrow. 
Two needles have generally been used, or, wlien only one was 
employed, it has been carefully tested and compared. The hori- 
zontal intensity has been determined in absolute measure by vibra- 
tions and deflections, according to the methods of (}auss and La- 
mont. The units of measure are those used in the British surveys. 

•"Address In Cora mem oration of Alexander Dalljis Bache." )»y Benjamin Apthorp 
Gould, Proceedings Anur. Asioc, Adv. ScUnce, Chicago meeting, 1S68, Vol. xvli, p 1. 



168 

From tlie mgnaatDt of rqpeated ofaieratioiii* it is infmed tbift 
tlie unoatunly of the obMnntioiiB at a partimhr ^miC doei aot 
exceed one or two miiratei of are in tte dcdiaatioa and dip aad 
one fifeJumdrcdih part of the horiioDtal fince." The rendti ob- 
tained are given in a tafak, showing, in parsllel oolmnna, '* the 
latitude and longitode of the ststjom, the declination, dip and 
horizontal intensity of the earth's magnetic force, the date of the 
observations and a reference to the partimlar locslity, its geologj 
and other attending drcnmstances^" * 

At the Springfield meeting in 1859, ProfesK>r Bacfae prcientBd 
to the American Aaiociation a paper entitled " Genersl Aocoont of 
the Resolts of the Discussion of the Declinometer Obsemtioni 
made at Ginurd CoU^e, Philadelphia, between the Years 1840 
to 1845, ^^^^ Special reference to the Eleven*Year Beriod." 
"In co5peration/' he sajfs, "with the scheme ad o pted st 
the British colonial observatories, a series of magnetic and meteor- 
ological observations were made at the Ginud Collie Ob sei v at oty 
with instruments purchased under the direction of the trustees of 
the College, the observations being made under the patnxMfe 
of the American Philosophical Society, and finally completed far 
the use of the Topographical Bureau of the War Department 
These observations were made under my direction and superin- 
tendence. The series commenced in May, 1840, and, with short 
interruptions, terminated in June, 1845 » ^^^^ furnishing a five 
years' series of magnetic obsen-ations taken bi-hourly up to 

October, 1843, ^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ hourly It is proposed 

especially to investigate the law of the eleven-year period, or, as it 
is more frequently called, the decennial period, there being yet an 
uncertainty as to its precise length. It is supposed to have some 
direct or indirect connection with the solar spot period, which cor- 
respondence, according to late investigations by Prof. R. Wolf, b 
so close as to exhibit even analogous disturbances, "f Mr. Schott's 
mathematical discussion of these observations gave results showing 
plainly the inequality constituting the ten or eleven-year period, 
the year 1843 being directly indicated as the year of the minimum 
range of the diurnal fluctuation. 

Two papers dealing with the phenomena of Terrestrial Magne- 
tism were presented by Professor Bache to the American AssociatioD 
at its meeting in Newport in i860. The first of these was a "Gcd- 

• Proc. Amfr. A$9or. Adv. Science, x, 187, 1856. 
t Ibid., xiU, 218, 1H59. 



153 

eral Account of the Results of Part II of the Discussion of the 
Declinometer Observations, made at the Girard College, Philadel- 
phia, between 1840 and 1845, ^^^^ Special Reference to the Solar- 
diurnal Variation and its Annual Inequality." The results of this 
discussion are thus given : "The general character of the diurnal 
motion is nearly the same for the summer half year, for the winter 
half, and therefore for the whole year. The greatest eastern de- 
flection is, at a mean, reached at a quarter before eight a.m., being 
a quarter of an hour earlier in the summer, and half an hour later 
in the winter. Near this hour the declination is a minimum. The 
greatest western deflection is reached, at a mean, at a quarter after 
one o'clock p.m., a few minutes earlier in both the summer and 
winter. At this hour the declination is a maximum. The diurnal 
curve presents but a single wave, slightly interrupted by a deviation 
occurring during the hours near midnight, or from ten p.m. to 
one A.M., when the magnet has a direct or westerly motion. 
Shortly after one a.m. the north end of the magnet moves easterly, 
completing the cycle and arriving at its eastern elongation shortly 
before eight a.m. This nocturnal deviation is well marked in 
winter, vanishes in summer, and is but slightly perceptible in the 
annual curve."* 

The second paper is an '^Abstract of a Discussion of the 
Influence of the Moon on the Declination of the Magnetic 
Needle, from the Observations made at the Girard College, Phil- 
adelphia, between the Years 1840 and 1845." ^^ ^^^ [)revious 
discussions of the Philadelphia observations of magnetic de- 
clination, Professor Bache had shown how the influence of magnetic 
disturbances, of the eleven-year period, of the solar diurnal 
variation and its annual inequality, of the secular change and 
of the annual variation might be severally eliminated, leaving 
residuals from which the lunar influence is to be studied. ** One 
of the first questions to determine is, how many of these residuals 
must be used to give a definite result ? and another one is whether 
numbers deduced from different parts of the series would give har- 
monious results? To test both of these the observations were 
formed into three groups, one containing four thousand nine 
hundred in nineteen months of 1840 and 1841 ; another, six 
thousand seven hundred and fifteen results in twenty-one months 
of 1842 and 1843; ^"^ ^ third, ten thousand and twenty-nine 

• Proc. Amer. Asaoc. Adv. Science, xlv, 74, 1860. 

rnOC. AMEB. FUILOS. 800. XXXII. 143. T. PRINTED DEC. 28, 1893. 



154 

results in eighteen months of 1844 and 1845 > ^^ ^^^ twenty-one 
thousand six hundred and forty-four results." The curves obtained 
by discussing these groups " all agree in their distinctive character, 
and show two east and two west deflections in a lunar day, the 
maxima W. and E. occurring about the upper and lower culmina- 
tions, and the minima at the intermediate six hours. The total range 
hardly reaches 0.5'. These results agree generally with those 
obtained for Toronto and Prague. From eight thousand to ten 
thousand observations seem to be required to bring out the results 
satisfactorily, and the best results are derived from the use of both 
groups.*** 

These discussions of the magnetic and meteorological observations 
made at the Girard College Observatory, were published tn extense 
in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge^ and also in the 
Reports of the Coast Survey, Besides the three parts above men- 
tioned, nine other parts were issued, the last in 1864 ; all covering 
the time from 1840 to 1845, ^'^^ including only the observations 
made in that single observatory. 

I have now accomplished the task which has been assigned to me 
by your Committee. I have endeavored to sketch briefly but 
clearly the progress which has been made in electrical science since 
this Society was founded, and to present the steps of this progress 
in the form of epochs, each typified by the work of one of the 
eminent men of science whose names have shed lustre upon 
the roll of its membership. The labors of these men have 
mightily contributed to advance the development of scientific 
thought throughout the world, and so to bring about that 
exceptional evolution of electrical facts and theories which is 
the distinguishing feature of the science of the nineteenth century. 
Space has not allowed me to recount all that has been done by the 
members of this Society, even in this single direction. Many 
of them are still actively pushing outward the boundaries of 
knowledge, and are laying the foundations of yet more remarkable 
achievements. The work of these men it will be the pri/ilege 
of some future historian of the Society to chronicle. May the 
record of the contributions made by the American Philosophical 
Society to the progress of science, in the time to come, be as 
rich and as brilliant as is its record since it first came into 
existence in i 743. 

* /Voc. Amn. A990C. Adv. Scicncf, xiv, 83, 18*>0. 



155 



Appendix. 

List of Papers on EUctrieity and Magnetism Published by the American 

Philosophical Society. 

I. Transactions (Old Series). 

1. Theory of Thunder and Lightning Storms. Andrew Oliver., ii, 74 

2. Account of an Electrical Eel or Torpedo from Surinam. IVil- 

Ham Bryant. ii, 166 

3. Observations on tlie Numb Fbh or Torporific Eel. Henry 

Collins Flagg. ^ ii, 170 

4. Experiments in Magnetism. D. Rittenhouse ii» 178 

5. Observations on th? Aurora Borealis. Jeremy Belknap ii, 196 

6. Easy and Accurate Method of Finding a True Meridian Line 

and Thence the Variation of the Compass. R. Patterson ii, 251 

7. Queries Relating to Magnetism and the Theory of the Earth. 

Benjamin Franklin iii, 10 

8. Magnetic Observations at the University of Cambridge, Massa- 

chusetts, in the Year 1783. Rev. Samuel Williams.. . . iii, 115 

9. Account of Several Houses in Philadelphia Struck by Light- 

ning on June 7, 1789. D. Rittenhouse and John Jones. iii, 119 

10. Account of the Effects of a Stroke of Lightning on a House 

Furnished with Two Conductors. D. Rittenhouse and 

F. Ilopkinson iii, 122 

11. Improvement on Metallic Conductors or Lightning Rods. 

R. Patterson iii, 321 

12. Experiments in Magnetism. Rev. James Madison iv, 323 

IL Transactions (New Series). 

13. On the Diurnal Variation of the Needle. -/. D. Bache v, i 

14. Observations to Determine the Magnetic Dij) at Baltimcro, 

Philadelphia, New York, West Point, Providence, Spring- 
field and Albany. A. D. Bache v, 209 

15. Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism — No. i. Descrip- 

tion of a Galvanic Battery for Producing Electricity of 

Different Intensities. Joseph Henry v, 217 

16. Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism — No. 2. On the 

Influence of a Spiral Conductor in Increasing the Inten- 
sity of Electricity from a Galvanic Arrangement of a Sin- 
gle Pair. Joseph Henry v, 223 



156 

I J. Description of an Electrical Machine with a Plate Four Feet in 
Diameter .... also of a Battery Discharger .... and 
Some Observations on the Causes of the Diversity in the 
Length of the Sparks, erroneously distinguished by the 
Terms «« Positive " and « Negative." Robert Hare, ..... ▼» 3^5 

1 8. On the Relative Horizontal Intensities of Terrestrial Magnet- 

ism at Several Places in the United States, with the Inves- 
tigation of Corrections for Temperature and Comparisons 
of the Methods of Oscillation in Full and RareBed Air. 
A. D, Bache v, 427 

19. On the Magnetic Dip at Several Places in the State of Ohio, 

and on the Relative Horizontal and Magnetic Intensities of 

Cincinnati and London. John Locke, vi, 267 

20. Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism — No. 3. On Elec- 

tro-dynamic Induction. Joseph Henry vi, 303 

21. Engraving and Description of a Rotary Multiplier, or One in 

which One or More Needles are Made to Revolve by a 

Galvanic Current. R, Hare , ▼!, 343 

22. Observations to Determine the Magnetic Dip at Various Places 

in Ohio and Michigan. E, Loomts vii, I 

23. Observations of the Magnetic Intensity at Twenty-one Stations 

in Europe. A, D. Bache vii, 75 

24. Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism — No. 4. On Elec- 

tro-dynamic Induction. Joseph Henry viii, I 

25. Observations to Determine the Magnetic Dip at Various Places 

in the United Stales. E. Loomts viii, 61 

26. Additional Observations on the Magnetic Dip in the United 

States. E. Loomis viii, 101 

27. Observations Made in the Years 1838- 1843 ^^ Determine the 

Maj^netic Dip and Intensity of Magnetic Force. John 

Locke viii, 283 

28. Observations on the Magnetic Dip Made in the United States 

in 1841. J. N. Nicollett viii, 317 

29. Observations of tlie Magnetic Dip Made at Several Positions, 

Chiefly on the Southwestern and Northeastern Frontiers of 
the United Stales, and of the Magnetic Declination at the 
Positions on the River Sabine, in 1840. James D. Gra- 
ham ix, 329 

30. (.)l servations of llie Magnetic Dip of the United States. E. 

Loomis xi, 181 

III. Pkockedings. 

31. Magnetic Kxp.Timents. John Locke i, 24 

32. Sherwood's Discoveries in Magnetism. R. AL Patterson .., , i, 25 

3 ^. Elcitro dynamic Induction. Joseph Henry , i, 54^ 31c 

34. Rock Blasting by Galvanism. Robert Hare , i, 99 



157 

35- Aurora of September 3, 1839. S. Alexander i> 13^ 

36. Discovery of Two Kinds of Dynamic Induction by a Galvanic 

Current. Joseph Henry >» '35 

37. Magnetic Dip. E. Loomis i> 144* 3^^ 

38. On the MagneticDip. A, D, Bache i, 146, 151 

39. Magnetic Observations. A, D, Bache i, 185, 294 

40. Galvanic Influence Through Wire Coil. Robert Hare i» '99 

41. Galvanic Deflagration. Robert Hare i* ^53 

42. Electricity from Steam. R. M, Patterson i, 320 

43. Electricity from Steam. G. Emerson ii, 3 

44. Magnetic Observations. John Locke, ii» 35 

45. Magnetic Observations. A. D, Bache ii. 69, 83, 10 1, 150 

46. Magnetic Observations. J. D, Graham ii, 84 

47. Magnetic Distribution. Joseph Henry ii, 1 1 1 

4S. Magnetic Observations. E. Loomis ii> 1 14« 176, 185 

49. Electrical Induction. Joseph Henry ii, 1 22, 229 

50. Magnetic Meridan. Major Bache ii» ' 37 

51. Non-electricity of Nascent Steam. Robert Hare ii, 160 

52. Induction Inclinometer. A, D, Bache ii, 237 

53. Inclinometer. H Lloyd ii, 237 

54. Magnetic Observations. A. D. Bache iii, 90, 175 

55. On the Magnetic Dip. A, D, Bache iv, 11 

56. Terrestrial Magnetism. John Locke iv, 63 

57. Magnetic Observations. John Locke iv, 109 

58. Lightning Protectors. Joseph Henry iv, 179 

59. Observations on the Magnetic Dip. J. D. Graham iv, 205 

60. Expenments on Electricity. Joseph Henry , iv, 209 

61. On Magnetism. G. M. Justice iv, 218 

62. Polarization of Water. Joseph Henry i\ , 229 

63. Eflfect of Lightning on Telegraph Wires. S. D. Jn^hain iv, 259 

64- Effects of Lightning on Telegraph Wires. Joseph Henry.,,, iv, 260 

65. A New Telegraphic Clock. John Locke v, 5 1, 206 

66. Telegraphic Operations of the United States Coast Survey. .S'. 

C. IVaikcr V, 74 

67. Telegraphs for Railroad Uses. Zautedesihi vi, 266 

68. Duplex Transmission. Zanledeschi. vi, 267 

69. Measure of Electrical Nervous Muscular Sensibility. Zantt.- 

deschi , \ i, 2«; I 

70. Remarkable Electrical Phenomena. John C. Lri"..i>n vii, ;;S5 

71. Heights of Auroras. B. V. Marsh x, 2\ 

7 2. Diamagnelism. John C. Crcsson x . J ',>'y 

73. Effects of Lightning in Deep Mines. Doc A- x, 2S.S 

74. Recent Auroras. John C. Crcsson xi, 322 

75. Spectroscopic Examination of the Aurora, Ajr:! 10, 1S72. J\ 

Frazer xii, 579 

76. Electric Spectra of Metals. A. E. Outcrbnd^e xiv, lOi 



158 

77. A New Vertical Lantern Galvanometer. G, F. Barker ziv, 440 

78. Effect of Magnetic and Galvanic Forces on Iron and Steel. 

C, M, Cresson xvi, 603 

79. Theory of Magnetic Declination. P, Fra%er. xvi, 64s 

80. Telegraphic Overtones. P, Frater zviii, 39 

81. Electrolytic Estimation of Cadmium. E. F, Smith xviii, 46 

82. Circumstances Influencing the Efficiency of Dynamo-electric 

Machines. E, Thomson and E, y, Houston xviii, 58 

83. Obituary of Joseph Henry. F. Rogers xviii, 461 

84. The Aurora of April 19, 1882. H. C. Lewis xx, 235, 283 

85. New Standard Cell. G. F. Barker xx, 638, 649 

86. Effects of a Secondary Battery. Russell Thayer xx» 639 

87. On the Synchronous Multiplex Telegraph. Edwin J. Hous- 

ton xxi, 307, 326 

88. Photography by a Lightning Flash. Edwin J, Houston xxiii, 257,318 

89. On a Non-magnetizable Watch. Edwin y. Houston, xxiv, 418 

90. Electrolysis of Lead Solutions. Edgar F, Smith xxiv, 428 

91. Muscular Contractions Following Death by Electricity. Ed- 

win y, Houston xxviii, 36 

92. Scientific Work of Benjamin Franklin, y, fV, Holland xxviii, 199 

93. The Electrolysis of Metallic Formates. H, S, iVarwick xxix, 103 



Mr. Wharton next addressed the Society as follows : 

Gentlemen : — A few years ago it was not known that any other 
substance but iron possessed the power of acquiring permanent 
magnetism, though it was of course known that nickel and cobalt 
were magnetic metals. The fact that they themselves could be 
made into magnets was never known until I myself, with my own 
hands, hammered out the first magnetic needle that ever had been 
made of any other substance than steel, which I think was in the 
year 1874. I had after a short time several compasses constructed, 
furnished with needles made of nickel. One of them I sent to the 
Russian Government, one to the French Government, one to the 
British (Govern ment and one to our own, in order that they might 
be sent to sea and experimented with. The British Government 
and the American Government took no notice of it, but the Russian 
and French Governments investigated the subject very thoroughly 
and made reports on it. Lord Kelvin, then Sir William Thomp- 
son, investigated the properties of sheet nickel, I furnishing him a 
piece of sheet nickel with which he investigated the properties of 



J 



159 

nickel in that form as compared with iron in that form, for the pro- 
duction of galvanic currents. Several years later, in order to in- 
crease what is called the magnetic quality of nickel, which you no 
doubt know is much feebler than that of steel, I had a series of bars 
made of alloys of nickel and tungsten, as, it being known that 
tungsten increases the magnetic quality of steel, I thought it might 
act the same with nickel. With those bars I investigated and found 
that the hypothesis which I had formed was correct, and I had a 
series of those made with progressive increases of the alloy of tung- 
sten, and the result of all that has been published and I will not de- 
tain you with it. Those series of bars unfortunately were lost, as I 
sent them to the Exhibition at Paris, and they were never returned. 
One of the ship's compasses which were magnetized, I think in the 
year 1874, I lately investigated and found that the magnetism re- 
mained apparently about as strong as it was in the beginning, show- 
ing that the magnetism of a magnetic needle composed of pure 
nickel is permanent. 

President Fralej then made the following closing address : 

The programme for the celebration of our 150th anniversary is 
now literally completed. I cannot say farewell to you, for what I 
have felt here in meeting so many new and so many old friends doe*) 
not permit me to enterlain the thought that I must part from them. 
All I can say is that we have been signally ble:»sed in thi:> celebra- 
tion. We have not only had a perpetuation of good words and 
perj;>etualion of good cheer, but the beginning of friend-hip:^ wiiir.i. 
will last certainly so long as we are permitted to tread tiic earth. I 
thank you all for what has been given to us upon thi^o< caM«»i], hojj- 
ing, as Prof. Barker has expressed the hoj^e, that the ;:ood work for 
the promotion of science will goon fur a series and acriL-, and S' ri' - 
of 150 years; that not only our own institution may tak'? i*- part 
in the great work of promoting useful knowledge, b'lt all ih'.- ;ii-ti- 
tulions that are represented here and all otiicr^ wiio arr n-^t and 
have tendered their congratulations will e'j'ialiy (ffUUu'v^ at work, 
and that those who come, I will say 150 years hen( e, but I will 
shorten the period and say all those wl.o may come here fiity years 
hence, will find the old hall standing on its f«;undation with at ( u- 
mulated treasures within its walls and precious memc^ries en( ir- 
cling the hearts of all those who have been in the past members 



160 

of the Society and who are now its present members, all those who 
have been correspondents of the Society in the past and are present 
correspondents, and that it will be followed by a perpetuity of ex- 
istence and a perpetuity of correspondence that will endure forever. 
So 1 shall not say farewell, but I will announce that so far as I am 
concerned this body shall be continued in session until another fifty 
years roll around, and ask that you will make the advent of such a 
coming a welcome to every one. 

Adjourned. j 

Friday, May 26 — 3 o'clock p.m. Through invitation of .1|L 
Charles II. Cramp, the Society and guests visited Cramp's "Jini 
yard and inspected the plant. 



•» 



The Union League and the Art Club of Philadelphia op«p| 
their Houses for the use of the delegates and mecnbera duzii^. 
their stay in the city. ;^ 



The rooms of the College of Physicians were opened dailjf 
for the use of the guests and members of the Sooietj, ftoni 
10 A.M to 6 P.M. 



LDINGS AM. PHIL. SOC. 




^lEW IN LIBRARY, 



F INDEPENDENCE. 




APPENDIX. 

PERS PRESENTED DURING THE 
ANNIVERSARY. 



0. AMKR. PHILOS. SOC. XXXtl. 143. U. PRIItTED JAU. S, 18M, 



163 



Tertiary TipuKda, with Special Reference to those of Florissant, 

Colorado, 



By Samuel If, Scudder, 
Plates i-g. 



I. Introduction. 
II. Historical Account of the Euro- 

pean Tertiary Tipulidx, with 

Comments. 
III. Alphabetical List of European 

Tertiary Tipulidae, with their 

Probable Systematic Position. 



IV. Tabular View of Tertiary Tiimli 
die, Systematically Arranged. 
V. Note on Prctertiary Tipulidx. 
VI. Family Tipulida*. 
VII. The Subfamily Limnobimi?. 
VIII. The Subfamily Tipulina;. 



I. Introduction. 

The occasion of the present memoir is the wish to bring to pub- 
lic attention a portion of the remarkably preserved remains oi 
insects at Florissant, Colorado, in a lake deposit adjudged to 
be of oligocene age. The locality is already famous for the extra- 
ordinary abundance and variety, as well as the excellent condition, 
of the insect remains therein entombed, and perhaps no group of 
insects shows this more strikingly than the family of ** Crane-flies *' 
or '* Daddy Long- Legs.*' 

Several hundred specimens have been collected there, and in a 
very considerable number of them, representing many species, as 
the accompanying plates * will testify, not only is the venation 
of the wings completely represented, with all their most delicate 
markings, but also the slender and fragile legs with their clothing 
of hairs and spurs, and to some degree, at least, the antenna; and 
palpi. Even the facets of the compound eye are often preserved as 
in life. Previous illustrations of fossil Ti|)ulidii; have rarely rci)re- 
sented more than the wings, and even these generally in a very 
insufficient manner; so that merely as illustrations of fossil remains, 
the present plates far surpass all that have gone ber(;re, and render 
the study of foifsil Tipulidie very different from our former meagre 
opportunities. If satisfactory illustrations could only be publi.^hed 

* By the olieerful permission of the Director of ih»; V.. S. 0«mi1oumi; -1 Survey, I liiiv*.- hu'l 
jil:irt*<l lit ray (lls|KiSMil for tlie illustration of this iinMuoir thi.* 'Iriiuiii;,'^ (if tiHr.'.*- ins».'«t> 
uia>ic un«ler my direction, an<l lx;lonj<lng to lhe^=urviy. 



164 

of the numerous forms of Tipulidae recognized by Loew in Prus- 
sian amber, we should now have a far better basis for some exact 
knowledge of the past. 

Up to the present time the only known fossil Tipulidae from 
America were the few which I have published from the Green 
River beds in Wyoming, and the White River beds in western 
Colorado. In preparing the present memoir these have been sub- 
jected to a fresh study by comparison with those at Florissant, though 
I have not attempted to extend our knowledge of the fauna of 
these deposits, but have merely described the Florissant species, 
and introduced those known from other localities in their proper 
systematic position. In doing this the number of the previously 
described types has been reduced by two, and there remain six 
species of four genera of Limnobinae from White River, and two 
species of one genus of Tipulinae from Green Riven Other 
species are in my possession which will be published on a future 
occasion. 

The new forms here described come, as stated, from Florissant 
only, and number twenty-nine species of ten genera of Limnobinae, 
and twenty-two species of five genera of Tipulinae. No such 
extensive addition to tertiary Tipulidae has been made since Loew 
first indicated the riches (still unpublished, after the lapse of forty- 
three years) of the amber fauna of Europe. If we were to com- 
pare the now described and figured tertiary species of America 
with the actually described or figured tertiary species of Europe 
(seventeen species of seven genera of Limnobinae, eleven species of 
three genera of Tipulinae), we should find twice as many Limno- 
binae, and more than twice as many Tipulinae ; or a Tipulid fauna 
considerably more than twice as rich as that of Europe. 

In a memoir on the Tertiary Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of North 
Anuricay now passing through the press (Monograph xxi, U. S. 
Geological Survey), I have called attention to the fact that not 
a single one of the one hundred and sixteen species of weevils 
found fossil at Florissant occurs in any of the three other prolific 
localities of fossil insects in Colorado and Wyoming ; while each of 
these three (Roan Mountains, in western Colorado ; White River, 
at the boundary between Colorado and Utah ; and Green River, 
Wyoming — which together possess seventy- five species) shares from 
one third to two thirds its species with one or the other of its neigh- 
bors. From these facts, and from the field evidence, I have drawn 



165 

the conclusion that the three principal insect localities in western 
Colorado and Wyoming are deposits in a single body of water, the 
ancient Gosiute Lake, as it was called by Clarence King; and 
in speaking of remains from these deposits as a whole, I have 
applied to them the term Gosiute Fauna in distinction from the 
Florissant or Lacustrine Fauna in central Colorado. 

The result of the present studies upon the Tipulidae also has been 
to show that no single species of the Lacustrine fauna occurs in the 
Gosiute fauna, though the paucity of remains in the latter does not 
give this fact the same weight as in the Rhynchophora ; and it 
should also be mentioned that among the few genera found in two 
of the localities in the Gosiute fauna, the species of each locality are 
distinct from those of the other. 

In his first extended communication on the amber Diptera, Loew 
called attention to the remarkable alliance of that fauna with the 
existing fauna of the eastern United Slates. He further expanded 
the subject in a most interesting essay, translated by Osten Sacken 
and published in Siiliman's Journal for 1864. In this paper he 
reached the conclusion that ** the amber Diptera stand in a much 
closer relation to the North American and to the European [/. ^., 
those now existing] than to those of any other fauna ** ; and he 
further asserts " with the utmost certainty that those among the 
living Diptera which most closely resemble the amber Diptera, 
abound in a most prevailing degree in North America and especially 
between the latitudes of about 32° to 40°.*' 

Baron Osten Sacken, in numerous passages, has insisted upon the 
same resemblance. In the Tabular View of Tertiary Tipulidae we 
have given further on, it will be seen that (omitting Tanymcra as 
doubtful) thirteen genera are credited to the Baltic amber, of which 
ten are found in America, and one of them in North America only 
besides its occurrence in amber ; this last is Idioplasta. On the 
other hand, only eight of the amber genera occur now in Europe, 
and all these genera have also American rei)resentatives. At the 
most, two genera, Trichoneura and Calobamon (and Tanyn^.cra 
also, if it is to be included), seem to be known bo far only in amber, 
but they are all as yet imperfectly characterized. Only five of the 
amber genera have representatives elsewhere than in Europe or 
America, and one of these is cosmopolitan. 

No such striking conclusions can be reached from the study of the 
tertiary Tipulidae of North America, at least at present. A large 



166 

proportion of the genera are extinct (genera which include about 
one third of the species), and of the remainder the larger proportion 
are genera found in north temperate regions of both worlds. 
Cladura only (with the allied extinct Cladoneura) shows dis- 
tinctively American affinities, and none are more nearly allied to 
the genera of the European fauna, whether recent or extinct, than 
to those of the existing American fauna. 

In making a comparison between our tertiary Tipulid fauna and 
that of North America north of Mexico on the one hand, and 
the more imperfectly known fauna of the southern part of North 
America * on the other, the tertiary fauna distinctly appears more 
nearly related to the former, for the latter contains the following 
only: Limnobini, i sp.; Rhamphidini, 3 sp.; Eriopterini, 3 sp.; 
Limnophilini, 6 sp.; and Anisomerini, 7 sp., a total of twenty Lira- 
nobinae ; and there are besides eighteen Tipulinae. The relative 
proportion of Tipulinae is therefore much greater ; while among the 
Limnobinae the tribe Anisomerini, not represented at all among 
the fossils (and having in the United States and Canada but six 
per cent, of the species, if the tribes represented in Mexico and 
Central America alone are counted) possesses no less than thirty-five 
per cent, of all Limnobinae, while the Limnobini have but five per 
cent. It is only in the relative numbers of the Rhamphidini that 
any nearer approach is seen between the tertiary fauna of Colorado 
and the present Central American fauna. 

Nor, if we examine the genera separately, can we come to any 
different result, for while the fossils show in several instances an 
identity with or close affinity to those found in the United States, 
the only genera among them which are also represented in the Cen- 
tral American fauna are the widespread and prolific types, Limno- 
phila (sens, lat.) and Tipula; and not a single other genus found in 
the south shows any particular affinity to the extinct forms. We are 
forced to conclude, therefore, that the general affinities of the fossils 
are with the existing fauna of the general region in which they are 
found. The distribution, however, of the living genera in the 
United States is too little known to permit any definite and de- 
cisive conclusions on this latter point. 

The relative representation in species of the different groups of 
Limnobinae and of the total number of Limnobinae and Tipulinae 
in different regions in past and present times is shown in the follow- 

♦ As givcu in Baron Osten Siicken's contribution to the Biologia CentroUi-Americana. 



167 



ing table, where Ihey are given first in numbers and next in per- 
centages. Osten Sacken's Catalogue of the Diptera of North America 
{1878) is taken for the living American forms, excluding the species 
found only south of the United States; Schiner*s Fauna Austriaca 
(1864) supplies the basis for the European forms, including the 
species merely enumerated as well as those described by him, and 
thus including all Europe ; while the results of the present memoir, 
subsequently detailed, have been taken for the remaining columns. 

Comparative View of Recent and Tertiary Tipulidce. 



Tribes. 



Limnobini 

Khamphidini . . 
Eriopterini. ,, , 
IJmnophilini . . 
Ani*omerini. . . 
Amalopini . . .. 
Cvlindrotomini 
Ptychoplcrini. . 



IN NUMBERS. 

(Figures represent number 

of species.) 



h 



39 
12 

41 
42 

8 

15 

4 
6 



13 
4 
7 
4 
o 

o 
6 
o 



> 

< C 



19 

8 
II 
21 

3 
4 
o 

I 



Z 

H 
U 

tu 



M 

A. 

o 

X 



IN percenta(;es. 



•b ^ :e. 7. 






I ! 



86 i 

57|' 

57 
8 

22 

•7 

6 



■"J 

7 

25 

25 

5' 

9 
2 



38; 

12 

2I| 

12 

O 

O 

l8i 

o! 



< 6. 

■Ml *^. 



28! 

I 

12 

16, 

31 

4 
6 
o 
I 



U 

X 



o 

X 



35 



9 
3 



SUBFAMII.II-:5. 

IJmnobinrc ; 167 35 

Tipulin.t; I 104 24 



99 10 1 98 100 



67 
^i 



Totals. 



271 59 98 



249 
122 



371 



62 



^9 
41 



6S 






^>7 



100 ICO 100 100 



This table, and especially the side representing the percentages, 
shows some remarkable features. The relative proportion of the 
two subfamilies is shown to be somewhat different on the two con- 
tinents, whether past or present time is considered, but it presents 
striking similarities when on either continent the tertiary and 
present times arc compared^ there being in lOurope scarcely the 
slightest variation. 

But when the several elements of the Limnobinoe are separately 
considered, a somewhat different state of things appears. Here, in 



163 

a distinct though not in any striking way, the taUe ihows dut m 
far as the relative numbers of the subordinate groups of the tertiarj 
fauna of North America are concerned, our tertiary Tipulidse hate 
a closer relationship to the fauna of tertiary Europe than to that of 
America to-day. One disturbing element, howeveri is introduced in 
the great prominence of the Cylindrotomini among the fossits, doe 
to the large numbers of the genus Cyttaromyia, which must be 
looked upon as on the whole the most striking feature of the 
tertiary Tipulidse of North America. 

As a summary of general results obtained from the careful study 
of these remains, we venture to submit the following propositions: 

1. The general facies of the Tipulid fauna of our western ter- 
tiaries is American, and agrees best with the fauna of about the 
same latitude in America, as far as we are at present acquainted 
with it. 

2. All the species are extinct, and though the Gosiute Lake and the 
ancient lacustrine basin of Florissant were but little removed from 
each other, and the deposits of both are presumably of oligocene 
age, not a single instance is known of the occurrence of the same 
species in the two basins. The Tipulid fauna of the Gosiute Lake, 
however, is as yet very little known, and it should be added that 
the f|pw described species are in no instance the same at Green 
River, Wyo., and White River, Colo., both localities in the same 
ancient lake basin. 

3. No species are identical with any of the few described 
European tertiary Tipulidae. 

4. Restricting ourselves to the Florissant basin, from the paucity 
of material in the Gosiute fauna, it will be noticed that a remark- 
able proportion of genera (eight out of fifteen) are not yet* recog- 
nized among the living, these genera including about one third of 
the species. 

5. With one (American) exception — Cladura — all the existing 
genera which are represented in the American tertiaries are genera 
common to the north temperate zone of Europe and America, and 
are generally either confined to these regions or the vast proportion 
of their species are so confined. A similar climate is indicated, 
but this latter conclusion should be received with hesitation, since 

* It should t>e noted here that, in his enumeration of the amber Dipteia, Loew recoir- 
nized four genera as extinct, of which living representatives have since been foand, 
without mentioning those which Osten 8acken regards as LimnophilsB. 



169 

our knowledge of the distribution of American genera is mostly 
confined to the Atlantic States. There are, however, no certain 
indications of a warmer climate, such as have been shown from the 
study of other groups. 

6. There are no extinct groups higher than genera, but one or two 
of these, such as Cyttaromyia and Micrapsis, are of a somewhat 
striking character. 

7. The relative importance of the two subfamilies of Tipulidse, 
though differing on the two continents of Europe and America both 
in tertiary and in recent times, was much the same, on each con- 
tinent, in tertiary times as now ; while in the relative preponder- 
ance of the different tribes of Limnobinae, our tertiary fauna shows 
a somewhat closer agreement with the European tertiary than with 
the existing American fauna. There are, however, no striking 
generic alliances pointing in the same direction. 

The above general conclusions have been reached after as careful 
a study of the tertiary fauna of Europe as the literature would allow, 
it being unfortunately necessary to depend entirely upon published 
materials, most of them ancient, for any conclusions regarding the 
European fossils. Fortunately, the way has been lightened by oc- 
casional expressions of opinion from Baron Osten Sacken, who has 
personally examined not a few of them and published here and there 
valuable statements regarding them. Being compelled to subject 
all the literature of the subject to a careful scrutiny in order to ob- 
tain any proper glimpse of the known tertiary fauna of Europe, it 
has seemed best to publish in this connection a formal historical 
review of the European tertiary Tipulidce, in order tliat the grounds 
of my general statements may be better understood. 

Accordingly, in the next section of this memoir, I give bu( h a 
review, following it with a summary of results in the form of an 
Alphabetical List of the Genera and Species ; and again with a Tabu- 
lar View of Tertiary Tipulidai in general, systematically arranged ; 
and add a note on Pretertiary Tipulidx, before j)roceeding to a 
s|>ecial and detailed systematic discussion of the American Tertiary 
Tipulidce. 

II. Historical Account of the European Tertiary TiriLiD.K, 

WITH Comments. 

The first fossil Tipulidie described are those mentioned by Presl 
in 1822 i^Del. Prag.'), purporting to have come from amber. They 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. 80C. XXXII. 143. V. PRINTED JAN. 5, 1894. 



170 

are TUfiula aniiqua^ T. proiogtm^ and T. cmrmcwmis. Thej m 
wholly irrecognizable from the descriptions, but their size (from one 
to two German lines in length) plainly shows that they are at lent 
not TipulinsCj and probably not even Tipulidse. They must be left 
wholly ont of consideration, both on this account and because it ii 
believed that Presl's specimens were really preserved in the recent 
gum copal and not in amber. 

Ungbr in 184 1 {Verh. Uop.-carol. Akad. Ndimf.fXiiC) deKribcd 
and figured the following species from Radoboj, afterwards reex* 
amined by Heer. 

Rk^idia exHncta, The figures given by Unger and Heer do not 
entirely agree in the neuration of the wings ; Unger's is the better 
and clearer. The head is lost, so that the antennal structure cannot 
be determined, and Loew has pointed out {ZeiUckr. ges. Naimrn^t 
XLX\\f 190) the failures of the neuration, and believes Heer to hate 
been misled in his determination by Meigen's inaccurate figure of 
the neuration of the modem Rhi^dia macuiaia. Loew regards it 
as probably a true Limnobia. 

Rhipidia major. The specimen has the tip of the wing broken, 
and with it are lost the parts necessary to decide to which of the 
subfamilies of Tipulidae it should be referred. But as the wing 
must have had a length of about 22 mm., it is evident that it most 
belong to one of the Tipulinse, and therefore it should be referred 
to Tipula in a large sense. Heer has already so referred it under 
the name Tipula ungeri^ and Giebel has followed him in generic 
reference. On account of its abdominal markings, however, Heer 
compared it to the species of Tipula now placed in Pachyrhina. 

Heer, in 1849, in his classical work on the fossil insects of 
Oeningen and Radoboj, makes the first important addition to the 
then known fossil Tipulidae. His species are all mentioned below, 
and all of them stated to be from Radoboj, excepting Limnobia 
formosa^ for which no locality is mentioned ; it is probable that this 
was a mere oversight, and that it also comes from the same place. 
None of Heer*s figures, it should be said, can be depended upon for 
the exact neuration, as some are manifestly incorrect, and in no 
case do different figures of the same wing (with different enlarge- 
ments) agree. It is therefore impossible, even with the aid of the 
text, to place them confidently. 

Tipula maculipennis. The neuration shown in Fig. i** differs 
from that in Fig. i, the latter being undoubtedly the more correct, 



171 

as the description also shows. The markings are said to be the 
same as in the living T. horUnsis of Europe. In all probability it 
is a true Tipula, and appears to fall nearest to T, Hmi or perhaps 
T. Carolina from Florissant. 

Tipula amula. The veins are differently shown for the same 
wing in Figs. 2 and 2*, the latter undoubtedly the more correct, but 
both wrong. As Heer says, it is closely allied to the preceding 
species ; it is probably a true Tipula, and may tall near T, hcilprim 
from Florissant. 

Tipula varia. This species, according to Heer, belongs near the 
modern T, hortensis and T hortulana of Europe. It appears to be 
a true Tipula, but the figures all vary in the neuralion, with a nota- 
ble difference in those of the two specimens in the length of the 
petiole of the second posterior cell, if the enlarged figure, 3**, is cor- 
rect in this particular, as it undoubtedly is in the other points where 
it varies from Fig. 3*. It appears to come in the vicinity of T. 
Carolina, 

Tipula lineata. Here again the neuralion of the enlarged figure, 
4**, differs, in the discal cell and elsewhere, from that of the figure 
of natural size, 4; the former is undoubtedly the more correct. It 
appears to be a true Tipula, and is said by Heer to stand next the 
European T obsoUta. To judge from the length of the praifurca, 
it would seem to come nearest to T, tariari of anv of the American 
tertiary species, but it is very different from it. CapcUini credits 
this species to tertiary deposits at Gabbro, Italy. 

Tipula obiecta. Here, too, the two figures differ, though but 
slightly, an omission in the smaller being su])plied in the larger. There 
is no reason to suppose it is not a true Tipula, and it is regarded 
by Heer as near his T. 2 aria from the same beds. It apparently be- 
longs with the series having a relatively short pnufurca and seems to 
come nearest to our T subierjacens. 

Tipula ungeri. This is the species mentioned above as originally 
described by Unger under the name Rhipidia major. Heer shows 
that it should be referred to Tipula, but there seems to have been 
no real occasion to change the specific name. Oiebel held this 
view and described it as Tipula major, 

Rhipidia extincta. See above under the same species described 
by Unger. 

Rhipidia picia and R. propinquapis. Loew's criticisms apply 
equally well to these two species, which there is every reason to place 



172 

in the same genus as R. extincta. They may therefore be referred 
to Limnobia. 

Limnobia formosa. Here Heer*s two figures essentially agree and 
are very good. Heer compares it to two living European species, 
Z. quadrinolata and Z. annuiusy both true Limnobise, and if the 
neuration is correctly given, it is plain from the length of the 
auxiliary that it is a Limnobia, and not a Dicranomyia. This is the 
species, presumably from Radoboj, the locality of which is not 
stated by Heer. 

Limnobia cinguiata. The two figures given by Heer disagree in 
important particulars, and that which is enlarged is plainly incor- 
rect. Heer states that it agrees so closely with Z. nubeculosa Meig. 
as hardly to be distinguished from it, and he specifies in particular 
the neuration. It is therefore probably a true Limnobia. 

Limnobia tenuis. The neuration is only partially shown, and is 
said by Heer to be difficult to trace. Heer compares it to that of 
Z. lutea Meig., a true Limnobia, and there is nothing in what is 
figured inconsistent with such a generic reference. 

Limnobia vetusta. Two different figures of this are given by Heer, 
one of them useless, the other none too good, but showing the 
coarser parts of the neuration, from which it would appear to be a 
Limnobia. Heer compares it to Z. dumetorum Linn., a true Lim- 
nobia. There is an additional figure of this species in Heer*s Fos- 
sile Hymenoptereny PI. iii, fig. 15c, overlooked in my Index to De- 
scribed Fossii Insects ; it is too small to be of any service, the neu- 
ration being only vaguely indicated. 

Limnobia debilis. The venation given in the two figures by Heer 
does not agree, and the smaller figure is manifestly incorrect in this 
particular ; besides Heer specifies that the larger figure is to be used 
for studying the venation. This shows that it is no Limnobia in 
the present sense. Heer, himself, says that the neuration agrees 
with that of Z. sylvatica Meig., which Schiner refers to Gno- 
phomyia, and as the neuration of the enlarged figure shows nothing 
discordant with Gnophomyia, it may best be referred here until re- 
examination of the type can be had. 

•The only other Tipulids to be credited to Heer are one given in 
his Urwelt der Schweiz (1865), coming from the miocene of Locle, 
Switzerland, and another from Aix, in his account of the Aix fossil 
insects (1856). 

Limnobia jaccardi. This species from Locle is not described, but 



173 



a clctr figure ofa complete wing is given. This shows some ma 
fest inaccuracies, as in the origin of the fifth and sixth longitudinal 
«ips, and a cross vein beyond the origin of the praefurca, uniii 
llie first longitudinal vein and the costa and running across the 
auxiliary. A cross vein is also shown at about the middle of the 
second submarginal cell, which is probably misplaced. As there 
are plainly two submarginal cells, it is clearly not a Limnobia. If 
wc inier)irei the cross vein beyond the origin of the prrefurca as the 
iobcostal cross vein (wrongly carried across to the costa), the 
parallel cross mark midway between it and the lip as the termina- 
tion of the auxiliary (wrongly connected with the first longitudinal 
vein), and carry the misplaced cross vein in the second submarginal 
cell to the bend in the first longitudinal vein just beyond the base of 
the first submarginal cell, where a marginal cross vein would 
naturally occur, we have the essential characteristics of the neura- 
tion of Trichocera, and these manifest inaccuracies aside there is no 
other genus with which it agrees so well. Moreover, Loew indicates 
two fossil species of this genus from amber (without describing or 
naming themj, so that the occurrence of the genus in Europe at the 
;ieriod when this insect flourished is certain. 

Limnobia murchisoni from .\ix. Heer's figure is plainly copied 
from that of Curtis, who figured but did not describe it (1839), but 
he descril>cs from the original specimen, and compares it to the 
living Z- annului Meig., with which the neuration is said to cor- 
nspond. The figure is good, but the auxiliary vein does not ap- 
pear. There is nothing lo show that it is not a true Limnobia, 
though it is possibly a Dicranomyia. Probably an examination of 
ihe fossil would determine. Heer's [laper naming this species ap- 
peared in Ihe same year (1856) as Giebel's volume applying to it 
the name Liiiirioiia curtist. As priority cannot be proved for 
either, it seems proper to prefer Heer's name, since he evidently 
studied the specimen itself. 

In 1850, Loew, in his Mesaitt Programnt, gave the first ini- 
Jiortant communication on amber Diptera, mentioning a large nnm- 
t«r of species (undescribed) under many new generic names; most 
of the!>eare regarded by Osten Sacken, as appears by numerous 
rtferences by him, to be identical with existing genera, and es|>e- 
cially with Limnophila, a genus which he considers as not yet 
pro))erly subject to division into more than subgenera, The genera 
given by L^ew were in some cases named by him in a list appended 



i 



174 

to the introduction to Beiendt's folio work on the amber fiumt 
(i34s), ^^ ^^^f Adetus, mentioned then by him does not appear 
later, and was evidently dropped by Loew; whether it was » 
garded as not separable from Tipula, next to which it stands in the 
list, or as equivalent to one of the numerous genera of UmnotNaK 
afterwards proposed, does not appear. These genera were not fiilly 
described by Loew in his MeserU% Programme but merely sepanUed 
from one another in a table prepared to show their relati<Nidiipi. 
They were as follows, the new ones prefixed by an asterisk ; none of 
the species were named. 

Tipula. Of this genus he names three species and records dur* 
teen others. 

Rhamphidia. Two species named and two others recorded. 

* Toxorhina. Three species are named. The following jev 
(Jahh. eni.9 v) they were partially described, especially the pdpi 
which were also figured, and the genus described, but the characteis 
of the genus were almost entirely based on a living species from the 
West Indies, which it has since been shown should be generically 
dissociated from them. Osten Sacken has since retained the name 
Toxdrhina for the West Indian species, and referred the foflili 
at first to the existing genus Limnobiorhynchus, and (when it was 
found that this was based on incongruous material, the sexes of 
different genera already known) to the genus Elephantomyia, which 
also contains living representatives. Osten Sacken objects to 
Schiner's contention that the name Toxorhina should be pri- 
marily restricted to the fossil species, and mainly on the ground 
that though when first proposed only amber species were included 
in it, it was not characterized until the following year, and then on 
structures drawn from a living insect, which in part did not exist in 
the fossil. I regret to differ at all from Baron Osten Sacken — the 
foremost student of the group of Diptera — but it cannot be fairly 
claimed that Toxorhina was not characterized when first proposed, 
for not only does his mention of the genus include the statement 
that it has an extraordinarily long filiform rostrum, and exceptionally 
short four- jointed palpi, but the table on the preceding i)age, wherein 
the genera are differentiated (a table to which Osten Sacken appears 
to have paid no attention), practically defines the genus thus: Ros- 
trum slender, longer than head and prothorax together. Pdpi 
short, the last joint not so long as or scarcely longer than those 
which precede, taken together. This, though not all that could be 



176 

asked, is assuredly not to be ignored, and I have accordingly here 
retained the name Toxorhina for the fossil species, and Toxorhina 
fragilis of the West Indies — the bone of all this contention — 
should be known under some other generic name. 

* MacrochiU, One named species. The name, being found to 
be preoccupied, has been changed by Osten Sacken to Idioplasta. 
Living species are now known. 

Cylindrotoma. Four named species. These have been studied 
by Osten Sacken, and regarded by him as belonging to Limnophila 
in a narrow sense, excepting C. longiccrnis^ which he places in the 
subgenus Lasiomastix. 

Trichocera. Two unnamed species. 

Anisomera, One named species ; it is regarded by Osten Sacken 
as an Eriocera. 

Erioptera. Eight unnamed species. 

♦ Trichoneura. One named and three unnamed species. Ac- 
cording to Osten Sacken these belong to the division of Limnophila 
with four posterior cells. 

* Calobamon, One unnamed species. Osten Sacken reproduces 
Loew's description of the genus, with additions of his own from 
examination of the type {Berl, ent, Zeitschr,, xxxi, 207). He gives 
no opinion of it other than to mention its ** apparent relationship 
to the Limnophilina.'* 

* Haploneura, Four unnamed species. Osten Sacken subse- 
quently mentions one species by Loew's manuscript name, H, 
hirtipennisy which, he says, belongs to Ula. Probably the others 
also belong there. 

^ Critoneura, Two named species, regarded by Osten Sacken as 
belonging to Limnophila. 

* Tanymera, Four unnamed species, one of which is afterwards 
specified by Osten Sacken by Loew's manuscript name, T. 
gracilicornisy which, he says, is a Limnophila ; but he makes no 
statement regarding the others. 

* Tanysphyra, One named species, called a Limnopliila by 
Osten Sacken. 

^^ Siyringomyia, One named species, recognized by O^ten Sacken 
as correctly placed. The genus has since been found living and 
also in copal. 

^Ataracta, Eight unnamed species. Osten Sacken says this 
generic name is equivalent to Dicranomyia. 



1 



176 

* AUariihmia. One named species, regarded bjr Osten SaAea 
as an Eriocera, of whichi be says, he has recognised three qwda 
in Pkrussian amber, one other being the Anisomera mentioiied 
above. 

From this it would appear that the amber fiuina does not coofini 
a single extinct generic type, unless Calobamon be esoepled, 
although several of the genera were first made known from amber. 

In connectbn with the amber Diptera, it may be added that 
Bunneister, in his Manual cf Eni^mokgy (1836), mentions sevcnl 
species of ^^Limnobia" found in amber, some small like Z. 
pukheUa (now referred to Idioptera, a subgenus bf limnophDa), 
some larger. Of course, any nearer reference is impoesible. So 
too several other authors — Defrance, Schlotheim, Sendel, etc^ 
have mentioned the occurrence in amber of species of " Tipola", 
but Loew's later and fuller statements are presumed to cover sll 
these. 

Gu£rin {Rev. ZocL^ 1838, 170, pi. i, fig. 18) mentions "den 
petits Tipulaires en 6tat d'accouplement " in Sicilian amber. la 
my Index to Described Fossil Insects^ p. 667, 1 have wrongly qooled 
this as '' Tipula," as no genus is specified, and it is evident fiom 
the figure that the insect is rather one of the Mycetophilidie. > 

Aymard, in 1854, catalogues two named but undescribed speda 
of a genus he calls Dichaneurum^ without further indication of its 
characters than that it belongs to the family Tipulidse, as found fossil 
at Le Puy, France. The reference is of course valueless without 
further details. 

GiKBEL, in his Fauna der Vorwelt (1856), describes anew, so far 
as possible, all the then known fossil Tipulidse, and adds descrip- 
tions of two new forms from amber found in the collection of the 
I^ipzig Museum. Concerning Giebel's Tipula major aiud Limmobia 
curtisi, see above under Heer's species Tipula uns^eri and Limnobia 
murchisofii. The new species are the following : 

Limnobia furcata, Giebel states that in regard to its neuration 
this species belongs to the group containing L,fuivescens,femigimea^ 
hicolor, etc., /. <f., to that now classed as Limnophila. The 
description agrees entirely with Limnophila. Giebel may easily 
have overlooked the tibial spurs of which he makes no mention. 
There are no means of determining whether it be not one of the 
numerous Limnophilini mentioned by I^oew. 

Limnobia deleta. The single specimen has the wings damaged 



177 

''so that a closer comparison with living species is not possible." 
The antennse are described as fifteen-jointed and twice as long as 
the body, with equal cylindrical joints; the halteres are nearly 
as long as the abdomen ; the wings have the first longitudinal 
vein (schulterader) rather distant from the auxiliary (randader), 
with which it is connected by the subcostal cross vein before the 
middle of the wing. From this brief description it is impossible 
to tell where it belongs, but the fifteen -join ted antennae point to the 
Limnobini. 

In 1859 and 1870, Hevden described in the Palceontographica 
the following species, all from Rott in Rhenish Prussia. 

Ctenophora decheni. Both the form of the abdomen and the 
character of the antennae show it to be a male. Heyden says the 
neuration shows little variation from that of living species of 
Ctenophora. But his delineation of the same is like no Cteno- 
phora and manifestly incorrect, affording no clew to the afiinities 
which a correct sketch might offer. The stout legs show that it 
cannot be a Tipula, and the apparently pectinate antennae suggest 
a possible alliance to South American forms like Ctedonia and 
Ozodicera. The specimens should be restudied, but in the mean- 
time be retained in Ctenophora. 

Erioptera dana. The wings are not preserved, or only along the 
costal margin. By the short middle femora, the spurless tibiit, and 
the small size, it was referred by Heyden to Erioptera. It would 
probably not be possible to place it more defmitely. The male 
appendages also agree fairly. 

Limnobia sturi. The two figures of the same wing do not agree, 
but the differences are slight, and the description shows the enlarged 
figure to be the more correct, as indeed the left wing (not enlarged) 
shows. It is plain from the neuration that the insect is not a Lini. 
nobia in its present sense, but a Gonomyia, and not very far 
removed from G. profundi ixova Florissant. 

Novak, in 1877, published an account of the fossil insects of 
Kroltensee, Bohemia, in the Sitzungsberichtc of the Vienna 
academy. Among them were the following Tipiilid^e : 

Jipula angustata. This species closely resembles T. sepulchri 
from Florissant, but the latter is nearly twice as large. This 
Krottensee species is the smallest fossil Tipula known. 

Tipula expectans. This species has a very long prajfurca. It 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. W. PRINTED JAN. 9, 18U4. 



i 



178 

appears to be a Tipula so far as can be told from the wing alone. 
Frpm its long prefurca it seems to be most nearly allied to the 
spotted T. tariafi of Florissant, but it differs in the length of the 
petiole of the second posterior cell, and in the narrowncn of die 
wing. 

Pty€k^fUra deUia. The figure of this species is excellent, shov- 
ing the species to be certainly nearer to Ptychoptera than to any 
known genus, though the number of posterior cells cannot be 
determined from the imperfection of the specimen. It certainly 
must belong to the Ptjrchopterini, but shows some pecnliaritiei 
worthy of special notice. Thus in Ptychoptera (at least in the 
American species — and Osten Sacken says that the two Eoropean 
species seen by him do not materially differ from it) the first longi* 
tudinal vein appears to end in the costs, and to be connected with 
the uppermost bmnch of the second by a marginal cross vehi, 
while in the fossil* it ends in the second longitudinal vein at the 
point where the marginal cross vein would occur did it exist. And 
there is further a costal cross vein uniting the auxiliary vein to the 
costa in the middle of the wing. Nov&k's description as wdl 
as figure attest these points and indicate a peculiar genus. 

Omboni, in 1886, in a brief account of some Italian filsd 
insects {AtH r. ist Veneto^ (6), iv) describes and figures the fbllov- 
ing from the miocene of Chiavon. 

Tipula zignoi. The figure of this fossil is utterly worthless, gives 
no sort of clew to its relationship, and would seem to show that the 
fossil itself is irrecognizable. Omboni indeed says it would be 
** difficult, not to say impossible,*' definitely to refer it, and adds 
that it has no trace of wings, and is probably a Chironomus, a 
Tipula, or a Limnobia. Its size alone quite precludes reference to 
Tipula, and it may well be left to oblivion. 

FoERSTER, in an elaborate account of the fossil insects found in 
the middle oligocene of Brunstatt {Adh. Specialk. Eisass-Loihr., 
iii, 1891) mentions, without naming, the following two species of 
Tipulidae. 

Tipula sp, I. This species evidently belongs to our new genus 
Tipulidea, the length of the pra^furca just equaling, or certainly 
not surpassing, the greatest breadth of the first basal cell. It dif- 
fers, however, from any of the American species, but seems most 
nearly allied to T picta, 

Tipula sp, 2. This, too, belongs to Tipulidea, and resembles the 



17» 

preceding species more netiljr than it does any of the American 
forms. Both European species have a smaller second posterior cell 
than any of ours, and the length and slendemess of the fourth pos- 
terior cell is much greater. 

Finally, to specify a few minor instances of little present value, 
Skrrbs CGi^m. /err. ierf,, 1829) states that a fossil fly of the genus 
Nephrotoma, allied to the European iV. ii^rsaffs, occurs in the beds 
at Aix, Frovencei and credits to the same beds a species of 
Trichocera. — Hops mentions a Tipula from Aix (^Trans. Eniom. 
Soc. Limd.f iVy 253, 1847) which he compares with T. rivcsa, I 
do not know what that species may be. Hxkr has also named 
a species from the same place, Tipula itrfemalis^ but it is unde- 
scribed. — ^Woodward, in a list of insect remains from the Isle of 
Wight (Quart. Joum. GeoL Soc. Lond.^ xxxv, 344, 1879) &^^^ 
among others ** Tipulidae, 6 " specimens. — Schoberlin {Soc. 
£niom.^ iii, 69, 1888) mentions the occurrence of a species of Tipula 
at Oeningen, Baden, which he compares to T. ochracea, a true 
Tipnla. — ^Bell, in the Emi^moivgisi (xxi, 1888) in an article on 
glacial insects, mentions a '' Dicsera, allied to Tipula/' as found in 
a ''crannoge" in Wigtonshire, England, presumably in the 
refuse of lake-dwellings. Apparently he must have meant some- 
thing akin to Dictenidea or Ctenophora, but closer reference 
is impossible ; it is perhaps hardly fair to class it at all among fossil 
insects, and it is accordingly not alluded .to in the tabular lists in 
this paper. — Lastly, Klebs, in his Catalogue of the Stantien and 
Becker bemstein-museum (1889), on p. 65, lists a specimen (No. 
478) " in the vicinity of Tipula, a new species with striking 
antennae." 

These data are all summarized in the following list, in which the 
species which are known purely by name, without description 
or figure, are prefixed by an asterisk. 

III. Alphabetical List of European Tertiary Tipulid.e, with 

THEIR Probable Systematic Position. 

* Adetus I sp. Loew, amber. Indeterminable. 

* Allarithmia palpata Loew, amber. Eriocera. 

* Anisomera succini Loew, amber. Eriocera, 

* Ataracta 8 sp. Loew, amber. Dicranomyia, 

* Calobamon I sp. Loew, amber. Calobamon. 

* Critoneura longipes Loew, amber. Limnophila, 




I 



■ Dichsneutum infossum Aym&rd, Le Puy. Indclenniaable. 
" primEBVum <■ ■• ■• 

Eltphanlomyia brcvipalpa Otten Sncken, amber. TaxerhMn. 
•■ longiroslrii " ■' 

" pulchella " " " 

*Erioccra palpata Oslen Sacked, amber. Eriocrra, 



Eriopterailaiue Heydcn, Rott. Ei 

* Erioplera 8 sp. Loew, amber. 
* Ceranomyia I sp. Uilen Sackeo. A: 
■- Haptoneurs hjnipennis Loew, 

* " 3sp. 

* Idiopltuta apectrum Oslen Sacken, amber. Idioplasi 
Limnobia cingulala Heer, Radoboj. Limnoiio. 

ii Giebel, Aix (— L. murchisoni). i 
debilis Heer, Radoboj. GnofAomyia. 
delela Giel>el, amber. Limnobia. 
■w, Radoboj. '■ 
*• formOM Heer, Kadoboj i " 
" furcat» Uiebel, Bipber. Limnopkila. 
" jaccardi Heei, Locle. Trichactra. 

" murchisoni Heer, Ail. Limnobia. 
" picla Loew, Radoboj. " 

" propinqua Loew, Radoboj. « 

■• siuri HeydCD, RolL Gonsmyia. 
" tenuis Heer, Radoboj. Limnaiia. 

* ■• »ev. sp. Burmeisler, amber. " 
Limnolnoihynchus brevipalpus Osten Sackeu, amber. 

" longirostris " " 

" pulchellus *' " 

* Limnophila brevicorois Osten Sacken, amber. Lim 

* " Eracilicomis 

* " longicornis 
• " longipes (I) 



penl^onalii 




181 



* Limnophila soodnl Often Sackent amber. LimmopkUa, 

* M Tolfimru MM M 

* Macrocliile ipectmm Loew* amber. IdUplasia, 

* Nephrotoma i wp, Serrei» Aiz. NepkfiQma f 
Ptjcboptera ddeta Novftk, Krottensee. JPHyckopiera t 

* Rhamphldia minuta Loew» amber. Rkampkidia, 

* " pnlchra " «* •« 

• M 3 m if M «« 

Rhipidia eztiacta Un£er« Radoboj. Limnobia, 
** major «' « Tipula, 

" picta Heer, «< Limnobia, 

* propinqiia Heer, *« <' 

* Styringomyia gracilis Loew, amber. Styringomyia, 

* Tanjmera graciUoomis Loew, amber. Limnophila, 

* " 3 spb Loew, amber. Tanymera f 

* Tany^3rra gracilis Loew, amber. Limnophila, 

* Tipula sp. Tic T. ocfaracea Scbdberlin, Oeningen. Tipula, 

* <« MM X. pratensis Bormeister, amber. •* 

* « M « T. riTOsa Hope, Aix. •« 
•« «< I Foerster, Bmnstatt Tipulidea. 

" emula Heer, Radoboj. 7t>«/a. 

** angnstata Norik, Krottensee. Tipula, 

** antiqua PresI, amber (?). Indeterminable, 

* •« brevirostris Loew, amber. Tipula, 

" curvirostris Presl, amber (?). Indeterminable. 

* " eucera Loew, amber. Tipula. 

" expectans Nov&k, Krottensee. Tipula. 

* *• goliath Loew, amber. ** 

* «• infernalis Heer, Aix. <« 
" lineata •« Radoboj. " 
" maculipennis Heer, Radoboj. « 
" major Giebel, " <« 
" obtecta Heer, " «« 

" protogaea Presl, amber (?). Indeterminable. 
« ungeri Heer, Radoboj (— T. major). Tipula. 
" varia ** ** ** 

« zignoi Omboni, Chiavon. Irrecognizable. 
Toxorhina brevipalpa Loew, amber. Toxorhina, 

" longirostris " ** " 

•« pulchella " " " 

♦ Tricbocera I sp. Serres, Aix. Trichocera f 

♦ «• 2 sp. Loew, amber. «* 

♦ Tricboneura vulgaris Loew, amber. Limnophila, 

♦ " 3sp. <« «« Trichoneura f 



182 

IV. Tabular Vikw of TntriARV Tipuuda, SrSTiiuTtCALLr 

Arranged. 

{^Speeies knemm *c natiii only art pre/in^ tnik am atltriti.') 
Lot o* Sracio. 



UnuoUnl* 

* DicnuHmiTiB 8 ip. (Loew), 

" loD^pei Scndd... 



Florinuit, Cob. 



. I White River, Colo. 



S^ladomyl* dmplex ■• 

•Geranomjw I ip. (Oitm Sacken)., 

* Limnobia icT. ip. (BurmeUter) 

" dngnlBtk Heer 



ddct; 



icbel 



■■ exti]tctft(Uiiger}Loew.. ..i 

■* fonnoaa Heer ; 

» niurchisoni Hecr | 

" picta (H«cT) Loew 

•• propirnfua Heer) Ueyden-i 

» tenois Heer. 

•• velusla Heer I 

Linrnocenui marcescens Scudd Florissant, Colo. 

'■ lutescens " ' ■' *• 

My* " 

" morloni " " " 

Klumphidia saxetana Scadd ■• " 

• " minutaLoew 

• " a other species (Loew) 

• Styringomyia I sp. (Loew) 

Toxorhina hrevipalpa Loew 

" loDgirostris " 

" pulchella « 

Antocha prmcipinlis Scudd Florissant, Colo. 



ProMian amber. 



Ail, 
Fruulan amber. 
Radoboj, Cioalia. 
Pnmian unber. 
Radubcg, Croetia. 
0) 



Ala, 

Radoboj, Croatia. 
Rott OD the Rhine. 
Radolx^, Croatia. 



Prussian amber. 



»Eriopiera 8 sp. (Loew) , Prussian amber. 

Eiioptoa dame Heydeo | Roll on the Rhine. 



183 



Lnr ov SnaM. 



Brioptariol (r§ntimu€d), 
Gnophom/ui debilis (Heer) Scudd.. 
GoDomxia profandi •< 

«« Ube&ctata « 

M primogeiiitalis 

** frigida 

« ttnri (Hejrden) Scudd 

Cladoneara willbtOQi Scudd. . . . 

Cladnrm nwculata •« .... 

« integn « .... 

Limnophila rogersii 




M 



Scudd, 



vasta 

strigota 

rulnamm 

brericornii (Loew) 0»- 



«< 



ten 



norinant, Colo. 

M « 

M M 

<« 
M 
«4 
U 



M 
M 

« 



Radoboj, Croatia. 



Rott on the Rhine. 



I 



fnrcata (Gi6b.) Scudd. 

* •« gradlicornis (Loew) 
Osten Sacken 

*L4mnophila gracilis (Loew) Osten 
Sacken. 

* Limnophila (Lasiomastix) longicor- 

nis (Loew) Osten Sacken 

* Limnophila longipes (i) (Loew) 

Osten Sacken 

* Limnophila longipes (2) (Loew) 

Osten Sacken ! 

* Limnophila pentagonalis (Loew) 

Osten Sacken 

* Limnophila succini (Loew) Osten- 

Sacken I 

* I^imnophila vulgaris (Loew) Osten j 

Sacken j 

* Trichoccra i sp. (Serres) ! 

? 2 sp. ( Loew) 

jaccardi (Heer) Scudd. 

* Tanymera ? 3 sp. (Ix)ew) 

* Trichoneura ? 3 sp. 

* Calobamon i sp. 

Anlsomeiliii. 

* Eriocera palpata (Loew) Osten 

Sacken 1 




Prussian amber. 

M M 

«« M 

« « 



« 



M 



tt 



« 



• « 



«< 



<< 



« 



«< 



M 



tt 



•« 



« 



Aix, Provence. 
Prussian amber. 
I^cle, Switzerland. 
Prussian amber. 



w 



(I 



« << 

<« « 



«« 



<i 



^^^^^P ^^^H 


Lnt Of Enciu. Horn Amucw. 


XvaoruK. 


•EriiKcrra sutxiai (Locw) Ostcni 


fnntiu ■mbci. 

i 

Pnisiiati amber. 
Kiotteasee.Ualuiiiii 


• EiioLciB 1 other ap. (Oilrn SachcBy 

•Ul> hiilipennls (L<k>v) Osicn Suken 

CyUndiotomiol. 

CylUromyia feneslr»U ScuJd 

princctoniuu Scodd.. 

olij.-occnu " .. 

" eonMltam " .. 

dathiiU " .. 








Wlliti: River, Colo. 




PronophlebU rediviy» Scndd 

TIpaUam. 

Maaapsii anomalu Scudd 

Rh«diDobrochus exlinclu. Scudd .... 
Tipula magnifica " 


While River, Colo, 
FloriiMnI, Colo. 



florissanla " . . . . " ■■ 

sepulchri " Green River, Wj 

nnguslala Novak 

revivificatB Scudd I Flons!BDi,Cola. 



wmulo H«r I 

Urtaii Scudd FloriiiaDt, CoJo. 

expcctans NovAk I 

Iineio Heer ' 

carolinx Scudd I Fk)rissotn,Colo. 

varia Heer. | 

maculipennU H«r 

limi Scudd FlorissBnt, Colo. 

imemecala Scudd 

subteijacens '■ » " 



I KrollcnsecBobcmia 



, K rot leasee, Bohemb 
I Radoboj, Croatia. 



185 



List of Sfbcibs. 



North Ambrican. 



« 
« 



TipullnaB {continued), 

Tipula obtecta Heer ' 

lethaea Scudd Florissant, Colo. 

lapillescens Scudd ! « «« 

spoliata «« ; Green River, Wyo. 

brevirostris Loew 

eucera •« 

goliath « 

infemalis Heer 

« ? major (Unger) Giebel 

sp. vie. T. pratensis (Burm.) 

« « T.rivosa(Hope) 

«* " T. ochracea (Schi)- 
bcrlin) 

* Tipula 9 other sp. (Loew) 

Tipulidea consumpta Scudd ' Florissant, Colo. 

" bilineata " 

" picta •« 

reliquiae «« 

("sp. i"Foerster) Scudd. 
** (*'sp. 2" " ) " 

* Nephrotoma ? sp. (Serres) 

Ctenophora decheni Heyden 

Micrapsis paludis Scudd i Florissant, Colo. 



<4 
f( 
<« 
If 
<l 
(< 
« 



« 



« 



« 



« 



« 



EUROPBAN. 



Radoboj, Croatia. 



' Prussian amber. 



(< 



<( 



(( 



« 



Aix, Provence. 
Radoboj, Croatia. 
Prussian amber. 
Aix, Provence. 

Oeningen, Baden. 
Prussian amber. 



Brunstatt, Alsatia. 
« If 

Aix, Provence. 
Rott on the Rhine. 



V. Note on Pretertiary Tipulid^. 



The allusions in literature to pretertiary Tipulidai are all from 
the mesozoic, and all somewhat unsatisfactory, most of them 
vague and entirely uncertain. All but two are from Great Britain, 
and these may be first considered. 

The earliest reference is in a paper by Buckman {^Proc, Geol. Soc. 
Land., iv, 212, 1843), ^^ which he merely refers to a wing found in 
the upper Lias at Dumbleton, as *' sup|X)sed to belong to Tipula." 

A couple of years later, Murchison, in the second edition of the 
Geology of Cheltenham, figures (Pi. viii, fig. 3) the wing of an insect, 
of which nothing is said in the text, except in the explanation of the 
plate, which reads, " Wing (perhaps) of Tipula." On p. 82 it is 
stated that the insects figured on this plate are '* principally " from 
the lower Lias, which is the only indication of its horizon or locality. 

FBOC. AMEB. PHIL08. 800. XXXII. 143. X. PRINTED JAN. 9, 1894. 



1 



186 

The wing may easily be one of the Tipnline, bat is too poody 
engraved to be certain^ and it looks just as much like one of 
the Neuroptera common in the British Lias. Only eramintfion of 
the specimen can possibly determine it. 

In the same year Brodie, in his Fossii Imecis^ giTCsin one of die 
lists of fossils from Purbeck strata : ** llpalidse ; there are sefcrd 
unfigured specimens which belong to this family '* ; further detiib 
are lacking. ** Tipulidse " is given in a similar list in bis jQm^. 
Carrel. Foss. Ins.f p. 15 (i873)» while on p. 17 of the same is listed 
a ** Tipula " from the lower Lias of Strensham. 

In 1854, Westwood {Quart. Jmrm. Ged. Sot. LomJ., x) makei 
three references to TipuUdse. OnCi which is figured on PL xv, fig. i, 
is merely an abdomen marked ** Hpulideous*" It is also mes- 
tioned on p. 386, and briefly described later by Giebd (Ar. i* 
Vorw. t 243) as a Tipula. By accident it has been twice inserted 
in my Index to Described FosHl Insects as Nos. 1625 and x666. 

A second from the same place is briefly mentioned (pp. 3879 390) 
as the ^'wing of a Tipulideous insect/' and is figured on the sum 
plate (fig. 2), in the explanation to which it is named Coreikrmm 
fertinax. This is described by Giebel under the same name. The 
name will indicate the wide range then given by Westwood to the 
term Tipulidae. I have reproduced this figure in Zittel's HanAuk 
dcr Palaontologie (fig. 1082), placing it under the Chironoroidac, 
but it now seems to me that it may equally, if not more probably, 
be referred to the Limnobinae. The original would repay study. 

A third form is figured by Westwood (PI. xviii, fig. 20) and briefly 
mentioned as the *' wing of a Tipulideous insect" (p. 390) from 
the Purbecks of Durdlestone Bay. This, however, is certainly not 
one of the Tipulidae, but more probably one of the Rhyphidae or 
possibly Bibionidae ; a careful study of the original should be suffi- 
cient to decide in this case. 

The only other English reference I find is the statement by Theo- 
bald {^Brit, Flies y p. 4, 1891) that he has found in the Wealdent 
specimen belonging to the Tipulidae, but in a very imperfect con- 
dition. 

Outside of England there have been only two references to 
mcsozoic Tipulidae. The first is that of Weyenbergh, who figured 
{Arch, Mus, Teyl., ii, pi. xxxiv, fig. 6) an exceedingly obscure fossil 
from the Jura of Solenhofen under the name of Tipularia f ieyleri. 
The author himself says that no trace of neuration can be seen in 



187 

the wings.' It is quite: iinpocritds to place it, except by merest 
coDjectore. 

The last instance is to be found in the paper by Brauer» Redten- 
bacher, and Ganglbaur (iKFiW. Acad. Si. PtUrsh.^ (7), xzxvi, 1889) 
on the Jurassic insects of eastern Siberia; these authors mention 
among the '' Dubion," a dipterous pupa ** somewhat resembling 
that of Ptychoptera." 

From these unsatisfactory data we may conclude that Tipuiinse 
and perhaps limnobinse have probably been found as far back as 
the Jura, but that further detaite regarding specimens will need to 
be published before the evidence is satisfactory. 

VI. Family Tipulida^ 

The two subbmilies of Tipulidse may be separated by means of 
the structure of the wings (often the only characteristic part re- 
maining in fiedr preservation among the fossils) in the following 
manner : 

AQzilitiy Tdn nsiully ending in the costa and connected by a cross vein with 
the fifst longitudinal vein; the latter ends in the coata without aiding in the 
fonnation of a tnipesoidal cell; last posterior cell in broad contact with the discal 
celL Limnobina, 

Auxiliary vein ending in the first longitudinal vein by abruptly curving down 
to it, but otherwise free from it ; first longitudinal vein, by an apical incurva- 
tion and the emission at its base of an oblique costal cross vein, enclosing a trape- 
zoidal cell at the distal extremity of the stigma ; last posterior cell touching the 
discal cell at only one comer lipulina. 

In the enumeration of the specimens at the end of the following 
specific descriptions the numbers of the obverse and reverse of the 
same specimen are always connected by <'and" without any 
intervening comma, and this typographical method is employed 
only in expressing this relation. 

VII. The Subfamily Limnobin.«. 

For the sake merely of simplicity, I use this term to include all 
the Tipulidae brevipalpi of authors. There seems to be a greater 
diversity of structure among them than among the Tipulinae proper, 
and they have been divided by Osten Sacken into eight groups, 



188 

which may be regarded as tribes, the relative importance of which 
in recent and ancient times has been pointed out in a preceding 
table, from which it will appear that every one of them has been 
recognized among the fossils. 

The Limnobini take precedence as they do among modem types, 
while the Rhamphidini (in Europe in amber only), the Eriopterini, 
and Limnophilini follow in numbers, the remaining groups being of 
least importance and three of them altogether lacking in American 
deposits ; while the Cylindrotomini, the only remaining tribe ap- 
pearing in America, is lacking in the European tertiaries. The Ani- 
somerini are represented in Europe by three species of Eriocera 
in amber, the Amalopini by four species of Ula in amber, and the 
Ptychopterini by a single species of Idioplasta in the same and by 
a Ptychoptera at Krottensee. It thus appears that with the excep- 
tion of the Ptychopterini all the tribes represented in the European 
rock deposits occur also in America, while America is also well 
represented in the tribes Rhamphidini and Cylindrotomini. The 
American genus Pronophlebia cannot yet be placed. 

Especially difficult of determination among the Limnobini has 
been the position or the absence of the subcostal and marginal 
cross veins, which play so important a part in the arrangement and 
distinction of the genera. It is by no means impossible that in 
some instances I may have erred in my interpretation of marks 
upon the stones, but I have endeavored to give all points a rigid 
scrutiny. It is certainly here that errors are most likely to have 
been made. 

Nearly one hundred additional specimens from Florissant, more 
or less imperfect, but certainly belonging to this subfamily, await 
study ; and I may add that there is a specimen in the collection of 
the U. S. Geological Survey (No. 1470) which represents an inter- 
esting new genus falling near Atarba with distinct tibial spurs, but 
which I refrain from characterizing here, as I can give now no 
illustration of it. 

As the number of genera in no one of the tribes exceeds three, 
I have thought it best to include all the genera of the subfamily in 
one table, as follows : 



189 

TaUk tf tkt Gernra ef American Fossil LmnMna. 



1>. Only a single tnbmargiiial cdL 

b>. The normal fint porterior cell, lying (in forms hftving bat one sninnar- 

ginal cell) between the second and third longitudinal 
Tons, doeedy foradng at base a supernumerary discal 

celL Cyiiaromyia, 

\^. First posterior cell open throughout 

c'. Fire posterior cells Oryctogma, 

c^. Foor posterior cells. 

d^ The first longitndinal Tcin ends in the second longitudinal vein. 
. e^. Diical cell closed; submarginal much longer than first 

posterior cell Dicranomyia. 

e*. Discal cell open ; submarginal scarcely longer than first 

posterior celL. Spiladomyia, 

d'. The first longitudinal Tein ends in the costa. 
e^ A marginal cross vein. 

f^ Marginal cell excessively long, much exceeding in 

length the breadth of the wing Limnocema, 

f *. Marginal cell normal, not so long as breadth of cell 

(applicable to fossil species only) Antocha. 

e*. No marginal cross vein. Rhamphidia, 

k*. Two snbmarginal ceUs. 

b>« Third kmgitudinal vein arising at normal distance from the second. 

c*. First submarginal cell not, or hardly more than, half as long as the 

second Gonomyia, 

X?, First submarginal cell much more than half as long as the second, 
d^ Tibiae without spurs at the tip. 

e^ Auxiliary vein ending at a distance beyond the origin of 
the second longitudinal vein considerably more than 
equal to the breadth of the wing ; third posterior cell 

petiolate Cladoneura, 

e*. Auxiliary vein (in the fossil species) ending at a distance 
beyond the origin of the second longitudinal vein less 
than, sometimes only about half, the breadth of the 

wing; second posterior cell petiolate Ciadura. 

d*. Tibiae with spurs at the tip Limnophila. 

b'. Third longitudinal vein arising from the second at a very short distance 

beyond the base of the latter PronophUbia, 



Tribe CYLINDROTOMINI. 

This tribe is placed first in the series instead of near the end 
really because the arrangement of the table just given requires the 
early appearance of the two genera recognized in the American 



190 

rocks. Its place in the arrangement given by Osten Sacken is 
rather at the other end of the series in nearer proximity to the 
Tipulinae ; but it may be noticed that in some of the features in the 
neuration of the wing, as in the arrangement in the vicinity of the 
stigma, in which it approaches the Tipulinae, it also shows most 
resemblance to the Limnobini. 

Although Loew referred some amber species to Cylindrotoma, 
Osten Sacken, who has since examined them, says they are all Lim- 
nophilse. so that the species described below, six species of two 
genera, both extinct, are the only ones known in a fossil state. 

CvTTAROMYiA Scudder. 

Cyttaromyia Scudd., Bull. U. S, Geol. Geogr. Surv, Terr., lii, 751 (1877) ; Ttrl. 
Ins. N. A., 574-575 (1891)- • 

This genus was founded, in 1877, upon a specimen showing the 
apical half of a single wing, somewhat distorted by folding, and 
rather obscurely preserved, found by Denton among the first known 
tertiary insects of North America, on the lower White River of 
Colorado and Utah. A number of specimens and several species 
of the same genus have since been obtained by me from the same 
spot, while exploring for the U. S. Geological Survey, but no 
further specimens of the same species. The beds at Florissant have 
also yielded several species of the genus and permit a more accu- 
rate and complete account of the generic characteristics. These 
specimens show that my original description was faulty in its inter- 
pretation of the structural elements of the wing: the cells lying 
beyond the ''secondary discal cell" were wrongly regarded 
as submarginal cells, for they belong to the ''posterior*' series, 
and all the errors of statement followed from this wrong interpre- 
tation ; but the neuration is none the less remarkable, and, so far as 
I have been able to discover, unique. 

The wings are very long and slender, four or more times as long 
as broad. The auxiliary vein ends in the costa, without any sudden 
curve, at the beginning of thesiigma. The first longitudinal vein, 
by very gradually curving downwards, ends in the second, which 
curves upward to meet it, forming a long and slender marginal cell; 
there is neither subcostal nor marginal cross vein. The second 
longitudinal vein arises near the middle of the wing, varying in the 
species, is generally considerably arcuate at the base, the praefurca 



liH 



connderably shorter than the rest of the vein, which terminRtes 
above the apex of the wing. Tlie third longitudinal vein arises 
from the second a little before the tip of ihe auxiliary vein and is 
met by the short cross vein at a distance from its origin equal to the 
length of the short cross vein. The space between the third longi- 
tudinal vein and Ihe upper branch of the fourth longitudinal vein, 
normally — and so far as I am aware invariably — open in all Limno- 
binae, is here closed about half way to t!ie tip of the wing (varying 
in different species) by a cross vein, frora which springs an inter- 
calary vein, Ihus liouhling ihe upper posttrior cell at Ihe apex and 
Jorming of its basal porlion a supemtemerary distal cell, essentially a 
counterpart of the normal discal cell and overlying it ; it would 
8«m to be formed by a mesial forking of the third longitudinal 
vein, and the base of the fork then connected by a cross vtin lo 
Ihe uppermost branch of the fourth longitudinal vein. Both discal 
cells are usually very elongate (least so in Ihe species upon which 
the genus was founded), the upper, or supernumerary, usually ihe 
longer and narrower, though they are subequal in length. There 
are five posterior cells and the great cross vein strikes the fourth 
longitudinal vein at the discal cell close lo the base of t!ie latter. 
The fifth longitudinal vein is very gently arcuale beyond this cross 
vein, while the sixth and seventh are straight throughout, the latter, 
however, arcuate at the exlreme tip and almost reaching the middle 
of the wing. The legs are long and slender and the tibife without 
spurs at the tip. 

This genus was well developed in the American oligocene, especi- 
ally in the White River basin, where it seems to include the larger 
number of species of Limnobinje. I leave iheir description, how- 
ever, to another occasion and characterize at this time only ihe 
jpecies found at Florissant, none of which appear to be identical 
wilh those from the White River basin. The genus does not ap- 
pear to be found among the European fossil Limnobinje heretofore 
published. 

This genus, it seems to me with little doubt, must fall into the 
Cylindrotomini, although the tibiae lack spurs. I am forced to this 
conclusion by the close resemblance of the neuration to that of 
Cylindrotoma and Liogma, notwithstanding the striking differences. 
Especially Ihe formation of the marginal cell is essentially llie same, 
while the absence of the anterior cross veins and the general be 
havior of the auxiliary vein sustain this view. It seems lo me very 






192 

doubtful if the presence or absence of tibial spurs can be of so gnat < 
significance in the Limnobins as seems to be accorded it in the 
ckssification of Baron Osten Sacken. But, on the other hand^ it is 
due to classing this genus among the Cylindrotomini that this tribe 
is made to show such an anomalous preponderance in the American 
tertiaries. 

The species mentioned below may be groupM as in the following 
table : 

Table 0/ the Species of Cytiaramyia* 

Normal diical cell hardly more than twice as kmg as broad. ,fmesirmi&. 

Normal discal cell nearly or quite three times as long as broad. 
Discal cell shorter, or no longer, than third posterior celL 

Blaiginal cell but little longer than breadth of wing.. • • .frim€H§mUmM. 
Marginal cell nearly one third longer than breadth of wing. . .#iSjfWMiM. 
Discal cell longer than third posterior celL 

Proximal portion of marginal ceH (measnred irom the pdnt of origb of 
third longitudinal vein) nearly one third longer than the distal por 
tion ; pnefurca almost as long as the remainder of seoond longi- 
tudinal yein «aiiMilArtlt. 

Proximal portion of marginal cell only one seventh longer than the dis- 
tal portion ; proefurca only about half as long as the remainder of 
seoond longitudinal Tcio. rikllrala. 

Cyttaromyia fenestrata. 

Cyitaromyia ffnestrata Scudd., Bull. U, S, GeoL Geogr, Surv. Terr,, iii, 751- 
752 (1877) ; Tert. Ins, N. A., 575-576, pi. 5* ^C- 78 (^SqO- 

White River, Utah. 

Cyttaromyia princetoniana. 

PL I, fig. I. 

Wings four times as long as broad, the marginal cell but very 
little longer than the breadth of the wing, the proximal much 
longer than the distal portion. Auxiliary vein terminating midway 
between the origin of the third and the tip of the first longitudinal 
vein. Second longitudinal vein arising well beyond the middle of 
the wing, the praefurca about two thirds as long as the rest of the 
vein. Supernumerary discal cell considerably broadening api- 
cally and shorter than the first posterior cell. Discal cell equal, 
slightly less than three times as long as broad , its distal extremity 
lying considerably within that of the supernumerary discal cell, 



193 

shorter than the third posterior cell. Fifth posterior cell of equal 
width with the discal cell. Stigma normal. 

This species is of about the size of the preceding. 

Length of wings, 8.75 mm. ; fore femora, 5.5? mm. ; fore tibije, 
6.5 mm.; mid femora, 4.75 mm.; raid tibise, 5.75 mm.; hind 
femora, 5.5 mm. ; hind tibiae, 6.5 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Five specimens, Nos. 345, 7381, 7591, 
1305' i and from the Princeton collection No. 1.770. 

Cyttaromyia oligocena. 
PI. I, fig. 2. 

Wings scarcely more than four times as long as broad, the mar- 
ginal cell more than one fourth longer than the breadth of the wing, 
the proximal nearly one half longer than the distal portion. Aux- 
iliary vein terminating beyond a point midway between the origin 
of the third and the tip of the first longitudinal vein. Second 
longitudinal vein arising at the middle of the wing, the prsefurca 
about one fourth shorter than the remainder of the vein. Super- 
numerary discal cell broadening a little apically and as long as the 
first posterior cell. Discal cell equal, three times as long as broad, 
its distal extremity lying considerably within that of the eupernu- 
merary discal cell, a little shorter than the third jK)sterior cell. Fifth 
posterior broader than the discal cell. Siigma normal. 

This is the largest species of the genus. 

Length of wings, 9.65 mm.; fore femora, 5.25? mm. ; fore tibi.-^, 
5.75 mm.; mid femora, 5.5? mm. ; mid tibiic, 6.25 mm.; hind 
femora, 6.25 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 13259. 

Cyttaromyia cancellata. 

VI I, fi^'. 7. 

Wings slightly less than four times as long as broad, the marginal 
cell nearly one third longer than the width of the wing, its pR)\i- 
nial fully a third longer than the distal portion. Auxiliary vein 
terminating somewhat short of a point midway between the origin 
of the third and the tip of the first longitudinal vein. Second 
longitudinal vein arising slightly before the middle of the wing, il.e 
praefurca almost as long as the remainder of the vein. Supernu- 
merary discal cell very slender, gently broadening apically, longer 

PROC. AMER. PHILOS. 800. XXXII. 143. Y. PRINTED JAN. 10, 1894. 



than the first posterior cell. Discal cell equal, fully three dmea t 
long as broad, slightly longer than the third posterior cell, its dii. 1 
tal extremity on a line with thai of (he supernumerary discal cell. 
Fifth posterior no broader than the discal cell. Sligma very faint 

Length of wings, g mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 86. 

Cyttaromyia clathrata. 

PI. >, ng, s. 

Wings more than four times as long as broad, the marginal cell 
more than one fourth longer than the breadth of the wing, its 
proximal not more than one fifih longer than its distal portion. 
Auxiliary vein terminating midway or at slightly less than midvay 
(torn the origin of the third to the tip of the first longitudinal vein. 
Second longtludinal vein arising at or scarcely before the middle of 
the wing, pretty strongly arcuate at base, the prsfurca only ■ 
little more than half as long as the remainder of the vein. Super- 
numerary discal cell long and slender, very slightly enlarging api- 
cally, considerably longer than the first posterior cell. Discal cell 
enlarging apically, almost four times as long as broad, about as 
long as the third posterior cell, its distal extremity lying consider- ] 
ably within lliat of the supernumerary discal cell. Fifth posterior " 
broader than the discal cell. Stigma faint. 

This is the smallest species of the genus. 

Length of wings, 7.25 mm. ; fore femora, 5 mm. ; fore tibise, 6 
mm. ; mid tibia:, 5.75 mm. ; hind femora, 5.25 mm. ; hind tibix, 
6 6 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Three specimens, Nos. 3520, 8649 of my 
collection, No. 1510 U. S. Geological Survey. 

Oryctogma (dpuxT&t, oyiioi) gen. nov. 

1 separate here a single species which seems to belong to the 
Cylindrotomini and to be most nearly allied to Cylindrotoma and 
Liogma, but which differs from them as from other living Cylindro- 
tomini in that the first longitudinal vein not only ends distinctly in 
the second, as in Cyttaromyia, Dicranomyia, and others, but is also 
connected apically with the costa by a cross vein as distinct as its 
own deflected apex, the apical portion of the vein appearing rather 
to fork and send one shoot in each direction. The disposition of 




ihe venation at the ends of the basal cells is much as in Cylindro- 
toma, and not as in Liogma and Triograa, the short cross vein be- 
ing present and as long as the peduncle of the third longitudinal 
vein. The discal cell is brief, and the upper of the three veins 
emitted from its extremity is deeply forked, so that there are five 
posterior cells. The tibiae are distinctly spurred, the spurs short. 

These characters hardly permit it to be classed with existing 
genera, though its relationship to the Cylindrotomini is intimate. 
I am the more assured of the correctness of this view because of 
the existence in the collection made at Florissant for the U. S. 
Geological Survey of another allied genus, hitherto unknown, which 
has a single submarginal cell and spurred tibiae, and in which the 
first longitudinal vein ends in precisely the same manner, though 
the auxiliary vein certainly ends in the costa immediately pre- 
vious to it. Unfortunately most of the remainder of the neuration 
is obscured in the single specimen seen (No. 1470). 

Oryctogma sackenii. 

PI. I, fig. 6. 

Wings ample, three and a half times longer than broad. The 
auxiliary vein appears to end free somewhat before the base of the 
third longitudinal vein. The stigma is distinct, somewhat broad 
and triangular. The second longitudinal vein arises in a faintly 
clouded spot at some distance beyond the middle of the wing with- 
out basal arcuation, the prasfurca being straight and but little 
shorter than the apical portion of the vein. The marginal cell is 
only as long as the breadth of the wing and rather broad in the 
middle. The discal cell is distinctly shorter than the third posterior 
cell, considerably broader apically than at base. The second pos- 
terior cell has a short peduncle ; the fifth jjosterior cell is about 
twice as long as broad, narrowinga liitle apically. The fifth longi- 
tudinal vein is somewhat bent at the great cross vein ; the seventh 
longitudinal vein is straight like the sixth and ends at or before the 
middle of the wing. A faint cloud attends the cross veins at the 
end of the basal cells. 

Length of wings, 13 mm. ; fore femora, 5.5 mm. ; tibi;ne, S mm. ; 
tarsi, 12.5 mm.; mid femora, 7 mm. ; tibiiv, 8.5 mm. ; tarsi, 11 f- 
mm. ; hind femora, 7 mm. ; tibiae, 7.5 mrn. ; tarsi, 12 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen. No. 206. 



I 



196 

Named for Baron C. R. von Osten Sachirn, without whose siudidlB 
on recent Tipiilidie, the investigation of the fossil American foriUB 

Hould be attended with far greater difficulty. 



Tribe LIMNOBINI. 

This is one of the dominant tribes of Limnobinae, whether now 
or in past times. Five genera and mure than thirty fossil species 
are known, the only extinct genera being two — Spiladomyii with 
one, and Limnocema with four species, all found in North Ameri* 
can rocks. Dicranomyia is shared about equally between ibe Col- I 
orado tertiaries and the Baltic amber, while Geranomyia and Liin* J 
nobia are known only from Aix and Other European deposits, the i 
lalier genus in considerable numbers. 

DiCRANOMViA Stephens. 

Difranomyia Stephens, CataL Bril. ins.. 243 (iSag). 

This genus, according 10 Oilen Sacken, probably occurs id \ 
all parts of the world, although it may be principally at home ill \ 
the more temperate latitudes. It appears to have been well 
developed in our tertiaries, and occurs in equal abundance in the 

European. The eight fossil European species, still unpublished, all 
come from amber, and were referred by Loew to a new genus, 
Alaracla, which Oaten Sacken says is " apparently synonymous with 
Dicranomyia." In this country, besides the three species already 
described by me from the lower White River of Colorado and 
Utah (and to which two of the species described by me as Tipulx 
must probably be joined) the U. S. Geological Survey has two 
others from the same locality, and five are described below from 
Florijsanl. The described species may be separated by the follow- 
ing table : 

Table of the Species of Dicranomyia. 

M«rgin«l cell shorter Ihon Ihc breadth of the wmg. 

DUlal portion al Duu-ginal cell almost as long a( the proximal. 

Larger species, with wingi about 7 mm. long Umgiftt. 

Smaller species, with wings but Utile more than 5 mm. long. 

ttagntntm. 
DisUl portioD of marginal cell much ihorter than the proximaL 



197 

Subcostal cross vein lying just before the origin of the second longitu- 

dinal^vein in/erna. 

Subcostal cross vein lying at the tip of the auxiliary vein, beyond the 
origin of the second longitudinal vein.* 
Auxiliary vein ending at a distance beyond the origin of the second 
longitudinal vein equal to the width of the marginal 
cell. 
Great cross vein running in exact continuity with the basal 
portion of the anterior branch of the fourth longitudinal 

vein .fragilis. 

Great cross vein striking the discal cell beyond the origin of 
the anterior branch of the fourth longitudinal vein. 

stigmosa. 
Auxiliary vein ending barely beyond the origin of the second lon- 
gitudinal vein primitiva. 

Marginal cell as long as the breadth of the wing. 

Smaller species, the wings less than 6 mm. long fontainei. 

Larger species, the wings more than 7 mm. long rostrata. 

Dicranomyia longipes. 

PI. I, figs. 4, 5. 

This is one of the largest species of those found at Florissant. 
The auxiliary vein ends barely beyond the origin of the praefurca, 
but the position of the subcostal cross vein cannot be determined. 
The praefurca arises considerably beyond the middle of the \^ing, 
though nearer to it than in the other species having, like this, 
a marginal cell shorter than the breadth of the wing; the distal 
portion of this cell is of about the same length as the proximal, 
and it terminates by the abrupt dei^ccnt of the first longitudinal 
vein upon the second. The discal cell is closed, and is much nar- 
rower apically than at base by the length of the third posterior 
cell. The legs are very long and slender. 

Length of wings (in largest specimen), 7 mm. ; fore femora, 5.5 
mm.; fore tibiae, 6.25 mm. ; fore tarsi, 6? mm.; mid and hind 
femora, 7.25 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two specimens, Nos. 214, 5582. 

Dicranomyia stagnorum. 

PI. 2, figs. 4, 8. 

In this .species, the most abundant in specimens known, the 
auxiliary vein terminates barely beyond the origin of the prcX'furca, 

• This is not quite certain as regards D. stiijmom, but appears to be the ca.se. 



las 

and the subcostal cross vein lies as much before that origii 
a liitle more than half the width of the marginal cell. The' 
prsefurca aiises at about three fifths the distance from the base of 
the wing to the tip ; the marginal cell is distinctly shorter than the 
breadth of the wing, its distal portion almost as long as the proxi- 
mal. The first longitudinal vein descends obliquely but with some 
abruptness upon the second. The discal cell is closed, broadeil 
apically, the second and third posterior cells of equal length, and 
the great cross vein strikes the lower inner angle of the discal cell. 
The legs are long and very slender, and the tarsi show the peculi 
arcuaiion of the apical joint characteristic of Dlcranomyia ; t 
tibia; have no spurs. 

One specimen (No. 3683) has the discal cell open and contin- 
uous with the third posterior cell ; in others the cross vein closing 
the cell is weak. 

Length of wings, 5-6.5 mm., aver. 5.5 mm.; fore femora, 4.7S;j 
mm. ; tibiie, 5.6 mm. ; tarsi, 6.5 mm. ; mid femora, 
tibijc, 5.25 mm. ; tarsi, 5.75 mm. ; hind femora, 5.5 mm.; tibise, 
6.15 mm,; tarsi, 5.5 mm. The leg measurements are from the 
smallest specimen. 

Florissant, Colorado. Thirty-one specimens, Nos. 60, 73, 133, 
SSi, 7'0, 774. 779. 808, 93 J, i486, a6S7, apj?, 36S3, 6173 and 
6416, 8439, 8471, 8751, 8865, 8904. 9127. 9676. 9665, 10168, 
11130, 12612, 12760, 13043, 13684 of my collection ; Nos. 1.727, 
1. 791 of the Princeton collection; No. 1512 U. S. Geological 
Survey. 

Dicranomyia inferna. 
PL 1, fig. 3. 

Here the auxiliary vein terminates a very short distance beyond, 
and the subcostal cross vein lies at an equal distance before the 
origin of the praefurca, which arises beyond the basal two fifths of 
the wing. The marginal cell is short, considerably shorter than 
the breadth of the wing, and the distal portion considerably shorter 
than the proximal. The first longitudinal vein descends with 
considerable abruptness upon the second, which curves gently 
upward to meet it. The discal cell, which is closed, is slightly the 
broadest apically, and the second and third posterior cells are of 
equal length. The legs are long and slender, but in no case very 
fully preserved ; they are relatively a little shorter than in the two 
preceding species, the hind femora being shorter than the wings. 



1 



I 



199 

Length of wingSi 6.75 mm. ; fore femon, 4.75 mm. ; tibiae, 5.5 
mm. ; hind femora, 5.75 mm. ; tibiae, 6.25 mm. 

Florinant, Coloimdo. Three specimens, Nos. 3751, 8050 and 
815X9 137x5. The kst 18 accompanied and partly overlain by a 
specimen of D* fotiiainei, 

Dicranoxnyia fragilis. 

K. 2, fig. 3. 

This appears to be the most abundant species of Dicranomyia at 
Florissant after D. stagnorum. The auxiliary vein terminates at a 
little distance beyond the origin of the prsefurca, equal to about 
the width of the marginal cell, and has the subcostal cross vein at 
its tip. The praefurca arises at no great distance beyond the middle 
of the wing, but the marginal cell is nevertheless much shorter than 
the breadth of the wing, and its distal much shorter than its proxi- 
mal portion. The first longitudinal vein descends obliquely though 
rather rapidly to the second longitudinal, giving a pointed extrem- 
ity to the marginal cell. The discal cell is closed and a little 
broader .apically than at base, the second and third posterior cells 
short and subequal. The great cross vein strikes the inner lower 
angle of the discal cell. A delicate fringe of moderately long 
microscopic hairs can sometimes be seen around the entire wing, 
subrecumbent and stouter on the costa than elsewhere, nearly erect 
on the lower margin. Legs slender, the femora gradually thickened 
at apex, the tibiae apically spined, and the apical joint of tarsi 
characteristically arcuate. 

Length of wings, 6-6.5 mm. ; of legs in smallest specimens : fore 
femora, 4.5 mm. ; tibiae, 5.75 mm. ; tarsi, 6 mm. ; mid femora, 
6.3 mm. ; tibiae, 6.4 mm. ; tarsi, ? ; hind femora, 6.4 mm. ; tibiae, 
6.75 mm. ; tarsi, 4.75 ram. 

Florissant, Colorado. Eleven specimens, Nos. 1388, 1997, 4701, 
5463, 6708, 7207, 8553, 8716, 11831, 12127, 13258. 

Dicranomyia stigmosa. 

Di€ranomyia stigmosa Scudd., Bull. U, S. Geol. Geogr, Surv. Terr., iii, 746- 
748 (1877) ; Tert. Ins, N. A., 568-570, pi. 5, figs. 16, 17, 25-27, 42, 43, 68, 
69 (1891). 

fTipula iecta Scudd., Bull. U. S. GeoL Gfogr. Surv. Terr.^ iii, 752-753 (1877) *» 
Teri. Ins, N, A,, 577, pi. 5, figs. 46, 47 (1891). 

In the description given of this species I have inadvertently 



200 

spoken of the marginal as the subcostal cross vein. The specimen 
described by me as Tipula tecta certainly belongs to the Limno- 
binae, and is most probably referable to this species. 

Lower White River, at the boundary between Colorado and 
Utah. 

Dicranomyia primitiva. 

Dicranomyia primitiva Scudd., Bull. U. S. GeoL Geogr, Surv, Terr,, iii. 748 
(1877) ; Tert. Ins, N. //., 570-571, pi. 5, figs. 20, 21, 65-67 (189I). 

The auxiliary vein in the only well-preserved specimen of this 
species is excessively faint, but appears to terminate barely beyond 
the origin of the praefurca and the subcostal cross vein to be at its 
tip. I have accordingly placed it in the table next D, fragilis and 
D, stigmosa. 

Lowtr White River, at the boundary line between Utah and 
Colorado. 

Dicranomyia fontainei. 

PI. 2, fig. I. 

This is one of the smallest of the Florissant species, and differs 
from all the others in having the marginal cell as long as the breadth 
of the wing. The auxiliary vein is also much longer than in the 
others, extending far beyond the origin of the praefurca and ap- 
parently, though this is obscure, with the subcostal cross vein at its 
tip. Further, the first longitudinal vein falls upon the second at a 
slighter angle, giving the marginal cell an unusually pointed tip. 
The priufurca arises not very far beyond the middle of the wing, 
and the distal portion of the marginal cell is not much more than 
half as long as the proximal. The discal cell is closed, though the 
cross vein sei)draiing it from the thiid posterior cell is very faint, as 
is also ihe great cross vein, which appears to strike the inner lower 
angle of the disral cell. The second and third posterior cells are 
sube(pial, the second slightly the longer. The legs are poorly pre- 
served on the two specimens known, but the hind femora appear 
to be somewhat shorter than the wings. 

Length of wings, 5.5-5-/5 mm. ; hind femora, 5 mm. 

Named for Prof. W. JM. Fontaine of the U. S. Geological 
Survev. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two specimens, Nos. 173, 137 15, the 
latter [)arlly overlying a s[)ecimen oi D. infcrna. 



201 

Dicranomyia rostrata. 

Dicranomyia rostrata Scudd., BulL U, S. C^oL Geogr, Surv, Terr.^ iii, 749 
(1877); Tert, Ins, N. A., 571-572. pi. 5, figs. 40, 41, 63, 64 (1891). 

Tipula decrepita Scudd., BulL U, S, Geo/, Geogr, Surv, 7>rr.,iii, 752 (1877); 
Tert. Ins, N, A„ 576-577, pi. 5, figs. 56, 57 (1891). 

Renewed examination of the material formerly studied shows 
these two supposed distinct species to be in all probability identical. 

Lower White River, at the boundary between Utah and 
Colorado. 

Spiladomyia Scudder. 

Spiladomyia Scndd., Bull, U, S. Geol, Geogr, Surv, Terr., iii, 749 (1877). 

In this genus the discal cell is open and continuous with the sec- 
ond posterior cell, while the first posterior cell is scarcely longer 
than the subroarginal. In other respects it is closely allied to 
Dicranomyia. In a second species belonging to the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey (No. 1069) the auxiliary vein continues to the stigma 
and as it otherwise agrees tolerably well with the described species 
where the auxiliary vein is very obscure, the generic characteriza- 
tion given should probably be modified to that extent. In both 
species, the second longitudinal vein appears to rise towards the 
first at their apical junction, giving the terminal portion the ap- 
pearance of being a continuation of the first rather than of the 
second longitudinal vein. I leave the description of the new species 
to another occasion. 

Spiladomyia simplex. 

Spiladomyia simplex Scudd., Bull. U. S. Gc'ol. Ge-ogr. Stirz\ Terr., iii, 750 
(1877) ; 7'crt. Ins. A'. .-/., 573, pi. 5, (igs. 37, 38 (1891). 

Lower White River, next the boundary between Colorado and 
Utah. 

LiMNOCEMA (^f/iv>5, xel/iat) gen. nov. 

This name is proposed for a group of species which seem to be 
more nearly allied to Limnobia and Trochobola than to any olher 
living genus, but which are peculiar for the presence of a marginal 
cross vein near the extreme apex of the wing, well beyond the 
position of the stigma, which is here marked only by a faint cloud ; 
and for the great length of the posterior cells, as in Dicranoptycha, 

PROC. AMEB. PniLOS. 800. XXXII. 143. Z. PRINTED JAN. 10, 1894. 



for example. The wings are a liltle less than four limes as long a 
broad. The auxiliary vein is very long, terrainaling at or beyond 
the origia of ihe third longitudinal vein, and is counecied at some 
distance beTore its tip with the f.rst laiigiludinal vein by tk 
subcostal cross vein. The second longitudinal vein arises well he- 
fore the middle of the wing, the priefurca but little dcclivcnt, so thu 
the marginal cell is slender throughout and exceedingly long, since 
the marginal cross vein is situated ai but little before the tip of ihe 
first longiiudinal vein and scarcely at all affects the curvature cither 
of that or of the second longitudinal vein. The siogle submar- 
ginal is considerably longer than the first posterior cell, and all the 
posterior cells, four in number, are long, the discal cell being (loud 
and generally less than twice as long as broad. The great croM 
vein strikes the discal cell slightly beyond the base of the tati«. 
The legs are slender, the tips of the libite unarmed. The abdomto 
appears to have been longitudinally striped. 

Four species occur, each of them at Florissant only ; they may 
be separated by the following table : 

Tai/e ef ike SpeeUs of Lmn^eema. 

Second longitudinal vein arising wilhin the basal tlitnl of the wing. .maKtittHt- 
Second longitudinal vein arising befond the bs^al Ihird of Ilie wing. 

Suljcostal cross vein l>ing a longdistance from the tip of (he auxiliary vein. ' 
Frxturca arising betore the middle of Ihe wing; tubmargiiul madl 

longer than Ihe first posterior cell /mteitfrni. 

Frxfurca arising at or beyond the middle of the wing ; subnMr^nil 

scarcely longer than Ihe fitsi posterior cell iZ/r. 

Subcostal cross vein lying a short dislance from the tip of the auiiliaiy Tein. 

Limnocema marcescens. 

PI. 2. fig. 7. 

This is the largest species of the genus, and remarkable for the 
excessive length of the marginal cell, which is more than halfu 
long as ibe wing. The auxiliary vein ends just at the origin of the 
third longiiudinal vein, but the subcostal cross vein caoDOt be made 
out. The second longitudinal vein arises distinctly within the basal 
third of the wing, and the marginal cross vein is so near its tip 
that the proximal and distal portions of the marginal cell are about 
equal. The discal cell is relatively small and narrower apicalljr 
than at base, and the second and third posterior cells are slender 



ao8 

and twice o long «s the dbcal cell. The wings are uniformly 
and very slightly fiiliginous, bat no trace of stigma can be detected. 
The hind (or middle ?) femora are much shorter than the wings. 

Length of wings, 10.75 °^°^« i ^'^^ (P^ mid?) femora, 8 mm. ; 
ttbiK, 9 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Ooe specimen. No. 13069. 

Lfimnocema lutescens. 

PL s, fig. X 

The auxiliary vein in this species ends a little way beyond the 
origin of the third longitudinal vein, and the subcostal cross vein is 
at a considerable distance before it, about half way to the origin of 
the prsefurca, and at about the middle of the wing. The second 
longitudinal vein arises at some distance before the middle of the 
wing, and the marginal cross vein is at some distance before the 
tip of the second longitudinal vein, so that the distal is but slightly 
longer than the proximal portion of the marginal cell. In neither 
of the known specimens are the parts about the discal cell well pre- 
served, but the posterior celb can be seen to be very long, and the 
sabmarginal to be much longer than the first posterior cell. One 
of the specimens shows a slight infumation in the position of the 
stigma. 

This species bears a close general resemblance to the larger Rham- 
phidia saxetana from the same beds, which lacks any marginal cross 
vein. 

Length of wings, 8.2-9.5 mm. ; fore femora of larger specimen, 
5.75 mm.; tibiae, 6.75 mm.; mid femora of smaller specimen, 
5.5 mm. ; tibiae 5.75 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two specimens, Nos. 603, 11817. 

Limnocema styx. 

PL 2, fig. 6. 

This species is very near the last, and the single specimen is im- 
perfect by the loss of the tip of the wing. It differs from the pre- 
ceding mainly in these points: The subcostal cross vein, though 
situated, as there, about midway between the tip of the auxiliary 
vein and the base of the praefurca, is very far beyond the middle of 
the wing, for the praefurca arises not far from and probably itself 



beyond the middle of the wing. The position of the tnargi 
cross vein, being beyond the break, cannot be determined, and il 
is therefore possible thai this species does not belong in this geniu 
at all. The submarginal is but very little longer than the first poi- 
terior cell. The discal eel! must be of excessive length if it is not 
open, as it cannot be seen on ihe fragmfni, which is suppoi«d 
to include just about one half of the apical cellular area, thai il, 
the region beyond ihe basal cells. The wing is perfectly dot 
except that faint signs of a stigma can be seen just beyond the tip 
of the auxiliary vein. 

Length of fragment of wing, 8 mm. ; presumed length of liing, 
9.5 mm. ; hind femora, 6 mm. ; tibice, 6 25 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen. No. 11389. 

Limnocema mortoni, 

ri I. fie 5' 

A single specimen wilh its reverse repre.-ents the smallest of the 1 
species of this genus. The outspread wings show a faint broadlT j 
diffused infumation in the region of the stigma, but arc oiherwisti | 
and excepting the dark veins, hyaline. The auxiliary vein ends it 1 
a noticeable distance beyond the origin of the third longiiudiail ' 
vein, and the subcostal cross vein lies directly over the lalter, and to 
at considerably less than half way from the lip of the auxiliaiy 
vein to the origin of the prrefurca. The latter arises soraewhit 
before the middle of the wing, and the marginal cross vein is close 
before the tip of the first longitudinal vein, so that Ihe margtoal 
cell is very long, and its distal a little longer than its proximil 
portion. The submarginal is ranch longer than the first posterioi 
cell, — indeed by as much as the length of the discal cell, which a 
here only about half as long again as broad, and considerably Ins 
(ban half as long as the slender posterior cells beyond it. A single 
femur is all that is preserved of the legs — a fore femur, to judge by 
its position, and in that case exceptionally long, being but little 
shorter than the wings. 

Length of wings, 7.9 mm, ; fore? femora, 6.15 mm. 

Named in memory of Dr. S. G. Morton, ihe distinguished Phil- 
adelphia naturalist of a past generation. 

Floristant, Colorado, One st>ecimen, Nos. 8038 and 8*15. 




205 

Tribe RHAMPHIDINI. 

I have chosen to call this tribe by a name derived from one 
of its principal genera, rather than to use the compound term Lim- 
fiobina anomala introduced by Osten Sacken. The Rhamphidina 
of this writer is a more restricted group within this. 

Four genera and a dozen species of this tribe are known in a 
fossil slate, all the genera but one, Antocha, being found in amber. 
None of the genera are extinct, though two of them were first known 
from amber inclusions, and in consequence have been the subject of 
many comments by Loew and Osten Sacken, who find in them strik- 
ing examples of the resemblance between the amber fauna and the 
existing fauna of America. None of this tribe have been recognized 
in the European rock deposits, but Florissant furnishes two genera 
and four species. 

Rhamphidia Meigen. 

Rhamphidia Meig., Syst, Beschr. eur. zweifl. ///j.,vi, 281(1830). 

In this genus are here placed several species which agree in their 
neuration quite as well with Toxorhina, but appear to lack the 
elongated rostrum of the latter -genus. The neuration, however, 
shows so many minor points of departure from the described char- 
acteristics of each of these genera, that the characters of Rham- 
phidia must be made more elastic for their reception. Among 
themselves they differ also in similar particulars, and until the fossil 
species indicated from amber are better known, enabling us to 
compare all the Rhamphidini living and fossil, it will i^robably be 
best to include these under Rhamphidia, to which they appear to 
be most nearly allied. There is no trace in them of apical spurs 
to the tibiie. Attention should especially be directed in studying 
the fossil species to the length of the auxiliary vein, the point of 
origin of the praefurca, and the position of the great cross vein. 

This genus contains but few species, most of which are found in 
Europe, the others in eastern North America, Porto Rico, and 
Brazil (one each). Four unde^cribed species are recorded by Loew 
as occurring in Baltic amber. The three species found at Floris- 
sant may be thus separated : 

Table of the Species of Rhamphidia. 

Auxiliary vein ending opposite the origin of the thi:d loiij^iludinal vein . .saxftiina. 
Auxiliary vein ending about midway between the origin of the second and third 
longitudinal veins. 



ThlnllangiludinalveinariiingBbout Che middle of th« wing; great criHt >fi£ 
Ilriliing Ihe fourth lODgitudinat vein before Uie diicAl cell. . . .factTit^ 

Third longiluJinnl vein arising well beyond t)ie middle of llie vring; ffA 
ctou vein iltiking Ihe fourlh longitudinal vein at ibe base uf ihe ditol 

Rhamphidia saxetana. 

n. 3, rtfi. 4. 

An exceplionally large species. The auxiliary vein ends opposile 
the origin of the third longitudinal vein, but the position of the 
subcostal cross vein cannot be made out. The piKfurca arises tt 
the middle of the whig, is arcuate at its baac and then subparallri 
to [he first longitudinal vein, and not half so long as the rcmaioder 
of ihe vein. The fiist longimdinal vein is carried much fartho 
toward the apex of the wing than in the olher sjwcies, farthet 
beyond the long auxiliary vein than the breadth of the wing. The 
submarginal is not very much longer than the first posterior celL 
The diacal cell is rather short, and the posterior cells beyond it more 
than twice as long as it. The great cross vein strikes the discJ 
cell close to the base of the latter. The costal margin of the wing 
is very thick and deeply colored ; the wing itself is hyaline, with 
scarcely even a fuliginous tint at the stigma. The legs axe slender, 
the femora gradually thickening toward ihe lip. ' 

Length of wings, ii mm. : fore femora, 8.25 mm. ; tibiie, 9.75 
mm.; larsi, 9 mm.; mid femora, 95 mm.; tibiie, 9.25 mm.; 
hind femora, 9.5 ram. 

One cannot but be stnick by the close general resemblance 
of this species lo (he much smaller Lmnocema lutestens from the 
same beds, a species with a marginal cross vein. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen. No. 10490. 

Rhamphidia fscaria. 

ri. 3. fifi. 5. 

The auxiliary vein ends midway between the origin of the second 
and third longitudinal veins, the subcostal cross vein at its very lip. 
The pra;furca arises at the middle of the wing, is gently arcuate and 
slightly dechvent and distinctly more than half as long as the rfr 
mainder of the vein. The first longitudinal vein ends as far from 
the origin of the third as that is from the origin of the second 




207 

• 

longttndiiud vdo, and at a lets distaoce beyond the tip of the aux- 
iliary vein thai^ the breadth of the wing. The submarginal is much 
longer than the first posterior cell. The discal cell is moderately 
small, equal, about half as long again as broad and distinctly but 
not greatly shorter than the posterior cells beyond it. The great 
cross vein strikes the fourth longitudinal vein at a slight distance 
before the discal cell. The seventh longitudinal vein is rather 
short. A slight infumation nuirks broadly the position of the 
stigma, the veins are all exceptionally heavy and fusco-luteous, the 
wing barely infumated. Three legs are preserved on the single 
specimen known and are presumed to be the hind pair and one 
middle leg. 

Length of wings, 7.5 mm. ; mid femora, 5.2 ? mm. ; tibiae, 5.5 
moL ; hind femora, 5.2 ? mm. ; tibiae, 5.75 mm. ; tarsi, 5 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 9399. 

Rhamphidia loewi. 

PL 3, fig. 2. 

The auxiliary vein ends at a little less than half way from the 
origin of the second to that of the third longitudinal vein, the sub- 
costal cross vein at its tip. The prsefurca arises considerably be- 
yond the middle of the wing, is nearly straight and declivent, and 
is less than half as long as the remainder of the vein. The first 
longitudinal vein is as in the preceding species. The submarginal 
is much longer than the first posterior cell. The discal cell is 
rather elongate, equal, twice as broad as long and fully as long as 
the posterior cells beyond it. The great cross vein strikes the dis- 
cal cell near to but distinctly removed from the base of the latter. 
The seventh longitudinal vein is normal. The wing is hyaline, 
with a very faint infumation at the stigma, the veins luteous and 
delicate. The legs are detached and partly obscured (though in a 
natural pK)sition) so that the measurements are mostly in doubt. 

Length of wings, 7.25 mm. ; fore femora, 5.5 ? mm. ; tibiae, 6.5 
mm.; mid femora, 6? mm.; tibiae, 6.5? mm.; hind femora, 6.4? mm. 

Named in memory of Dr. H. Loew, the distinguished investiga- 
tor of the amber Diptera. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 1369. 



208 



Antocb* Osten Sacken. 



wid Osten Saclien, /Vot. 



, Nat. Sc. Fiilad., 1859, = 



To this genus I refijr a single species which differs markedly from 
ihe only recent species kuown — occurring in eastern Norlh America 
and in Europe — in the character of the praifurca, which is arcaiie 
at base and only half as long as the rest or the vein, so that (lie 
margiiial cell is relatively brief. It differs further in minor pointi, 
such as (he normal removal of the discal cell from the apex of ibe 
wing, the normal base of the first posterior cell, etc, but these are 
of much less importance. If the entire neuration could be deter- 
mined with accuracy 1 am disposed to believe it would have to he 
separated from Antocha ; but the position of the marginal cro« 
vein just before the tip of the first longitudinal vein, the gradujl 
approach of the first longitudinal vein to the costal margin, and the 
apparent merging of the auxiliary in the first longitudinal vein 
(though this is an obscure point) are so many features in common 
with Antocha that it seems best to place it here at present. The 
shape of the anal angle of the wing cannot be determined. The 
tips of the tibia; are unarmed. 

"It is not at all improbable," wrote Osten Sacken more t tun 
thirty years ago {J. e., 200), " that my genera Antocha and Dicii- 
noptycha will be found fossil in the Prussian amber." The present 
illustration is almost a fulfilment of this partial prophecy. 



Antocha principialis. 

PI. 3. fig. >. 
Represented by a single specimen with rather obscure neuration 
over most of one wing and the whole of the other. The auxiliary 
vein appears to unite wiili the first longitudinal vein about the 
middle of the wing. The latter runs very gradually into the mar- 
gin, without curving upward toward it, at a point about as far be- 
yond the origin of the third, as that is beyond the origin of the 
second longitudinal vein. The priefurca arises a little beyond the 
middle of the wing, is at first strongly arcuate, then subparallet to 
the margin, toward which it turns slightly at the marginal cross 
vein, which is opposite the base of the discal cell, a little withia 
the tip of the first longitudinal vein, at the Inner margin of the 
faint stigma. The submarginal is much longer than the first posterior 



L 




209 

cell, but by no means so much -so as in the living species. The 
discal cell is long and rather slender, widening apically and as long 
as the third posterior cell. The great cross vein strikes the fourth 
longitudinal vein at some distance short of the discal cell. The 
legs are very slender and the fore tarsi of excessive length. 

Length of wings, 6.5 mm. ; fore femora, 5.25 mm. ; tibiae, 5.5 
mm. ; tarsi, 10.5 mm. ; mid femora, 5.75 mm. ; tibiae, 6 mm. ; 
tarsi, 6.25 mm. ; hind femora, 6 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen. No. 215. 

Tribe ERIOPTERINI. 

Of this tribe five genera and eighteen species, including those 
described below, are known in a fossil state. Only three species of 
as many genera — Erioptera, Gnophomyia, and Gonomyia — have 
been described from the Euro])ean rocks, but eight spacies of Eri- 
optera are said by Loew to occur in amber. Gonomyia has four 
species in America, and Cladura has two, while a single other 
species has been referred to a distinct genus, Cladoneura, closely 
allied to the last. 

Gonomyia Megerle. 

Gonomyia Meg., in Meig., Syst. Beschr, cur. zzueijl. Ins.t i» '47 (1 818). 

This is a north temperate genus, the known existing species being 
confined to Europe, which has eleven species, and eastern North 
America, which has five. It has before this been found fosbil, the 
species described by Heyden in the Aquitanian of Rott in Rhenish 
Prussia under the name of Limtiobia sturiy being certainly a Gono- 
myia. But in this country it is found fossil more abundantly, for to 
this genus belong four nearly allied species from Floris>ant with 
very characteristic neuralion. Except that the auxiliary vein is 
relatively long and the marginal cell slender, they do not ai)i)ear to 
differ in any common characteristics from modern forms. The 
si>ecies may be separated thus : 

Table of the Species of Gonomyia, 

Prxfurca with little or no basal arcuation, nearly straijjlit throughout. 

Base of first submarginal cell lying scarcely beyond the tip of the first lon- 
gitudinal vein. 

rilOC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143 2 A. PIIINTED JAN 17, 1804 



Small species. Tip of daxillory vein lying much leM than half 
from Ihe origin of the lecond to the origin of ihi ihird loiiglludi 

""" /^"A' 

Lnrge species. Tip of auxiliary vein lying much more than half 
from Ihc origin of (he second lo the origin of the thinl longitodil 

vein tai//arfan,\ 

Base of Brsl submaTgina] cell lying distinctly beyond the tip of the Hnl to». 

giludinal vein frimtgni 

Pnefarca with strong arcua lion al base ■.A'f' 

Gonomyia profundi. 

PI. 3. fig- 3. 

The wings are hyaline. The auxiliary vein ends barely before 
ihe middle of the wing and a little distance beyond the origin of 
the pra:furca, Ihe subcostal cross vein appearing (o lie midway 
between the two. The first longitudinal vein ends in the costa 
opposite tl^e middle of the discal cell. The prrefurca is long, 
nearly straight, arises at the end of the basal two fifths of the 
wing, and is considerably more than half as long as the rest of the 
vein. The oblique upper branch of the second longitudinal vciB 
arises opposite the tip of the first longitudinal vein, making the 
first submarginal cell more than half as long as the second; the 
latter is considerably longer than the first posterior cell, and 
the second and third posterior cells twice as long as Ihe discal cell, 
which is closed. All the veins running longitudinally are gently aud 
uniformly arcuate. 

This is ihe smallest of the fossil species of the genus. 

Length of wings, 5 mm. ; fore femora, 2.75 mm. ; tibiae, 2.75 
mm. ; mid femora, 3 mm. ; tibite, 3 mm. ; hind femora, 3 ? mm.; 
libiiE, 3 mm. ; tarsi, 3,25 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 7461. 

Gonomyia labefactata. 

I'l. 4. liK. 4- 
The wings are hyaline, without trace of color except the luteom 
veins, which appear to be a little thickened in certain parts, 
especially the fifth longitudinal vein ; there is no trace of a stigma. 
The auxiliary vein terminates at a remarkable distance beyond the 
origin of the prjefurca, reaching nearly 10 the base of the third 
longitudinal vein, and well beyond the middle of the wing, the 



( 



211 

subcostal cross vein shortly anterior to its tip. The first longitudi- 
nal vein reaches as far as opposite the distal end of the discal cell. 
The praefurca arises at about the end of the basal two fifths of the 
wing, is straight, not very long, but little more than half as long as 
the remainder of the vein. The oblique upper branch of the 
second longitudinal vein arises directly opposite the tip of the first 
longitudinal vein, so that the first submarginal cell is just as long as 
its petiole. The second submarginal is but little longer than the 
first posterior cell. The discal cell is pretty large and nearly as 
long as the posterior cells beyond it. The great cross vein strikes 
it just before its middle. 

This is the largest of the fossil Gonomyiae. 

Length of wings^ 8.25 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 147. 

Gonomyia primogenitalis. 

PI. 4, fig. 10. 

In this species the wings are hyaline, without spots or stigma, but 
with fusco-luteous veins. The auxiliary vein ends in the middle of 
the wing, the subcostal cross vein shortly before its tip and nearly 
midway to the base of the praefurca, which, though no longer than 
usual, arises at an exceptionally early point, not far beyond the 
basal third of the wing; it is straight, wiih no basal arcuatiun 
whatever, and only half as long as the rest of the vein ; indeed tlie 
whole cellular area of the wing, that is, the region beyond the basal 
cells, is much longer in proportion to the rest of the wing than in 
any of the other species. The first longitudinal vein ends about 
opposite the distal end of the discal cell, and the oblique upper 
branch of the second longitudinal vein arises distinctly beyond its 
tip, though the first marginal cell is longer than its petiole. The 
submarginal is not greatly longer than the first posterior cell; the 
discal cell is rather small and only about half as long as the pos- 
terior cells beyond it, the great cross vein striking it at the end of 
its basal third. The fifth longitudinal vein is scarcely bent at the 
cross vein. The femora are considerably thickened apically. 

The figure on the plate represents only the wing of one of the 
si>ecimens, drawn by the camera lucida. 

Length of wing, 6.5-7.5 mm. ; legs in the smaller specimens: 
fore femora, 2.6 mm.; tibiaj, 3.25 mm.; larsi, 2.75 mm.; mid 



31S 

femora, 9.25 mm. ; tibix, 1.5 mm. ; um, (.4 mm.; famd InBon, 
5.3 ONB. ; libix, yt tarn. ; i.irs, s.35 ? oim. 

Ftofbiant, Colorado. TTiree s{ecimens, Noi. S161, SS4$ 1 
$871 of my colleclion ; No. 1.748 of the Princeion coUixiion. 

Gonomyia ftigida. 

PL 4, fiK- 9- 

Wings bjratine witliout spots or stigma, the veins fuscous. Aus- 
ilufjr vein terminating n little beyond the middle of the wing, aad J 
not far from midvay between the origin of the second and lliirdJl 
longiiudiiial veins, ihe subcostal cross vein shortly before its tip I 
and midway between it and the base of the prxfurca. Fir^t Iongi< 
tudinal vein ending about opposite the dislal extremity of the distal 
cell. Prwfurca arising somewhat before the middle of the wing, 
strongly arcuate at base, thereafter subparaltel to the first longi- 
tudinal vein, the strongly oblique u;>per branch of the second ari^ 
ing opposite the lip of the first longitudinal vein, the first snb- 
marginal cell about as long as iis petiole. Second submarginal , 
considerably longer than the first posterior cell. Discal cell small, 
equal, considerably shorter than ihc posterior cells beyond it, the \ 
great cross vein striking it dose (o its base. The femora are gradu- 
ally tliDugh very slightly thickened and darkened apically. 

Length of wings, 5.5-5.75 mm. ; fore femora, 2.8 mm. ; libix, 
3mm.; tarsi, 3 mm.; mid femora, 3 mm.; tibiae, 2.75 mm.; 
tarsi, 2,75 mm.; bind femora, 3.5 mm.; tibiEe, 3 mm.; tarsi, 
3-»5 '"m. 

Florissant, Colorado. Three specimens, Nos. 3434, 6034, 8656. 

Cladoneura (^xiddoi, veupd) gen. nov. 
Among the species which in my preliminary survey of these 
fossils I had grouped under Cladura, is one which agrees with 
modern forms of thai genus in one particular, namely, the distance 
IjElween the base of the prrefurca and the tip of the auxiliary vein, 
which more than equals the breadth of the wing ; while in the fossil 
5|)ecies of Cladura described below the distance is less, sumelimcs 
much less, than the breadth. Ii further agrees better with the 
modern than with the fossil species of Cladura in that the lip of 
the auxiliary vein extends a little beyond the base of the first sub- 
marginal cell ; and in that the petiole of this cell about equals the 



k 



213 

distance between the subcostal and marginal cross veins, — points 
more or less related. But it differs from the modern forms of 
Cladura in so many and, as it appears to me, so much more import- 
ant pK)ints than do the fossil species here referred to Cladura, that it 
seems more rational to separate it generically from both. 

The points of its distinction from Cladura are the following : 
The praefurca arises at a far earlier point in the wing, at the end of 
the basal third of the same, and though immediately arcuate has 
but a slight basal curve and is thereafter straight, running very near 
to and but slightly divergent from the first longitudinal vein ; in 
this respect the fossil species of Cladura agree more nearly with it 
than with the recent species. The subcostal cross vein is at the tip 
of the auxiliary vein, so that its distance from the base of the prae- 
furca is a fourth more than the breadth of the wing. The marginal 
cross vein is in consequence much nearer the subcostal cross vein 
than the tip of the first longitudinal vein, and the petiole of the 
first submarginal cell is a little longer than the interval between the 
two cross veins. Moreover, the branch of the second longitudinal 
vein through which the first submarginal cell originates is straight 
throughout and not, as in the modern s[>ecies of Cladura, strongly 
arcuate basally ; in this particular again the fossil species of Cladura 
agree rather with Cladoneura. The third and not the second pos- 
terior cell is petiolate. The anterior branch of the fourth longi- 
tudinal vein arises at a small angle (and not at nearly or (luite a 
right angle) from the main stem, so that the proximal end of the 
discal cell is pointed and not broad. Finally, the great cross vein 
lies much nearer the margin of the wing, striking the dihcal cell 
opposite the origin of the posterior branch of the fourth longi- 
tudinal vein. In addition, the legs, which are very imperfectly 
known in the single specimen preserved, appear to be much shorter 
than in the fossil species of Cladura, the hind femora being but 
about half as long as the wings, while in the latter they are fully 
two thirds as long. The wings are but little more than three times 
as long as broad, with rather full posterior margin. 

A single species is known. 

Cladoneura willistoni. 

VI 4, tig. 2. 

Wings a little more than three times as long as broad, immacu- 
late, without stigma, very feebly infumate. 'J'he auxiliary vein 



ends scarcely before Ihc middle of the apical balf of Ihe wing and 
ju5[ beyond ihe extreme base of llie first submarginal cell, the sob- 
costal cross vein next its tip. The prrefurca ari!«s at the end of the 
basal third of the wing and is scarcely shorter than the rest of Ihe 
vein. The marginal cross vein isas far beyond the base of the firei 
submarginal cell as that from the origin of the third longitudinxl 
vein ; the latter is hardly in the least bent at ils base where unitrd 
to the branch of the fourth longitudinal vein. The second sub- 
marginal and first posterior cells are of almost equal ler>gth and 
longer than the breadth of the wing. The discal cell is subtriangu- 
lar, enlarging toward its rectangular apex from its pointed base. 
Petiole of third posterior cell shorter than the cell. Fifth longi- 
tudinal vein distinctly and considerably bent at the great cross vein, 
the fifth posterior cell less than twice as long as its median breadth. 
The legs are imperfectly preserved, but are relatively very §hort. 

Length of wings, 9 mm. ; breadth, 2.75 mm. 

Named for Prof S. VV. Williston, of the University of Kansas, i 
diligent student of American Diptera. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two specimens. Nos. q^ti, 116S8. 



I 



Cladi^ra Osten Sacken. 
Clajura Osten Sxcken, /Vcif. AcaJ. Nat. St: HtUad., 1859, 229. 

Cladura is a North American genus and has indeed been found 
only along the eastern shore from Canada to the District of Co- 
lumbia. Loew described a European species, but Oslen Sacken ;ays 
it cannot be placed here. Two living species only are known. I'p 
to this time it has not been found fossil, but I now place here a 
couple of species from Florissant, differing considerably from each 
other, in that one, a stout species, has spotted wings, very shorland 
broad for a Cladura ; while the other, a slender form, has dear wings 
of the usual proportions, nearly four times as long as broad. They 
agree, however, tolerably well in their neuration, but differ from 
inodern species of Cladura in that the distance between the base of 
the [iriefurca and the lip of the auxiliary vein is less than, in the 
stout form hardly more than one half, the breadth of the wing; in 
that the tip of the auxiliary vein lies distinctly before the base of 
the lirsl submarginal cell ; that the petiole of this cell is only about 
h.'Uf as long as the distance between the subcostal and marginal 
cross veins; and in the slight basal arcuation and subsequent 



215 

straightness of the praefurca — in which particular they approach 
Cladoneura, just described. The stouter of the two further differs from 
modern species of Cladura in the form of the wings, as above re- 
marked, and in the somewhat greater distance of the great cross 
vein from the base of the discal cell. These differences seem to be 
no more than we should expect between living and tertiary forms 
in the same genus, and indicate the direction development has taken 
within relatively recent times. 

Table of the Fossil Species of Cladura. 

Wings less than three times as long as broad, spotted ; great cross vein striking 
middle of lower margin of discal cell maculata. 

Wings more than three times as long as broad, immaculate ; great cross vein strik- 
ing lower margin of discal cell near the base Integra. 

Cladura maculata. 

PI. 4, fig. I. 

Wings slightly less than three times as long as broad, spotted 
with brownish fuscous along the front margin, but otherwise hya- 
line; the largest of these spots is at the stigma, where it is more 
luteous and includes the marginal cross vein ; the others are situ- 
ated next the humeral cross vein, midway between it and the base 
of the praefurca, at that base, at the subcostal cross vein, at the 
origin of the third longitudinal vein, and at the tips of the veins 
bordering the first submarginal cell. The auxiliary vein ends at 
the distal extremity of the middle fifth of the wing, earlier than 
the origin of the third longitudinal vein, and has the subcostal cross 
vein a very little way before its tip. The pnefurca arises at the 
proximal end of the middle fifth of the wing, is arcuate at extreme 
base, thereafter straight and a little divergent from the first longi- 
tudinal vein, and is a little shorter than the rest of the vein. The 
marginal cross vein lies at a less distance beyond the base of the 
first submarginal cell than the length of the ])etiole of that cell. 
The third longitudinal vein is abruptly bent a little beyond its base 
where the cross vein strikes it, and the second submarginal and first 
posterior cells are subequal in length and fully as long as the breadili 
of the wing. The petiole of the second posterior cell is shorter 
than the cell. The discal cell is about twice as long as broad, sub- 
equal and a little shorter than the posterior cells beyond it. The 



I 



gKMt CTooi vein strikes tbc nnddlc of the disnl cdl, xnd the 6fth 
pOMmor cdl » haidlf twice as kng as braad. There is a dtstioct 
supplemcntaiy cron vein in tbc middle of Ibe sectmd basal cell, 
lying oatside a point opposite the bax of the pnefnica. The \ep 
sat relitivelj modi, the (emon apicallr blackened. 

Length of *rings, 6.5 mm. ; breadth, 3.15 mm. ; length of fore 
femora. 5.5 mm. ; tibtx, 4.75 mm. ; tvsi, 4.6 tnm. ; mid femon, 
3.75 mm. ; (ibix, 4.75 mm. ; hind femora, 4.6 mm. ; ttUiK, 5 mm. 

FlotiMUil, Colorado. One specimea, No& 7954 and 10399. 

Cladora integra. 
Pt 4. Sg. s. 

Wings almost four limes as long as brood, hyaline and immacu- 
late except for the faintest possible infnmation on the stigma. The 
auxiliary vein ends bnt little before the middle of Ihe apical half of 
the wing, between the origin of the third longitiidinal vein and the 
base of the first submarginal celt ; the subcostal cross vein llci but 
a short distance from the lip of the auxiliary veio. The prefuici 
atises at about the middle of the wing, is arcuate at base, beyond 
straight, divergent and rather distant from the first longitudinal h 
vein, and is distinctly shorter than the rest of the vein. The mar- "S 
gioal cross vein lies as far beyond the base of the first submarginal 
cell as Ihe lengih of its petiole. The third longitudinal vein is not 
bent at the base, the cross vein uniting it to the branch of the 
fourth longitudinal vein meeting it at the very base ; consequently 
the second submarginal and first posterior cells are equal in length, 
and they are much longer than the breadth of the wing. The 
petiole of the second posterior cell is very much shorter than the 
cell, the discal cell is less than twice as long as broad, equal ai>d 
hardly more than half as long as the posterior cells beyond it. The 
great cross vein strikes the discal cell near its base and the fifth 
ITOsierior cell isseveral times longer than broad and equal, the fifth 
longitudinal vein being hardly bent. Legs very slender. The 
sides of the abdomen are distinctly darker than the dorsum. 

Length of wings, 10,5 mm. ; breadth, i.6 mm. ; length of fore 
femora, 5.5 mm. ; tibi^, 6.75 mm. ; tarsi, 6.25 mm. ; hind femon, 
6 mm. ; libise, 7.5 ram. ; tarsi, 6 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 1590. 



217 

Tribe LIMNOPHILINI. 

This is the most important tribe among the Limnobinae whether 
living or fossil. Five genera and twenty-five species have been rec- 
ognized among the fossils, though only a very few of the European 
species are described or figured. Three or more species each of 
Limnophila, Trichocera, Tanymera, and Trichoneura — the last two 
extinct genera — have been recorded from the European tertiaries, 
besides one of the extinct genus Calobamon ; these are all from 
amber except a single species each from Aix and Locle, belonging 
to Trichocera. From America only four species of Limnophila 
are known. 

Limnophila Macquart. 

Limnophila Macq., Hist, Nat, Dipt., i, 95 (1834). 

Limnophila is a prolific north temperate genus with numerous 
species both in North America and in Europe, in each of which 
about thirty species are known. In North America it occurs across 
the continent and from Alaska to Mexico, and it is also found in 
South America. 

In his first studies upon this group. Oaten Sacken suggested the 
use of several subgeneric names, which he proposed in a tentative 
manner, to be used until a complete revision of the genus could be 
made. In later writings he has still further subordinated these, 
which are in part founded upon minor points in the neuration 
of the wings. The examination of the few fossils of this group 
from Florissant seems to emphasize his later judgment, since 
we find several species with a cross vein in the first submarginal 
cell (one of the characteristics of his subgenus Dicranophragma), 
but which do not well agree in other features of Dicranophragma, 
while one of them has a supplementary cross vein in the costal 
area, as in Epiphragma — a group which he later regards as of 
generic value. It has seemed best, therefore, i)ending a complete 
revision of the Limnophilse of the world, to use for these fossil 
species only the broader generic name Limnophila. It is a striking 
fact that of the four species known (each, unfortunately, by only a 
single example) three should have only four posterior cells, and 
three should have a supplementary cross vein in the first sub- 
marginal cell, both these features being rare in modern Limno- 
philse. 

PROC. AMER. PBILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. 2 B. PRINTED JAN. 17, 1894. 



Numerous fossil species of this group have been found in Europ*, 
but only in Prussian amber, wlicre the variety of forms is so great 
that Loew placed ihera in no less than four of his proposed new 
genera, and did not recognize among ihera at all the typical Um- 
nophil^e. These genera were Trichoneiira, Critoneura, Tanymen, 
and Tanysphyra, with eleven species; and besides these Osten Sackes 
refers his species of Cylindroloma, four in number, to this group. 
The species described below, which are the first found in rocfc 
deposits, may be separated as follows : 

TaiU of ike Specus of Limnepkila. 

lumemry ci 



Pint Bubmu^Bal cell wilh a supi 
A supplemcatary crosi vein ii 

Nod 



Ihe coital area, n 



1 the bas; of tke 



Larger speciei, pcxseising only four pg^terior cdU . . 

Smaller speciei. with live pokletiur culli. . , 

F7nt lubmaiginal cell with no iuperaumFriiry crou vein . . . 



Limnophila rogersii. 

ru.fig. 3. 

Wings hyaline with fuscous veins and no sign of a sligou. 
Auxiliary vein ending oppo»te the base of the (irst submarginil 

cell, the subcostal cross vein at its lip ; a Siuperniimeraiy 
cross vein in the costal area, opposite the base of the pW' 
furca. First longitudinal cross vein ending about midway 
between the lip of the auxiliary vein and the apex of the 
wing. PiKfurca arising about the middle of the wing, rather 
strongly arcuale at base, straight beyond, two thirds as long 
as the rest of the vein. Marginal cross vein just beyond the lip of 
the auxiliary vein and opposite the base of the first submarginal 
cell, which has a su|>ernumerary cross vein a little beyond its 
middle. Apparently only four posterior cells, but by the folding 
and overlapping of the wings in ihe only example known, ihii 
point is not entirely clear; the same disturbance prevents any 
statement regarding the discal cell. Legs very slender and long, 
the tibiie apically spurred. 

Length of wings, 6.5 mm. ; fore femora, 3.5 mm. ; tibisc, 4.5 
mm. ; tarsi, 3.75 mm. ; mid femora, 4 mm. ; tibiae, 5 mm. ; tani, 
5.25 mm. ; hind femora, 4.8 mm. ; tibiae, 5.35 mm. 




219 

Named in memory of Prof. H. D. Rogers, formerly state 
geologist of Pennsylvania. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 13732. 

Limnophila vasta. 

PL 4» fig. 7- 

Wings very faintly infumated, with a faint and small fuscous 
stigma. Auxiliary vein ending opposite the base of the first sub- 
marginal cell. First longitudinal vein continuing far toward the 
apex of the wing, being apically deflected with the margin. Prae- 
furca arising at a little distance before the middle of the wmg, con- 
siderably arcuate at ba<(e, beyond straight and gently divergent from 
the first longitudinal vein, as long as the end of the vein beyond 
the marginal cross vein, which is a little beyond the tip of the aux- 
iliary vein and oblique. First submarginal cell with a supernu- 
merary cross vein in the middle of its apical half. Four posterior 
cells. Discal cell short relative to the posterior cells beyond it, 
which are very long. The specimen is a male, and the antennae 
are very long as in the subgenus Idioptera, but whether there is a 
supernumerary cross vein in the second basal cell cannot be deter- 
mined. The legs are not preserved. It is the largest of the fossil 
species. 

Length of wings, 11.75 "^"^• 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No. 7021. 

Lfimnophila strigosa. 

PI. 4, fig. 5. 

Wings uniformly and very faintly infumated, with no sign of a 
stigma. Auxiliary vein long, extending slightly beyond the base of 
the praefurca and the apex of the wing, the subcostal cross vein at 
its tip. First longitudinal vein extending far toward the lip of the 
wing, but scarcely declivent apically. Praefurca arising a little 
before the middle of the wing, gently arcuate throughout, two 
thirds as long as the first submarginal cell. Marginal cross vein as 
far beyond the base of the first submarginal cell as that from 
the origin of the third longitudinal vein, oblique. First submar- 
ginal cell with a supernumerary cross vein near its apex. Five pos- 
terior cells, the second petiolate, apparently longer than its petiole. 
The discal cell and parts below obscured by the folding of 



the wing in tlie only specimen known. Legs slender, not very 
long, the libiK distinctly spurred at apex. 

Lengtli of wings, 6.15 mm. ; hind tibi.-c, 2.75 mm. 

FlotijiiaDi, Colorado. Une specimen, No. 81 7S. 

Limnaphila niinarum. 
PI. 4. fig- 6. 

Wings very faintly and uniformly infumated, with no stigmi. 
The front margin of both wing:s is imperfect, not permitting the 

auxiliary vein to be fully traced ; but it is probably rather short, a 
the first longiludinal vein ends about opposite the middle of ihe 
first submarginal cell. The prEfurca is very long, arising before the 
end of the basal third of the wing, is gently arcuate at base, straight 
thereafter, and nearly as long as the rest of the vein, which it 
exceptionally arcuate. Marginal cross vein oblique, further from 
the base of the first submarginal cell than it is from the origin c 
the third longitudinal vein j this cell without any supplementary 
cross vein. Pour posterior cells. The discal cell pointed at base, 
and though by this made longer, it is not naucb more than halfai 
long as the second posterior cell. The great cross vein strikes the 
middle of the discal cell, and the fifth longitudinal vein is slightly 
bent where met by it. No supplementary cross vein in the second 
basal cell. Legs not very slender and relatively shorter than 



in the other fossil specii 

dark above, light below. 

Length of wings, 8. s 



ih apical spurs 
hind femora, 4.2; 
Florissant, Colorado. One specimen, No, 9575. 



Abdomen 



7-trr..iii, 750 (iS77); 



I 



pRONOPMLEBiA Scudder. 

ProiiophUbla Scudd., Bull. U. S. Ceo/. Geosr. Sum 

7>r/./«j. AW., 573-574 {'891). 
This genus was established upon a single imperfect specimen, in 
which the third appeared to rise from the second longiludinal vein 
almost immediately after the separation of the latter from the first 
longiludinal vein, and so was very differeni from its origin in any 
jp of Limnobinw. Renewed examination of the speci- 
men does not enable me to contradict this interpretation of the fossil. 



221 

although it appears very improbable. I accordingly leave it until 
more perfect material shall enable some one to correct or verify it 
and fill out the remainder of the neuration. It is, therefore, placed 
at the end of the series, as it is quite impossible to tell in what tribe 
it should fall. 

Pronophlebia rediviva. 

PronopkUbia rediviva Scudd., Bull, U, S. GeoL Geo,^r, Surv, Terr.^ iii, 750- 
75* ('877) ; Tert. Ins. N. A,, 574, pi. 5, fig. 39 (1891). 

White River, near the boundary of Colorado and Utah. 

VIII. The Subfamily Tipulin.e. 

The fossil representatives of this subfamily are, relatively to the 
Limnobinae; just about as numerous in the European deposits as in 
the present fauna of Europe or of America, being in each case 
about half as numerous as they ; but in the American rocks, and 
still more in the European rock deposits (/. ^., exclusive of amber), 
they hold a much more important place. In tertiary Europe nine 
species of Tipula, one of Ctenophora, and two of Tipulidea (an 
extinct genus) have been described, and the presence of about 
fifteen other species of Tipula indicated, besides a Nephrotoma; 
while in North America, seventeen species of Tipula (including 
those in the present essay) have been described, and four species of 
Tipulidea, an extinct genus, besides single species of three other 
extinct genera. The tertiary fauna appears therefore to be some- 
what more diversified in this subfamily in America than in Europe. 

I have used here the terms employed by Osten Sacken for 
the neuration of the wings, but the neuration of these fossils seems 
to render it probable that what he calls (^Mono^r. Dipt. N. A., iv, 
290) the anterior branch of the apical fork of the second longitu- 
dinal vein is really the termination of the first vein itself, which is 
connected by a cross vein to the second, where it approaches it. 
This last would then be a '* marginal " cross vein, and the fact 
that no other marginal cross vein ever exists in the ripulini\i lends 
greater probability to this view, which would bring the structure 
into better accordance with that of manv Limnobiniis. 

The American genera of fossil Tipulinx may be separated 
by the following table : 



I 



Tad/e of the Genera of American fessil TipuHnm. 

. Lost posterior cell in coataci with Ihe dUcal celt ; the Utter uf modentr uu. 
b'. Anterior brancli of fourth tangitudinal vein unforked, or very Itetij 

forked Afoaafiii. 

b*. Anterior branch of fourth longilodinol vein sirongly forked. 

c'. Posleiiar branch of fourth longitudinal vein doubly forked, so lliU 

there ate six poalerioi cells KtuJineirsriaf. 

c', Fosltriur branch of fourth loQgitiidinal vein simply forked, to Ihu 
there arc five posterior cells. 
tl'. rnefuicanEBrly BS long as. IS long a;s, or kinder thftlt, the wldlti 
of the lirst and second bftsal cells together, opposite tbc 

origin of the prj:furca Tifula. 

d". Pnefurca nol, or scarcely, longer than Ihe ipvatctt width of Ike 

firat liaiel cell TifulUi*. 

O'. Last p5ileriorcell not inconUct with Ihidiscal cell; the latt«rmini 

Manapsis {fiatu'i, di/'ii) gen. nov. 
This name is here given to a genus of crane-flies closely alli«d ufl 
Tipula, in which ihe second posterior cell does not exist, i 
does, exists only as an exceedingly small and slender cell formed by 
the apical and very slight forking of the upper branch of the fourth 
longitudinal vein. Id the single specimen known it forks tfaut 
upon one wing and not at all upon the other ; the Utter woold 
appear to be the normal condition to judge from the weak character 
of the fork upon the other wing. So far as 1 can discover, no such 
condition is known to exist elsewhere among tiie Tipulinje, and I 
accordingly suggest the separation of this form as a distinct genus. 
.In all oilier respects the neuralion agrees with that of Tipulaand 
Clenophora, and the legs appear lo be much as in Tipula. The 
tnarkings of the abdomen seem lo be peculiar, for they consist of 
a very broad pale mediodorsal stripe on an otherwise dark 
abdomen. 

A single species is known. 

Manapsis anomaU. 

PI. 5. fig. I. 

Wings almost four times as long as broad, uniformly infumaird, 

with a distinct very dark stigma. Auxiliary vein terminating at ihe 

middle of the inner marginal tell ; poststigmatal cross vein rather 

brief, sbghtiy oblique; trapeztiidal cell brief. Preefurca a little 




223 

longer than the width of the first and second basal cells together at 
its base. Lowest posterior cell much wider at base than at 
margin ; discal cell of medium size, about twice as long as broad. 
Sixth longitudinal vein moderately approximated to the fifth ; 
seventh longitudinal vein distinctly less than half as long as 
the wing. Abdomen very dark, with a broad pallid mediodorsal 
stripe. Legs slender, the tibiae distinctly slenderer than the 
femora, which are three fifths as long as the wings. 

Length of wings, 14.75 ^^' > ^^ ^^^ femora, 9 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One $ specimen, No. 8200. 

Rhadinobrochus (^a^ivo?, fipo/of) gen. nov. 

It is with some hesitation that I propose the above name, as the 
single object upon which it is based is so imperfect. But the por- 
tion that is well preserved is so anomalous, while preserving in most 
of its features the exact neuration of Tipula, that it can hardly be 
properly treated excepting under a distinct generic name. These 
peculiarities consist of two features : the extraordinary slenderness 
of the discal cell, and the presence of a supplementary posterior 
cell by the longitudinal division with slightly unequal but sym- 
metrical halves of the third posterior cell by an additional nervule, 
running from the discal cell to the margin. 

A single species is known. 

Rhadinobrochus extinctus. 

n. 5, fig. 4. 

Wings nearly four times as long as broad, uncolored except for 
the rather faint stigma at the extremity of the inner marginal cell. 
Auxiliary vein terminating at the middle of this cell; poststigmatal 
cross vein slightly oblique, moderately long; trapezoidal cell not 
much elongated. Prcefurca of normal length. Petiole of second 
posterior cell about half as long as the discal cell ; third posterior 
cell broken into two, as described under the genus ; last posterior 
cell not much wider at base than at margin. Discal cell broadest 
basally, tapering throughout, of the usual length in species of 
Tipula, but four times as long as its basal breadth, not in close con- 
tact with the last posterior cell. Sixth longitudinal vein moderately 
near the fifth. Legs slender, the femora fully three fifths the length 



of the wings. Abdomen with a dark dorsal stripe on a pie 

ground. 
Li-ngth of wings, 13.5 mm, ; hind femora, 8.5 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One ^ specimen, No. 8847. 

TiPULA Linn6. 
rifula Uao.,S}'St. AV/., ed. 1(1735). 

This is a cosmopolitan genus with an enormous number ofspecics, 
found in every quarter of the world, but most numerous in norlli 
temperate countries. Sixty-seven species havs been credited to 
North America from Greenland to Mexico, and no less than eightjr- 
cight to Europe. Fossil remains of this genus have also frcquentij 
been credited to difTerent deposits in Europe, as at Sieblos, Ociiin- 
gen, and Brun^lalt in Germany, Aix in France, Gabbro and Chia- 
von in Italy, and the Krottensee in Bohemia, besides numtrwi 
examples at Raduboj in .\ustria and in Prussian amber. From ik 
former of these last two deposits half a dozen species are descnbtd 
and figured, while in amber Loew has recognized from eleven 10 
sixteen species, none of them yet described. In a very few in- 
stances the fossil species referred to Tipula can be shown to belong 
elsewhere, but most of them can be assumed to be true Tipulae. 
America we have already found seventeen species, most of them 
Florissant, the remainder in the Giisiiite fauna at Green River, 
Wyoming. 

The greater number, boih of individuals and species, of the 
Florissant Tipulinge belong to the genus Tipula in the strictest 
sense. I have been unable to discover any constant and pervaditig 
differences to distinguish them from existing forms, but have sepa- 
rated on one side and the other certain species which show marked 
individual characteristics, sometimes in unexpected and rather sur- 
prising features ; and have besides divided the genus in the follow- 
ing table into two groups by the length of the prsefurca, the ei- 
treme brevity of which in certain species closely allied to Tipula 
has induced me to separate them as a distinct genus, Tipulidea. The 
species with relatively short preefurca, which I leave in Tipula, sccm 
to agree in this particular with the existing Mexican species, T. 
tdwardsii, figured by Bellardi. 

Two fossi I species formerly described by me as Tipulse (under the 
names Tipula decrepita and Tipula teeta) are cerUlnly not Tipa- 



la 



L 



225 

lae and most probably belong to Dicranomyia (^. v.). Exclud- 
l therefore these two, the species of Tipula found fossil in America 
ly be separated by the following table : 

Tad/e of the Species of Tipula, 

Praefurca relatively long, as long as, generally longer than, the breadth of the 

first and second basal cells together next its base ; or, 
half as long as the intersected apical area of the wing 
beyond the basal cells. 
b*. Wings immaculate except at stigma. 

c^ Markings of the abdomen linear and light 

d*. Wings exceeding 28 mm. in length magnifica. 

d^ Wings less than 26 mm. in length. 

e*. Wings 21 mm. or more in length rii^etts. 

e*. Wings between 16 and 21 mm. in length .... .fiorissauta. 
e'. Wings less than 16 mm. in length. 

f *. Discal cell fully twice as long as broad clauJa. 

f '. Discal cell less than twice as long as broad, sepiilchri. 
c*. Markings of the abdomen oblique and heavy. 

d*. Larger species, the wing length exceeding 20 mm. revivificata. 
d*. Smaller species, the wing length less than 17 mm., .evanitura. 
D*. Wings maculate or discolored along the veins. 

c'. Abdomen with transverse markmgs maclurei. 

c'. Abdomen with longitudinal markings. 

d^ Larger forms, the wings exceeding 19 mm. in length. 

e^ Pnvfurca of ordinary length, not much exceeding the breadth 
of the first and second basal cells toj^etlicr, next its 
base; wings relatively slender, nearly or cjuite four 

times as long as broad hcilf^rini. 

e*. Prscfurca exceptionally long, exceeding the breadih next its 
base of the combined first and seconci liasnl .uui anal 
cells ; wings relatively broad, not cxccrdin^' three and 

a half times their breadth cariari, 

d'. Smaller forms, the wings not reaching a len<;th ol in nini. 
e^ Wings not more than lour times as lon^; as l-i- .1 1. 

f ^ Discal cell relatively shoit and broad, h.-^!. than iwi^.r 
as long as br<jad ; pctic^le (jf second posteMoi • ill :cla- 
lively long, much more than half as Icul; a- t'..< cell. 

f. Discal cell relatively long and narrow, at Ica^^t twii c- 
as long as broad; petiole (jf second jx'stcncr cell 
relatively sliort, not more, generally miii.Ii less, than 

half as long as ihe di-^cal cell Urn}. 

e'. Wings more than four times as long as brua<l. ititcrnd atu. 

PROC. AMBR. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. 2 C. PRINTED JAN. KJ, 1S94. 



226 

A*. Prsefurca relatively short, distinctly shorter than the breadth of the 6r5t and 

second basal cells together, next its base ; or, much 
less than half the length of the intersected apical area 
of the wing beyond the basal cells, 
b^ Species of larger size, with wings at least 17 mm. long, the auxiliary 

vein stopping far short of the middle of the inner 

marginal cell subterjaeem. 

b'. Species of smaller size, with wings less than 17 mm. long, the auxiliary 

vein reaching the middle of the inner marginal cell 
c^ Prxfurca contained about two and a half times in the length of the 

intersected apical area of the wing beyond the basal 
cells. 
d^ Larger forms; the margin of some of the veins discolored. 

d*. Smaller forms ; some of the principal veins discolored (in some 
obscure specimens, this discoloration may be wboOj 

or partially obliterated) lapUUueni. 

c*. Praefurca only one third the length of the intersected apical area of 

the wing beyond the basal cells spoiiatA. 

Tipula magnifica. 

PI. 5» fig- 3- 

Wings slightly more than four times as long as broad, uncoloitd 
except for the faint stigma. Auxiliary vein terminating at some 
distance before the middle of the inner marginal cell ; poststig* 

ma-al rro-- vcir. , :i:v.ting the first and second longitudinal veins* 
o")r'{':e ai'd ir.oderatcly long : trapezoidal cell elongate. PraMurca 
of i;> rinal icrigtii. Second ]io>terior cell more than twice as longas 
Its ] e:i'.>N.'. Midcile branch oi the fourth longitudinal vein gently 
arc n:.te, iiuikn i: tb.e third posterior cell apically narrower tb.an the 
fourth. I)i>ral cell not very larire, less than twice as long as broad. 
Sixth loniritudinal vein distant troni the fifth. Le;^s moderatelv 
slender, the femora distinctly stouter than the tihiiie and vtry 
slightly more ti)an half as Iohl: as the wings, the tibiae a very little 
longer than the femora, and the middle taisi nearly two fifths longer 
than the tibi.c. Abdomen light colored, with slender median and 
broad lateral darker stripes. 

This is by far the largest fossil Tipulid known, but is not so large 
as some modern spec ies. 

Length of wings, jf;.^ -o mm.: fore femora, 15.5 mm. ; tibi.v, 
18.5 mm. ; rnid teniora, 15.5 mm. : tibia:, r8 mm. ; tarsi, 24.5 
mm. ; hind femora, 16.5? mm. ; tibia*, 19.75 mm. 



227 

■ 

Florissant, Colorado. Three ? specimens, Nos. 5481, 12107, 
16310 and 16311. 

Tipula rigens. 

PI- 5» fig- 5 ; pi- 6» figs. I, 3. 

Wings four or slightly less than four times as long as broad, un- 
colored, except for the rounded stigma which is situated above the 
proximal half or more of the discal cell and is denser on its distal 
than its proximal side. Auxiliary vein terminating at the middle 
of the inner marginal cell; poststigmatal cross vein slightly oblique 
and moderately long (it is given too short in pi. 5, fig. 5) ; trape- 
zoidal cell brief. Praefurca of normal length. Petiole of second 
posterior cell varying from about half as long as the discal cell to 
nearly its length. Fifth posterior cell much broader at base than 
at margin. Discal cell of moderate size, nearly twice as long as 
broad. Sixth longitudinal vein moderately distant from the fifth ; 
seventh longitudinal vein much shorter than half the length of the 
wing. Femora moderately stout, distinctly stouter than the slender 
tibiae, half or almosthalf as long as the wings, the tibiae a little longer 
than the femora, and the tarsi of the fore pair one third, of the mid 
pair nearly one half longer than the tibicc. Abdomen light colored 
and, when not obscured, with median and marginal narrow dark 
stripes, and occasionally with a feebler intermediate stripe on either 
side. 

Length of wings, 21-25 J^rn. ; fore femora, 11 mm. ; tibiae, 13.5 
mm.; tarsi, 18.5 mm.; mid femora, 11 mm.; libiic, 12 mm.; 
tarsi, 18.5 mm.; hind femora, 11. 5 mm. The mcasurernents of 
the legs are all from one ^, having a wing length of about 22 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Fifteen specimens, all but one (with the 
possible exception of a second) females; Nos. 163S, 8061, SoSS, 
8477, 10427, 11332, 11669, 11677, iib'05, 12105 and 12106, 
12561, 13714, 16314 of my collection ; No. 14^)99 collected by 
Miss C. H. Blatchford ; No. 1.793 <jf the Princeton cullection. 

Tipula florissanta. 

PI- 5» % 2; pi. 6, fi^s. 4, 5 ; pi. 7, i]<^. I. 

Wings almost exactly four times as long as broad, unculorcd 
except for the rounded obovate stigma situated over the proximal 
two thirds of the discal cell. Auxiliary vein terminating at the 



middle of the inner nurgiojl cefl ; poststigouul cross rein 
slightly oblique and rather short, trapeioiddl cell moderate); elon- 
gate. Pr^rurca of Dormal length. Pcltole ot second posterior 
cell short, tarelf exceeding, seldom equaling half the ieitgth ot the 
dbcal cell, io oi>e imtance (No. 1697) lorcly one third its lengtb; 
filth posterior cell much broader at t»se than at margin. Duo! 
cell fjirly large, elongate, arcuate, more ihan twice as long U 
broad ; it varies -in one specimco vrhich seems 10 belong here (No. 
8944), in being straighter and exceptionally slender, being fiiUf 
three times as long as broad. Sixth longitudinal vein moderatdf 
near the fifth, but slightly variable, usually nearer than in T, 
'igfns, but occasionally as distant; seventh longitudinal Teia 
nearly or very nearly half as long as the wing. Legs slcDder, ibt 
femora not greatly stouter than the tibife and considerably taott 
than half as long as the wings, the tibix distinctly longer tlian tbt 
femora, except the middle pair, which is subequal to them ; the 
tarsi subequal and fully half as long again as the tibiie. .Abd^ 
men pale benealh, above light colored with a rather narrow <Jirk 
median stripe and a pair of similar but generally more con^icn- 
ous lateral stripes, nearer the lateral margins than the middle lint, 
unless the abdomen is inllated, as when heavy with eggs, when thef 
may recede farther from the margin, as seen from above. 

Length of wings, 16-10.5 "i""- I of legs in one specimen, Jfo. 
13(185, in which all the legs are i>erfeclly preserved and the wing 
measures 17 mm. long, as follows : fore femora, to mm. ; tibix, 1} 
mm. 1 tarsi, 18.5 mm. ; mid femora, it. 5 mm. ; tibi;%, 11 mm. ; tand, 
1S.5 mm. ; hind femora, 11 mm. ; tibise, 13.5 mm. ; tarsi, 19.5 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Fifty-one s])ecimcns, of which ten are J. 
the remainder 9 or indeterminate ; Nos. gt, 775, 883 and 169J, 
1617, 1697 and 7732, 2161, 2780, 3167, 3685, 4435. 461S, 5S4S. 
5555, 6060, 7.'.'o, 7721, SiSj, Sjio, H390, 853S and 116)6, 
8S2J, 8858, 8944, 9040, 9161, 9857, 10386, 10634, 11137, 
"334. 11338. i'339. "667. 11811, 1184s. "Ma. i»7'S. 
"3'73' 13*80 and '3^9'', 132S1, 13685, 13694, 13734, 13985, 
14004, 14995. 163'* from my collection ; also Nos. 1481, 1501 
U. S. Geological Survey; No. 16420 collected byR. Thazter; 
and 1.750 from the Princeton collection. 



^ 




229 

Tipula clauda. 

PI. 6, fig. 2 ; pi. 7, figs. 2-4. 

Wings about four times as long as broad, generally a trifle less 
than more, uncolored except for the generally distinct and rather 
small stigma. Auxiliary vein terminating at the middle or 
scarcely beyond the middle of the inner marginal cell ; poststig- 
matal cross vein transverse or scarcely oblique, rather short ; trape- 
zoidal cell rather elongate. Prsefurca of normal length. Petiole 
of second posterior tell generally rather short, rarely exceeding 
half the length of the discal cell, but sometimes slightly longer 
than that ; fifth posterior cell somewhat, sometimes considerably, 
broader at base than at margin. Discal cell not very large, elon- 
gate, fully twice as long as broad. Fourth longitudinal vein usually 
running slightly nearer the first than the fifth longitudinal vein, the 
sixth longitudinal vein moderately approximated to the fifth ; 
seventh longitudinal vein as in T. florissanta. Legs slender, the 
tibiae considerably slenderer than the femora, the hind femora 
slightly longer than the others and nearly two thirds as long as the 
wings, the tibiae and especially the fore pair distinctly longer than 
the femora, and the tarsi more than half as long again as the tibiae. 
Abdomen light colored, with a dark median longitudinal stripe, 
sometimes obscure and generally rather broad, and pretty uniformly 
distinct and equally broad dark lateral stripes — all occasionally 
obscured in preservation. 

Length of wings, 1 2-15.5 "^"^- J ^^ ^^S^ ^" ^"^ specimen (No. 
3820) where the wing measures 15 mm. in length, as follows: 
fore femora, 9 mm.; tibiae, 11. 2 mm.; tarsi, 17.7 mm.; mid 
femora, 9 mm. ; tibiae, 10 mm. ; hind femora, 9.7 mm. ; til)i:e, 1 1 
mm. ; tarsi, 17 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Thirty-four specimens, of which 7 are ^, 
the rest 9 or uncertain; Nos. ^%, 100, 649, 9S9, 1038, 1205 and 
3396, 1356, 3003, 3307, 3368 and 11671, 3570 and 5329, 3S20 
and 4974, 4634, 4664, 6910, 8057, S195, 847S, 8873, 8899, 
10659, 10683, "^^Zl^^ ii337> 12623, 13066, 13T1S, 13229, 
13260, 13266, 14118, 14169 of my collection; Nos. 1753, 
1.756 of the Princeton collection. 



beneath; above coveredheavily with dark transverse raarkings.cotti 
sitting on each of the principal segments of a broad bov. open 
anteriorly, and a couple of subconfluent or confluent median 
rounded spots united therewith, these leaving a pair of anterior 
laterodorsal pallid spots and the outer posterior corner of each 
segment pallid; the markings become confused on the basal and 
apical segments, the latter of which are wholly dark. 

Named in memory of the early American naturali&t, Wiliiam 
Maclure. 

Length of wing'j, 23 mm.; fore and mid femora, 10.5 mm.; 
fore and mid tibiie, 13 mm.; mid tarsi, 15 mm. ; hind femora, 
13 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One 5 specimen. No. 7783. 

Tipula heilprini. 

PI. 8, fifi. 3. 

Wings nearly four times as long as broad, with generally very 
faint, occasionally tolerably distinct clouded dark markingt 
disposed much as in T. maclurei, and brought into relief b]P 
similarly faint pallid markings above the discal cell. Auxiliary 
vein terminating at the middle of the inner marginal cell ; pon> 
stigmatal cross vein slightly oblique, brief ; trapezoidal cell mod* 
craiely elongate. Pr^vfurca of normal length. Petiole of second 
posterior cell short, not more, generally much less, than half 
the length of the discal cell ; fifth posterior cell generally, but not 
always, considerably broader at base than at margin, the sides 
straight. Discal cell of medium size, twice as long as broad. 
Sixth longitudinal vein moderately distant from the fifth; seventh 
longitudinal vein half as long as the wing. Legs very slender, the 
femora about three fifths the length of the wings, and stouter than 
the tibix, which slightly exceed them in length ; while the tarsi, or 
at least the fore larsi, are but a little more than a fourth longer 
than the tibiae. Abdomen light colored, with dark linear mark* 
ings somewhat variable in their width; in general there is a 
median and, on either side, a lateral stripe, with another midwaf 
between them or approaching one or the other ; and excepting the 
subdorsal stripes, which are sometimes hardly seen and alwap 
slender when present, the others may vary in breadth ; the incisoics 
also are infuscated. 



L 




233 

Named for Prof. Angelo Heilprin, of Philadelphia, whose work 
on tertiary fossils is well known to all naturalists. 

Length of wings, 20-23 ™°^' y length of legs, in a specimen 
whose wing is 22.5 mm. long, as follows: fore and mid femora, 
12.75 ^^' f ^^^^ ^^d ™id tibiae, 14 mm. ; fore tarsi, 18 mm. ; hind 
femora, 13 mm. ; tibiae, 14 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Eight $ specimens; Nos. 3596, 4425, 
4761, 7809, 11670, 11806, i3ii4and 14101, 13725. 

Tipula tartari. 

PI. 8, fig. I. 

Wings scarcely three and a half times longer than broad, faintly 
infumated throughout but more deeply in places, such as the inner 
and outer margins of large pallid patches found crossing the wing 
(bounded above and below by the first and fifth longitudinal veins), 
the apical portion just beyond the stigma, and the narrowing infus- 
cated patch depending from it; a similar pallid patch occupies the 
middle half of the inner marginal cell ; the veins are very narrowly 
infuscated throughout. Auxiliary vein terminating at the middle 
of the inner marginal cell ; poststigmatal cross vein transverse, 
moderately long; trapezoidal cell rather elongate. Praefurca of 
exceptional length, exceeding the breadth of the first and second 
basal cells at its base, together with the anal cell, or three fourths 
the breadth of the unusually broad wings. Petiole of second pos- 
terior cell very short, scarcely a quarter the length of the discal 
cell ; fifth posterior cell subequal in breadth. Discal cell rather 
large, about twice as long as broad. Sixth longitudinal vein rather 
distant from the fifth; seventh longitudinal vein hardly half as 
long as the wing. Legs moderately slender, the tibiiu not much 
slenderer and not much longer than the femora, and these scarcely 
more than half as long as the wings. Abdomen liglit colored, 
with rather slender mediodorsal and lateral dark stripes. 

Length of wings, 20.75 ^^' j fore femora, 10 mm. ; tibice, 10 5 
mm. ; mid and hind femora, 10.75 '^'^'*- 

Florissant, Colorado. One 9 specimen, No. 12 109. 

Tipula carolinae. 

VI 7, fig. 5. 

Wings almost exactly four times as long as broad, with dark 
markings, besides the distinct ovate stigma, consisting of scarcely 

FROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXXII. 143. 2 D. PRINTED JAN. 13, 1894. 



more than an infuscation of the zigzag veins crossing the wing beloW 
the stigma, the margination of the apical half of the fifth longi* 
tudinal vein, and in a less degree of all the apical veins, but Inuught 
slightly into relief by a pallid cloud above and parlially incliKling 
the discal cell; in one of the two specimens these markings an 
very faint. Auxiliary vein terminating barely before the middle of 
the inner marginal cell ; poststigmatal cross vein Iransverac, mod- 
erately short ; trapezoidal cell not much elongated. Prffifurca of 
normal length. Petiole of second posterior cell relatively long» 
much more than half the length of the discal cell; fifih ]>usteriiH 
cell considerably broader at base than at margin. Discal cell' 
relatively short and broad, less than twice as long as broad, rather 
small. Sixth longiiudinal vein rather distant from the fifth; 
seventh longitudinal vein less than half as long as the wing. Lcgi 
slender, the libiie but slightly slenderer than the femora and a. lilllc 
longer than they, while the femora are but little mure than half U 
long as the wings. Abdomen with rather broad mediodoisal asd 
lateral dark stripes. 

Length of wings, 15-5-17.5 mm. ; of legs, in the smaller sped- 
meo, as follows: fore femora, 8.5 mm.; mid femftra, 7.5?niin. 1 
hind femora, g mm. ; libite, 9.75 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two ¥ specimens; Nos. 7398, t47ts>'' 
the latter collected by Miss Caroline H. Blatchford, for whom the ' 
specits is named. ! 

Tip u la limi. 

PI, 8, fig. 4; pi. 9, fig. I. 

Wings four or a little less than four times as long as broad, the 
stigma moderately large, rounded, distinct, followed beneath byi 
small deeply infuscated patch at the base of the submarginal and 
first posterior cells, often as a triangular dependence of the stigma 
and as deeply staiued as it; besides this, dark markings occur all 
over the wing, disposed much as in T. madttrei, but without the 
pallid clouds, or at most but extremely faint ones, and with the 
addition of a dark cloud at the base of the prasfurca ; the markings 
vary much in breadth and in depth of coloring in different indi- 
viduals, but are generally as in the specimens figured. Auxiliary 
vein terminating at or scarcely before the middle of the inner mar- 
ginal cell; poststigmatal cross vein transverse, brief; trapezoidal 



> 



235 

cell rather elongate. Prgefurca of normal length. Petiole of sec- 
ond posterior cell relatively short, not more, generally much less, 
than half as long as the discal cell ; fifth posterior cell usually much 
broader at base than at margin. Discal cell relatively long and 
narrow, at least twice as long as broad. Sixth longitudinal vein 
pretty closely approximated to the fifth ; seventh longitudinal vein 
much less than half as long as the wing. Legs slender, the femora 
only a little more than half as long as the wings, and scarcely stouter 
than the tibiae, which barely exceed them in length. Abdomen 
with moderately broad and similar mediodorsal and lateral dark 
stripes. 

Length of wings, id-19 mm.; of legs in a specimen of largest 
size : femora, 10 mm. ; fore and mid tibiae^ 10.5 mm. ; hind tibiae, 
J0.3 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Twelve specimens, of which two are c?, 
one indeterminate, the remainder ? ; Nos. 161 1, 1892, 2839, 5206, 
5544. 55S4, 7786, 8166, 8170, 8479, 13759 o( my collection; No. 
1.788 of the Princeton collection. 

Tipula internecata. 

Wings nearly four and a half times longer than broad, the stigma 
rather small and followed below by a dark fuliginous patch, as in 
the preceding species, the veins discolored along their edges, and 
occasionally, and especially at and beyond the middle of the fourth 
longitudinal vein, enlarging into discolored cloudy patches sepa- 
rated by the faintest possible pallid cloud ; similar pallid clouds oc- 
cupy the discal and fifth posterior cells. Auxiliary vein attaining 
the middle of the inner marginal cell ; poststigmatal cross vein 
transverse, moderately brief; trapezoidal cell not much elongated. 
Prxfurca of normal length. Petiole of second posterior cell less 
than half the length of the discal cell ; fifth posterior cell much 
broader at base than on margin. Discal cell of medium size, fully 
twice as long as broad. Sixth longitudinal vein moderately ap- 
proximated to the fifth; seventh longitudinal vein less than half as 
long as the wing. Legs slender, the femora but little stouter than 
the tibiae, the middle pair, intermediate in length as in position, 
about three fifths the length of the wing ; tibia) scarcely longer 
than their respective femora, the tarsi unusually short, being only a 
little longer than the tibiae. Abdomen dark above and light 
below. 



Length of wings, 16-17. 5 mm. ; of legs io the largest spcctmrat 
fore femora, 9.75 idri. ; libix, la mm. ; larai, at least 11 mm. ; 
mid femora, 10-5 mm.; hind femora, 11.5 mm.; tibta^ 11.75 
ram. ; tarsi, 13 mm. 

Florissant. Colorado. Two ? specimens; Nos. 6061, 13075; 
besides which there is a specimen belonging to the U. S. Geological 
Survey, also a 9 (No. 1481), from which the measurements of tbe 
tegs were taken. 

Tipula subterjacens. 
PL 8. fip. 3. 5. 

Wings about four times as long as broad, generally rather lea 
than more than that, uncolored except for the rather faint ind 
rather small siigma. Auxiliary vein lerminaling well before the 
middle of the inner marginal cell ; postsligmatal cross vein varia- 
ble, sometimes short and transverse, at others distinctly oblique 
and moderaiely long ; trapezoidal cell raiher short. Prxfurca dis- 
tinctly shorter than the width of the first and second basal cells »l 
its base. Petiole of second posterior ceil about half as long a; ihc 
discal cell ; fifth posterior cell much broader at base than at margin. 
Discal cell moderate, about twice as long as broad. Sixth longi- 
tudinal vein moderately distant from the fifth. Legs slender, the I 
tibiK distinctly slenderer than the femora and scarcely longer thio 
they, while the femora are rather less than two thirds as long as tht 
wings, and the tarsi are half as long again as the tibiK, Abdomen 
pale, with more or less di.'.tinct, sometimes almost wholly obliterated, 
dark narrow median and lateral stripes. 

Length of wings, 17.5-20 mm,; of legs in one ? (No.'9i57}u 
follows ; fore femora, 9 ? mm. ; mid femora, 10 mm. ; tibise, 9.7s 
mm. ; tarsi, 14.5 mm. ; hind femora, 11 mm. ; tibiae, 8.5 nun. ; 
tarsi, 14.5 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Described from seven specimens, one 
cJ, five ¥, one uncertain; Nos. 1S66, 4437, 4631, 7221, 8539 
and 9157, 13737. 14972- Besides these No. 2083 and probatd; 
2063 of the U. S, Geological Survey collection belong here. 

Tipula letheca. 

PI. 9, fie- 3. 

Wings four times as long as broad, uncolored except for the small, 

generally distinct, triangular stigma. Auxiliary vein reaching the 




237 

middle of the inner marginal cell ; poststigmatal cross vein trans- 
verse, of moderate length ; trapezoidal cell not very long. Prae- 
furca distinctly shorter than the width of the first and second basal 
cells next its base. Petiole of second posterior cell not half, gener- 
ally not nearly half, so long as the discal cell ; fifth posterior cell 
somewhat wider at base than at margin. Discal cell rather small, 
about twice as long as broad. Sixth longitudinal vein moderately 
distant from the fifth ; seventh longitudinal vein scarcely half as 
long as the wing. Legs slightly less slender than usual, the tibiae 
distinctly slenderer than the femora, the latter about two thirds 
as long as the wings, the other members not sufficiently preserved 
in any specimen for measurement. Abdomen pale, with dark longi- 
tudinal median and lateral stripes, the latter less distinct and all 
sometimes obliterated. 

Length of wings, 15.5-16.5 mm ; fore femora, 8.5 mm. ; mid 
femora, 9 mm. ; hind femora, 10 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Five specimens, two cT, three 9 ; Nos. 
402, 3146, 4773, 11112, 13754. 

Tipula lapillescens. 

PI. 9. fig. 3. 

Wings from three and a half to four times as long as broad, the 
stigma small, distinct, rounded, lying opposite the basal half of the dis- 
cal cell, followed by a fuliginous stain in the outer half of the marginal 
cell, and accompanied by a slender but more or less distinct infusca- 
tion of the fifth and seventh longitudinal veins, and sometimes of 
all or nearly all the veins of the apical fourth of the wing ; there 
is also sometimes a faint cloud in the middle of the basal cells. 
Auxiliary vein terminating a very little before the middle of the 
inner marginal cell ; poststigmatal cross vein slightly oblicjue, 
moderately long; trapezoidal cell moderately short. Prxfurca 
very distinctly shorter than the first and second basal cells next its 
base. Petiole of second posterior cell about half as long as the 
discal cell ; fifth posterior cell considerably broader at base than 
at margin. Discal cell rather small, about twice as long as broad. 
Sixth longitudinal vein pretty closely approximated to the fifth ; 
seventh longitudinal vein nearly or quite half as long as the wing. 
I^gs very slender and long, the femora almost two thirds as long 
as the wings, the tibiae distinctly longer than they, and the tarsi 



238 

nearly or quite two thirds as long again as the tarsi. Abdomen 
obscure in the specimens seen. 

Length of wings, 14.5 mm. ; fore femora, 8.5 mm.; tibiae, 10.5 
mm. j tarsi, 16 mm. ; mid femora, 9 mm. ; tibiae, 9.75 mm. ; tarsi, 
16 mm. ; hind femora, 9 mm. ; tibiae, 10 mm.; tarsi, 17 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two specimens, one d, one uncertain ; 
Nos. 8300 and 8831, 11335. 

Tipula spoliata. 

Tipula spoliata Scudd., 7>r/. Ins, N, A,, 577-578, pi. 10, fig. 4 (1891). 

This species forms a close link between the preceding three 
species of Tipula and the species of TipuHdea which follow, the 
praefurca being intermediate in length. In size, it agrees with T. 
lapilUscens, 

Green River, Wyoming. 

TiPULiDEA (Tipula, nom. gen., el^o?) gen. nov. 

I venture to separate from Tipula, to which it is otherwise 
closely related, a group of species, all the members of which are 
smaller than the smallest true Tipulae, living or fossil,* known to 
me, and which are peculiar for the extreme brevity of the prae- 
furca ; in this respect they closely resemble Pachyrhina, though 
in the petiolate character of the second posterior cell they agree 
with Tipula and not with Pachyrhina. They evidently form a 
group intermediate between these two genera. The apical cells 
are slenderer than in Tipula; the praefurca is very oblique, as in 
Pachyrhina, and is no longer, or scarcely longer than the greatest 
width of the first basal cell ; in consequence the inner marginal 
is but little if at all larger than the discal cell ; the petiole of 
the second posterior cell is rather short, but the cell is never ses- 
sile. It may be added that the fifth longitudinal vein is scarcely 
bent at the great cross vein, but is apically curved downward ; 
more distinctly and more uniformly than in Tipula, it is accom- 
panied throughout its course by a spurious vein beneath it; and 
the first longitudinal vein runs so close to the margin as to leave 

* Kx(vy)t T annnstata Xovuk from tlie Ecorer tertiary Imsin, the winp of which is only 
about '.I inni. Icnii;. It .'•hoiiUl hIm) he romarktMl llmt l>«>cw. In his too brief account of the 
umber I»ii't» r;i, !-ay« that the sixcie^ ofTipiibi cnt<>nibed therein are remarkable for their 
<iu\ii\\ bi/e aii'l s{H(ities two which arc only about 7 lum. long. Perhai)S they niay prove 
to beloni; to ripulidea. 



280 

tcant sptce for the anxilUry vein. The legs are long and slenderi 
with exceptionally long taraL 

Both from their size and the brevity of the prsefarca it is tolerably 
plain that both the unnamed species from the upper oligbcene of 
Bmnstatty referred by Foerster {AdhandL Sptcialk. EUass-Lothr.^ 
illy pi. xivy figs, a, 3) to Tlpula, are to be considered as belonging 
to the present genus. 

Four species are known from Florissant, which may be separated 
by the following table : 

Table of ike ^eies cf JipuHdea. 

Abdomen with complete tnmsvene bands at tbe apices of the segments. 

The kmgitudinal markings of the donum of the abdomen mediodorsal and 

heavy comumpta. 

The longitadinal markings of the dorsum of the abdomen subdorsal and 

light 6iiineata, 

Abdomen with longitudinal markings only. 

Mediodonal stripe on abdomen heavy and broad, expanding at the apices 

of the segments picta, 

Mediodorsal stripe on abdomen very light, often obliterated and generally 

slender, not apicaily expanded at the apices of the segments. r#/t^MMr. 

Tipulidea consumpta. 

Wings generally four times as long as broad sometimes a little 
less than that, in one instance (No. 11686, which may possibly not 
belong here) only three and a half times as long as broad, 
uncolored, except for the stigma. The inner marginal cell is 
pretty regularly fusiform, about three times as long as broad. The 
discal cell is also about three times as long as broad, and of just 
about the size of the inner marginal cell. The petiole of the 
second posterior cell is usually about half as long as the discal cell, 
but sometimes not more than one third as long, while the second 
posterior cell itself is about half as long as the whole of the inter- 
sected apical area of the wing, which, measuring from the end of the 
basal cells, is about equal to the breadth of the wing. The fifth 
posterior cell is considerably wider at base than just before the 
margin. The sixth longitudinal vein is moderately distant from the 
fifth. Legs very long and slender, the femora nearly three fourths 
as long as the wings, the tibise scarcely longer and a little slenderer, 
the tarsi two thirds as long again as the tibia;. Abdomen rather 
heavily traversed by dark bands at the apices of the segments, 



240 

occupying from a fourth to a third of the length of the same, and 
also niatkcd with slenderer, and sometimes not so deeply colored 
mediodorsal and lateral longitudinal stripes, which, especially tbc 
lateral, are apt to expand as they approach llic transverse bands; 
there are signs on some siwcimcns (which may be due to the nalurf I 
of the surrace of the slonej of a coarse and spaise puncttialion on I 
the tipper surface. 

Length of wings, 9.5-1 1 mm.; of legs in a si)ecimcn 1 
wing measures 10.5 mm. in length, as follows: femora, 8 1 
tibia, 9 mm. ; fore tarsi, 14 mm. j hind tarsi, 15 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Eight specimens, 6 ;^, 3 9 (the great pto- 
portion of males is exceptional among Tipulinfe) ; Nos, 1117 and 
7010, ti668, 11(386, 13054 and 13730, 14144, 1640a, 16403, 
1 640s. 

Tipulidea bilineata. 
PI. 9, fig. 8. 

Wings 3 little less than four times as long as bioad, uncoloitd 
except for the stigma. Inner marginal cell not regularly ftuiform, 
tapering much more rapidly proximally than dislstly, not more 
than three times as long as broad. Discal cell scarcely smaller 
than the inner marginal cell, also about three limes as long is 1 
broad. Petiole of the second posterior cell fully half as )on( ^ 
as the discal cell, the second po.sierior cell itself slightly less than 
half as long as the whole intersected apical area of the wing, which 
is rather longer than the breadth of the wing; fifth posterior cell 
considerably wider at base than just before the margin. The sixth 
longitudinal vein nioderaiely distant fioni the fifth. I^Es very 
slender, the femora increasing slightly io length from the front pair 
backward, the middle pair about half as long again as the wings,' 
the tibije slightly shorter than the femora, excepting in the fore 
legs where the reverse is the case, the tarsi excessively long, nearlf 
double the length of the tibia:. Abdomen with the hinder edges 
of the segments narrowly edged with fuscous and with distant, sub- 
dorsal, slender, fuscous, longitudinal lines, between which the 
basal segment is wholly fuscous. 

Length of wings, 11-11.5 mm. ; of legs in the larger specimen: 
fore femora, 7.25 mm. ; tibiae, 7,6 mm. ; mid femora, 7.6 mm.; 
tibiie, 7.35 mm.; tarsi, 14 mm. ; hind femora, 8 mm.; tibie, 
7.6 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Two 9 specimens, Nos. 7998, 11353. 




241 

Tipulidea picta. 

PI. 9, figs. 4, 6. 

Wings nearly or quite four times as long as broad, uncolored 
except for the unusually distinct stigma. Inner marginal cell subfu- 
siform, nearly or quite four times as long as broad. Discal cell 
considerably smaller than the inner maginal cell, from three to four 
times as long as broad^ the petiole of the second posterior cell brief 
or very brief, rarely one half, usually hardly if at all more than one 
fourth, the length of the discal cell, the second posterior cell itself half 
or more than half the length of the apical intersected area of the 
wing, the latter about as long as the breadth of the wing; fifth 
posterior cell much wider at base than just before the margin. 
Sixth longitudinal vein moderately approximate to the fifth. Legs 
very slender, the femora distinctly stouter than the tibiae, about 
three fifths the length of the wings, the tibiae slightly longer than 
the femora, and the tarsi of great length, being nearly three fourths 
longer than the tibiae. Abdomen with a heavy interrupted or sub- 
interrupted mediodorsal stripe, consisting on each segment of 
a subtriangular patch, which abruptly broadens at the posterior 
margin to a greater or less extent, and fails, at least distinctly, to 
reach the anterior margin ; there is besides a slender inconspicuous 
lateral line on either side. 

Length of wings, 10.5-13 mm. ; of legs in the largest specimen : 
fore femora, 8 mm. ; tibice, 8.5 mm. ; tarsi, 14 mm. ; mid femora, 
7 mm. ; tibiae, 8 mm. ; tarsi (not quite perfect), 12.5 mm. ; hind 
femora, 7.5 mm. ; tibiae, 8.5 mm. ; tarsi, 13.5 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Fourteen specimens, 3 rf, 9 +> 2 uncer- 
tain ; Nos. 1040, 5368, 8192, 8205, 8386, 8598, S826, 8850, 9000, 
9129, 13708, 13745; i3749> 16421. 

Tipulidea reliquiae. 

PI. 9, fig. 5. 

Wings barely four times as long as browid, uncolored exce|)t for 
the distinct stigma. Inner marginal cell pretty regularly subfusi- 
form, about four times as long as broad. Discal cell somewhat 
smaller (not quite correctly given in the figure), about three times 
as long as broad. Petiole of second posterior cell generally very 
brief, and not one fourth the length of the discal cell, but some- 

PROC. AHER. FHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. 2 E. PRINTED JAN. 10, 18U4. 



{ 



times longer and nearly or quite half its length ; the second postenM 
cell itself generally distinctly, sometimes very considerably. iuoi< 
than half as long as the intersected apical area of the wing, whicfa 
is fully equal to, if it does not exceed, the breadth of the wing; 
fifth posterior ceil considerably broader at base than jusl before the 
margin. Sixth longitudinal vein rather closely approximated 
to the fifth. Legs very slender, the femora stouter and slightlf 
shorter than the tibite, llirec foutlhs as long as the wings, and the 
tarsi, or at least ihe hind pair, nearly three fourths as long again as 
the tibi»;. Abdomen light colored, with feeble markings, constsl- 
ing of feeble and simple, generally rather narrow, mediodoral 
and lateral dusky stripes. 

length of wings, 10-13. 5 ■"•"■ > ^^ '^S^ in a 9 having wings 13 
mm. long, as follows: fore femora, 7 mm.; tibiae, 7.75 mm.; 
tarsi (probably incomplete), lo mra. ; mid femora, 7.5 mm.; 
tibia;, 8 mm. ; tarsi (perhaps incomplete), i a. 5 mm. j hind femota,, 
75 mm. ; tibi», 8.5 mm. ; tarsi, 14 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. Eight specimens, 5 cf > 3 ? ; Nos. 473tii 
8066, 8385, S4B0, 8869, 10105, 11841, 14145. 

MiCRApsis (jiup5^, dV'iV) gen. nov. 

Tills genus differs strikingly from Tipiila in the character of the 
discal cell, which is somewhat remarkable; not only is it of ex- 
ceedingly small size, but it is entirely removed from the fifth 
posterior cell, the forking of the fourth longitudinal vein not taking 
place where the great cross vein unites with the final branch of the 
fourth longitudinal vein, but at the inner inferior base of the discal 
cell, which thus becomes quadrilateral and is separated from the 
anterior basal angle of the fifth posterior cell by the width of the 
fourth posterior cell. 

The genus is evidently allied to Tipulidea by the brevity and 
obliquity of the pr.-efurca, and should directly follow it. In the 
lack of contact of the discal cell with the fifth posterior cell it a 
like Megistocera, but it dilTers from that in all the other characters 
by which Tipula is distinguished from Megistocera, and does not 
indeed belong to the Dolichopezini to which Megistocera is 

jle species is known, unfortunately represented only by 
imperfect specimen. 



:*!f!T?:f^" 




_A' 







I 

\ 



\ - 



\ 



N. 



JS 



sn» ,. 



♦*•* 



^4 




\ 



s 



- ■ * ■ ■■' - TL . 






\ 




I . 1 



I 



/ 



/ 



A" 




,-x 



\ ■ 



-A*' ■ 



. ff ■• 





♦•^^ 




X 



i 






AT 



V 



J 



> 



J5 



A 



iSMliini»^ 




m:^ 



,fc«J32]xs^i^ 



\ 

V 



\, \ 



II' 









^^^ 


J 


\ 4 




' A Vff 





^N^-, 




< 



,^ 



'a 









N 



^ 

> 



er. 



I 



n 



\ 




o 

;f 



'JLJ 



< 





.>< 



&E. 




K 

^ 



X 



••■I'lj 






243 

Micrapsis paludis. 

PI. 9, fig. 7. 

Wings apparently about three and a half times longer than 
broad, uncolored except for the stigma occupying the outer half of 
the inner marginal cell and the parts above. Auxiliary vein termi- 
nating at the middle of the inner marginal cell; poststigmatal 
cross vein transverse, not very brief; trapezoidal cell brief. Prae- 
furca short and oblique, scarcely longer than the width of the first 
basal cell. Petiole of second posterior cell long, longer than the 
praefurca; fifth posterior cell slightly broader at base than at 
margin, but relatively long. Discal cell minute, quadrangular, 
about twice as long as broad, but no longer than the width of the 
fourth posterior cell. Legs not preserved. Abdomen apparently 
without markings. 

Length of fragment of wing, 9.2 mm. ; probable length of wing, 
10 mm. 

Florissant, Colorado. One specimen. No. 9039. 

Explanation of the Plates. 

Excepting PI. 4, fig. 10, which is a camera lucida sketch by S. H. Scudder, all 
the drawings were made by J. Henry Blake for the U. S. Geological Survey, 
and arc used here by the kind permission of the Director of the Survey. The 
line beside each figure indicates the natural size, and the enlargement is further 
specified under the explanation of each figure. The particular specimen figured 
is indicated by number. All the specimens figured are from Florissant, Colo- 
rado. 

Plate I. 

Fig. I. (1.770) Cyltaromyia princctoniana, J. 
2. (13259) Cyttaromyia oligocena, J. 
3- (3750 Dicranomyia inferna, f. 

4. (5582) Dicranomyia longipes, J. 

5. (214) Dicranomyia longipes, J. 

6. (206) Oryctogma sackenii, J. 

7. (86) Cyttaromyia canceilala, J. 

8. (8649) Cyttaromyia clathrata, J. 



(« 

M 
«l 
(I 
<l 
<l 
<l 



Plate II. 

Fig. I. (173) Dicranomyia fontainei, f. 
** 2. (11817) Limnocema lutescens, f. 
** 3. (12127) Dicranomyia fragilis, J. 




Fig. I. (315) Antocha principi>1U, f 
" a. (1369) RhsmphidiB loewi, f. 
" 3' (74^0 Gonomyia piotundi. f, 
•• 4. (10490) Rhampliidia saxflunk, (. 
" 5' (9399) Rlmnpliidta ficca.[ia, f. 



. (10399) CUdura nttcutata, f. 
. (12688) CUdoneuuwillUloDi.f. 
- ('373^) I-imnophik rogcisii, {. 
,. (147) Goaomyia labefactala, }. 
,. (8178) LimnopliilB slrigoas, f. 
■ (9575) Linuiophila ruinarum, }. 
. (7011) Lioinophila vasla, f . 
i. (159a) Cludura intecta. f. 

'1) Gonomjria frigida, J. 
1. (8161} Gonomjria primogenitalk, 

Plate V. 
Tig. I. (8200) Manapsi; anomaln, p, f. 
" 2. (Saio) Tipala florissanta, 5, J. 
" 3- (5481) Tipula magnifica, }. 
" 4. (S847) Rhadinobrochus exlinclus, J", {. 
" 5. (1 1669) Tipula rJEens, 9,}. 

Plate VI, 
Fig. I. (16314) Tipula rieens, f, J. 
" 2. (88) TLpula clauda, [. 
'■ 3^ (14699) Tipula riEcnS. ^.f 
■■ 4. (1.750) TipuUfloiissanta. $, J. 
" 5- ( 14004) Tipula floiissanta, ^, f 



(722.) Tipula florissaiila, $ , {. 
(3820) Tipula clauda,(f,f 
(1-753) Tipula dauda, 9.f 
(100) Tipula clauda, f, J. 
(14715) Tipula caroling, 9,f 
(7783) Tipula maclurei, ?, (. 



« 

M 



245 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. I. (1 2109) Tipula tartan, 9, f. 

" 2. ( 1 1806) Tipula heilprini, 9 , f . 

3. (9157) Tipula subterjaccns, ?,f. 

4. (2839) Tipula limi, 9* f* 

" 5. (13737) Tipula subterjaccns, ^^, |. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. I. (161 1) Tipula limi, J», f 

" 2. (402) Tipula lethaea, 9 , |. 

" 3. (8831) Tipula lapillescens, (^, |. 

" 4. (8598) Tipulidca picta, 9 , f . 

«« 5. (8480) Tipulidea reliquiae, 9» t* 

6- (13745) Tipulidea picta, J^, f 

7- (9039) Micrapsis paludis, (^, |. 
8. (1 1333) Tipulidca bilineata, 9» t* 






•S^m^ ^M^ ^<7r>& of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of 
Philadelphia, By Joseph Willcox. 

As the representative of the Wagner Free Institute of Science 
invited to participate in the celebration of the 150th anniversary 
of the American Philosophical Society, I have thought it proper to 
make a few statements concerning some of the work of the Wagner 
Institute, a colaborer with this Society in the same field of useful- 
ness. 

Though young in age, the Wagner Institute has endeavored to 
profit by the experience of older institutions. It was established by 
the late Prof. William Wagner who, in the year 1847, gave a 
course of free lectures on scientific subjects at his house. The suc- 
cess of this experiment encouraged him to found an institution for 
instruction in science, to include a museum of natural history 
specimens, a laboratory for physical and chemical students, a 
library and a lecture department. 

The building of the Wagner Free Institute of Science was com- 
pleted in 1864, and from that time until Prof. Wagner's death in 
1885 courses of free lectures were maintained on scientific subjects 
during each succeeding winter. 

Prof. Wagner spent a large portion of his life in accumulating 
and husbanding resources for the future use of the Institute. 



246 

Among other favorite pursuits, he collected minerals in northern 
New York and Nova Scotia, and fossils in Maryland and Virginia, 
at a time when those localities were difficult of access. 

After the death of Prof. Wagner in 1885, the Trustees proceeded, 
as rapidly as the funds at their command permitted, to open the 
museum and library for the use of the public. The library was 
opened for use in 1889, and the museum in 1891. The lectures 
have also been maintained since the death of Prof. Wagner. These 
schemes are, of course, a source of benefit only to the people living 
in the vicinity of the Institution. In order to enlarge the domain 
of its usefulness, the Trustees determined to promote the work of 
original investigation both in the laboratory and in the field, and 
to publish the results in the form of its Transactions, It was con- 
cluded to take up either a new or a long neglected subject for the 
pursuit, rather than to direct the energies of the Institute into a 
field already occupied by competent explorers. 

Since the time when Messrs. Lea, Conrad, Say, Mprton, Em- 
mons, Rogers, Tuomey and Holmes maintained great activity in 
the study of our Tertiary formations, the subject has practically been 
permitted to lie dormant, especially in relation to the middle 
and the later beds, until the year 1886. During that year 
the attention of the Trustees of the Wagner Free Institute having 
been directed to the State of Florida as affording a new and inviting 
field for investigation, a small party was organized and spent a few 
weeks there under the auspices of the Institute. The most impor- 
tant of the results was the discovery of a Pliocene shell bed, rich 
both in numbers and species ; the first undoubted deposit of that 
age that has been discovered in the eastern portion of the United 
States. The material collected in the bed was productive of many 
new forms. 

The results of the first exploration prepared by Prof. Heilprin 
were published by the Wagner Institute, and formed the first 
volume of its Transactions. During the following winter further 
explorations were made in Florida, and, among other fossils, many 
vertebrate remains were collected, including several new species. 
The descriptions of these were written by the late Prof. Joseph 
Leidy, and were published in the second volume of the Transac- 
tions of the Institute. 

These explorations were subsequently prosecuted in Florida by 
several friends of the Institute, including Prof. William H. Dall, of 



247 

the U. S. Geological Survey ; each year affording a more extensive 
knowledge of the geology of that State, which has been found to 
include all the Tertiary formations. Prof. Dall has since been 
engaged in examining and writing upon these additional collec- 
tions. Two volumes of his papers have already been published by 
the Wagner Institute, containing twenty-two plates of illustrations; 
and another, by the same author, is in the course of preparation. 

Until recently, the question of the existence of Tertiary beds of 
Pliocene age in North and South Carolina had never been deter- 
mined, as geologists held different opinions, based upon the fossils 
that had been collected in those States in a desultory, unsystematic 
manner. In order to solve this question, the Wagner Institute 
authorized the Curator of its museum to explore the fossil beds in 
the eastern portion of those States in November, 1891. After four 
weeks' work in the field, the question was satisfactorily determined 
that Pliocene beds exist in each of those States. This matter was 
fully discussed by Prof. Dall in Vol. iii. Part ii of the Transactions 
of the Wagner Institute. 

The U. S. Geological Survey has generously cooperated with the 
Wagner Institute in this work, not only in the researches in the 
field, but in permitting one of its specialists, Prof. William H. 
Dall, to investigate the collections and to edit the volumes of the 
Transactions in which they are described. A new interest has 
been awakened in the study of our American Tertiary invertebrate 
palaeontology by the publications referred to. 

In order to further stimulate the study of that department of 
geology, the Wagner Free Institute of Science proposes, at an early 
date, to reprint T. A. Conrad's book, the Medial Tertiary Fossils 
of the United States, the most important work pertaining to our 
Miocene formation. This book was published in the year 1838. It 
has been out of print for many years; a very limited number of 
copies only having been printed. 

A large portion of the specimens collected during these explora- 
tions are now arranged in the Free Museum of the Institute for the 
use of students. These explorations have been supplemented by 
others, in the Miocene beds of Maryland, Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, in order to supply additional subject-matter for the publica- 
tions and to enrich the museum. 



•as 

Catahgue of Work! on Atmmf-he'ic PkysUs and CtimaUl^. 

Library of Lorin Bledgtt. 

The several titles and volumes represcnled in this coUection have 
all becD in actuil use in the preparation of my own works axA in 
the various discussions of the Science of Atmospheric Physici, 

which I have had occasion to undertake. 

1635 Puny: Natural History. C. Pliiiius Seciindus. Transited 
by Philemon Holland. London, 1635. Polio. 

1659 Livv: The Roman History. Titus Livius of I'adua. Al 
pp, 844-850 are described "Violent Tcm|)ests," which 
destroyed buildings in Rome, etc. Philemon Holland's 
tran^alion. London, 1659. Folio. 

1667 Kircher: Magneticuni Naturae Regum. Atbanasius Kirchcr. 
Amsterdam, 1667. (Cited.) 

1671 MoKE: Enchiridion Melaphysicum sive de Rebus I ncociiort-ii. 
Chap. XX, etc., treat of " Coilesiia Phenomena quales 
sunt Nubes, GuttK pluvie, Venti ac Tonitrua " (Clouds, 
Rain, Winds and Thunder). With illustrations. Hcari- 
cus Morus. London, 1671. 4to, pp. 403 and zS. 

i6i>i BovLE: The Gciit-ral History of the Air. Designed and be- 
gun by the Hon. Robert Boyle. London, 1691. Small 
410, pp, 259. (Original publication by Robert Boyle in 
1656. Boyle died Jan. 1, 1659.) At p. 103 is Town- 
ley's Register, 1670-1671. At pp. 104-133 is Locke's 
Register, 1666 to 1685. 

17*6 Mdi.l; Geography of the Ancients. Herman Moll. The 
several editions of Moll are valuable as showing the lim- 
itations to knowledge of Atmospheric Physics on the pait 
of early writers. 

17.19 Kalm — Bartkam: Kalm's Travels in North America. In 
Vol. ii, at pp. 146-180, this Swedish author gives a scries 
of mc'ieorological ob^rvations by John Bartram, Au- 
gust, 1748, 10 Sei)tember, i749t taken at Banram's 
house on the Schuylkill, Philadelphia. 

1749 Clare; A General Chronological History of the Air, 
Weather, Seasons, etc. In 2 vols. London, 1749. Hvo, 



^ 



249 

pp. 495 ^^d 53^' I^ Vol. ii, pp. 163-215, is the General 
Table. 2407 A.M. to 1730 A.D. 

X 758 American Magazine : " A Monthly Chronicle for the British 
Colonies," 1 757-1 758. Contains scientific papers of 
value on Auroras, Electricity, etc. 1757 to 1770. 8vo. 

1764 Bell: Travels from St. Petersburg in Russia, etc. i. Jour- 
ney to Ispahan, 1715. 2. Journey to Pekin in China, 
1719-1721. London, 1764. 8vo, pp. 387. 

1770 Carver: Travels Through the Interior Parts of North Amer- 
ica, more than 5000 miles, in 1 766-1 768. By Jonathan 
Carver. Dedicated to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the 
Royal Society. London, 1770. 8vo, pp. 280. 

1770 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London : The early numbers of this valuable series, at 
least from 1664, were consulted at the Library of the 
American Philosophical Society. They are especially 
valuable for early records of observation for the construc- 
tion of instruments and for philosophical discussions. I 
quote at p. 18 of "Climatology " the experiments of Dr. 
Bcal and Dr. Wallis, 1 664-1 675, on the construction of 
the barometer and its adaptation to climatological pur- 
poses. Robert Boyle is accredited with this " most ex- 
traordinary invention of the world." Dr. Halley, Mr. 
Townley, Dr. Plot, of Oxford, and Dr. Lister engaged in 
these experiments, kept the record, and began predicting 
the weather. In 1723 a form for daily observations is 
given and reference is made to registers kept by Dr. Lin- 
ing and Isaac Greenwood in the United States. 

1774 Raynal: ** Historie Philosophique et Politique des Establis- 
semens du Commerce des Europeens dans les deux 
Indies." Abbe Raynal. In French. Printed at The 
Hague, 1774. Vol. v relates wholly to North America. 
8vo, pp. 405. 

1781 Cavallo: a Treatise on the Natural Properties of the Air. 
By Tiberius Cavallo. London, 1781. 4to, pp. 835. 

1798 RuMFORD : Essays by Count Rum ford. First American Edi- 

tion. Boston, 1798. Essay iv and others on Heat, Smoke, 
' Draft of Fire Places, etc. 8vo. 

1799 Webster: On the Supposed Change in the Temperature of 

piioc. amer. fhilos. 800. xxxii. 143. 2 f. printed JAN. IG, 1894. 



260 

Winter. By Noah Webster. Read before the Connecii. 
cut Academy of Arts and Sciences. In collection of 
Websier's papers. New York, 1843- 

iSoj Redfield: Prevailing Storms of the Atlantic Coast. By 
C. Redfield. New York, 1803. 

1604 VoLNEv: A View of the Soil and Climaie of the Unitel 
Srates of America. By C. F. Volney. Translated by 
C. B. Brown. Philadelphia, 1804. 8vo, pp. 4a6. 

1801 Capper: Observations on the Windsand Monsonns. With ■ 
chart. By James Capper. London, 1601. 410, pp. 234. 

1805 PiKE: Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, Arltaa- 

-1810 sas, Kansas, and La Platte Rivers, Also a Tour ihrough 
New Spain during 1805-1807. By Major Zebulon M, 
Pike. Philadelphia, iSio. 8vo, pp. 177, and Appendices 
65 and 87, with many maps. 

1811 Williamson: The Climate of America Compared with that 
of Corresponding Parts of the Eastern Continent. By 
Hugh WiHiamson. M.D. New York, 181 1. 8vo. 

iBii HuMBOLDTi Political Essay on the Kingdom of New S|>aiD. 
With physical sections and maps, etc. By Alex, de Hum- 
boldt. Translated by John Black. New Ynrk, iSu. 8vo, 
pp. cxv and 221. 

1815 Di Malortie : A Treatise on Topography. By C. S. De Ma- 
lortie. London, 1815. a vols., 8vo. 

1818 Howard : The Climate of London, etc. By Luke Howard. 
London, 1820. 2 vols., 8vo. 

1813 DaltoiJ: Meteorological Observations and Essays. By John 
Ualion. London, 1813. 8vo, pp. 480. 

1826 LovELL ; Army Meteorological Register for the years iSaa to 
1825, from observations by Surgeons of the U. S. Army, 
By Joseph Lovell, M.D. Washington, i8a6. 8vo. See 
a repoct for iz years, 1831 to 1841, made in 1851, and 
another for 1843 to 1854, madein 1856, both under direc- 
tion of Surgeon-General Lawson. 

1835 Habe: Brief Ex]x>sition of the Science of Electricity, etc. 
By Robert Hare, M.D. Philadelphia, 1835. 8vo, pp. 
"3- 

1837 Dove: Meteotologische Untersuchungen, Von H. W. Dove. 
Berlin, 1837. 8vo, pp. 344- 

1837 Epsv: Directions for Making Meteorological Observ&tioas. 



> 



251 

By the Joint Committee of the American Philos. Society 

and the Franklin Institute. Printed for the Committee, 

1837. Philadelphia. 8vo, p. 7. 
1837 Espy: Hints to Observers on Meteorology. By James P. 

Espy, Meteorologist. Philadelphia, July 7, 1837. 8vo, 

pp. 12. 
1840 Lawson : Army Meteorological Register for the years 1826 

to 1830. By Thomas Lawson, M.D., Surgeon-General. 

Philadelphia, 1840. 8vo, pp. 161. 

1840 Forry: Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality of 

the Army of the United States. By Samuel Forry, M.D. 
Washington, 1840. 8vo, p. 346. 

1841 Espy: The Philosophy of Storms. By James P. Espy, A.M. 

Boston, 1841. 8vo, pp. 552. "Artificial Rains," pp. 492- 
518. 
1840 Hare: Communication Faite a la Societe Philosophique 
Americaine, dans une de ses Seances de 1839, au sujet des 
Trombes, et relativement a un Memoire de Mr. Peltier 
sur la cause de ces Meteores, par Robert Hare, M.D. 
Philadelphia, 1840. pp. 12. 

1840 Hare: A verbal communication from Dr. Hare respecting 

experiments as to the heating and cooling influence 
of changes in the density of the air. By Dr. Robert 
Hare, to the American Philosophical Society. July, 1840. 
Philadelphia, pp. 6. 

1 84 1 White: On the Theories of the Weather Prophets and the 

Comparative Success of their Predictions. By W. H. 
White, Secretary to the Meteorological Society. London, 

1 841. pp. 16. 

1843 Howard: Climate of London. Latest edition. 

I 843 LooMis : On Two Storms in the United States, in February, 

1842. By Elias Loomis, Hudson, Ohio, 1843. 4^<^» 
pp. 25, and 15 plates. Printed as pp. 161-184 of Proceed- 
ings of American Academy. 

I 843 Nicollet : Report and Map of the Hydrographical Basin of 
the Mississippi. By J. N. Nicollet. Washington, 1843- 
Senate Document, 26th Congress, 2d Session. 

1844 American Almanac : Second series, 1839 to 1850. Meteor- 
— 1850 ological Observations from 12 Stations in American 



252 

Almanac for 1844, pp. 85-93, ^"^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
of this series: viz., 1845 ^^ i^5o- 
1844 Greenhow: History of Oregon and California, and other 
Countries of the North West Coast of North America. 
By Robert Greenhow. Boston, 1844. 8vo, pp. 482, with 
map. 

1844 Forry: Researches on the Distribution of Heat over the 

Globe, etc. By Samuel Forry, M.D. Reviewed in 
Silliman's Journal, Vol. xlvii, pp. 18 to 50, and 222 to 
241, with isothermal chart. 

1845 GiLLiss : Magnetic and Meteorological Observations made at 

Washington, July, 1838, to July, 1842, at the Observatory, 
Capitol Hill. By Lieut. J M. Gilliss, U. S. N. 8vo, pp. 
648. 

1845 KiEMTZ : A Complete Course of Meteorology. By L. F. 

Kaemtz. Translated by C. V. Walker. London, 1845' 
8vo, pp. 595, and plates. 

1846 Redfield: Hurricanes and Northers. On Three Several 

Hurricanes of the Atlantic, and their Relations to the 
Northers of Mexico and Central America. By W. C. 
Redfield. New Haven, 1846. 8vo, pp. 117, and plates. 

1847 HoBBS : Sailing Directions for the Mediterranean Sea. By J. 

S. Hobbs, F.R.S. London, 1847. 8vo, paper, pp. 195. 

1847 PiER<-'E: A Meteorological Journal of the Weather in Phila- 
delphia from January, i 790, to January, 1847. ^y Charles 
Pierce. Lindsay & Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1847. 8vo, 
pp. 300. 

1847 Bache : Magnetic and Meteorological Observations at Girard 
College, 1840 to 1845. ^y A. D. Bache. Washington, 
1847. 3 vols. 

1847 l^^ovE & Sabine: Isothermal Lines. Remarks by Prof. H. 
-1849 ^^' J^®ve, on his Recently Constructed Maps of the 

Isothermal Lines of the Globe. With an Introductory 
Notice by Lieut. Col. Edward Sabine, General Secre- 
tary British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, 1S48. London, 1849. ^^o» PP- ^9- 

1848 Mui.LER : Principles of Physics and Meteorology. By J. 

Mnller. Lee & Blanchard, Philadelphia, 1848. Large 
Svo, pj). 638. 

1849 CiivoT: Earth and Man. Lectures on Comparative Physical 



253 

Geography, etc. By Arnold Guyot. From the French, 
by C. C. Felton. Boston, 1849. 

1849 Reid : Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms. 

By Lieut. Col. W. C. Reid. London, 1849. ^ ^^^ 
edition in 1838. 8vo, pp. 431. Second edition, pp. 

424. 

1850 Smithsonian Institution : Directions for Meteorological 

Observations. Prepared by Arnold Guyot. Washington, 
1850. 8vo, pp. 40. 

1850 Humboldt : Cosmos. By Alex, von Humboldt. Trans- 
lated by E. Cotte. Harper Bros., New York, 1850. 
2 vols, 8vo, pp. 373 and 367. There are other editions 
of each of these works by Humboldt. 

1850 Humboldt: Aspects of Nature. By Alex, von Humboldt. 
Translated by Mrs. Sabine. Lea & Blan chard, Philadel- 
phia, 1850. 8vo, pp. 475. 

1850 Humboldt: Views of Nature. By Alex, von Humboldt. 

Translated by Otte & Bohn. Bohn, London, 1850. 
8vo, pp. 452. 

1851 Maury: Correspondence in Relation to a Universal System 

of Meteorological Observations by Sea and Land. By 
M. F. Maury. Washington, 1851. i2mo, pp. 30. 

1 85 1 Lawson : Meteorological Register for 12 years, 1831 to 1842 
inclusive. From Observations at the Military Posts, etc. 
By Thomas Lawson, Surgeon General U. S. A. Wash- 
ington, 185 1. 8vo, pp. 324. 

1 85 1 Brooks: The Tornado of 1851. By Rev. Charles Brooks, of 

Middlesex, Mass. Boston, 1852. i2mo, pp. 12. 

1852 Guyot: Meteorological Tables, prepared for the Smithsonian 

Institution. L Thermometrical Tables. II. Hygromet 
rical Tables, i. Elastic Force of Vapor. By Regnault 
2. The same. By August. 3. The same. By Haeghens 
III. Barometrical Tables. IV. Hypsometrical Tables 
V. Horary Variations, etc. VI. Miscellaneous. By Ar 
nold Guyot, Prof., etc. Washington, 1852. 8vo, pp 
246. These tables each separately paged but aggregating 
234 pages as bound up. There are 15 divisions of Table 
I, 5 divisions of Table II and 6 divisions of Appendix to 
Table II, Table III has 12 divisions. Table IV has 8 with 13 




1^1 Dmv; TbeLnrorDBpOHtiftFlood'IUB. Bjr. U. Cong. 
Ctarin Hewy Dmri^ U. S. H. . *^-it%TWif CoDtribo- 
tioa to KnoiiriedBe. WMUa|taB, 185a. 4tok jf. 13. 

X851 Gotot: Meleondosical TU>lei. lUk VIIL CorrcctioiM 
to Bd^A Bmwelm, for dpninr Action. Tkfale IX. 
CoTfcctimi ur Snxmettn wrat finvSoki to Reduce to 
3* F«lir. 8vo> pp. 9. 

tSst Hub: Stfictom ba FmL Bapft Scport on Stonai. Bj 
Kobert Bai^ H. D. ASmaj, 1851. (rOk PP* lo- 

185* HoMBOunr: PienoulNuntiveorTtetdi to dwEqnatorial 
Regiooa of Anoici, 1799 to 1804. By Alex, von Hmn- 
boUt and Aime Boni^uid. Written in Aeodi bj Alez. 
iiin TI11111I111I1I1 ■ml liwiihtiiil Ij TliiinnrfM Vnm Loo- 
don, 1851. X vok., 8tc. 

1853 RATXim.; A IfeteORilogical Jonnul, far ttw jmr 1853, 
kept io St. John Berfceler RuiA for the BwA OnkAgri. 
cnltml Societx. By T. P. Safcnd, Seoetaijr. Clvries- 
too, 1854. 8*0, pp. tj. 

1853 THOHFStHt: Ibtonl HiMorf oTVennont. Bj VmL ZadoA 
Thompson. Burlington, Vl, 1853. 8vo, |^ 314. Ap- 
pendix, pp. 65. (Pages 9-13 and 7-11, Appendix, relate to 
Climate.) 

1853 Blodget: Agricultural Report of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, " Agricultural Climatology of the United States, 
Compared with that of Other Parts of the Globe," by 
LoTiD Blodget, pp. 137-431. Washingtoo, 1854. 

1853 Agricultural CuuATOLOcy of the United States, etc. By 
Lorin Blodget. pp.337 to 431 of Commisdoner of Pat- 
ents' Report for 1853 contains many extracts and makes 
acknowledgineDts for many series of observations, per. 
sonally communicated, not cited io connection with Cli- 
matology of 1857, in part, as follows: 

Gasparin Coure d'Agriculture, 
Schouw's Climate of Italy. 
Boussingaull's Rural Economy. 
Drake's Valley of the Mississippi. 
Annuaire Meteorologiquc de France. 



255 

Kupfier*s Meteorological Observations, Russia. 
Many Topographical Survey Reports. 
De Bow's Review. 

Also the results of extended periods of observation per- 
sonally communicated by their authors, as follows : 

Rev. Chester Dewey, LL. D. , Rochester Academy, New York. 

Dr. J. H. Engelmann, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. Hempstead, Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Dr. Daniel Drake, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Prof. Ray, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Dr. E. H. Barton, New Orleans. 

Dr. Darlington, West Chester, Pa. 

W. A. Whitehead, Esq., Newark, N. J., Key West. 

Dr. John Conrad, Philadelphia Hospital. 

Prof. Jacobs, Gettysburg, Pa. 

H. W. Ravenel, St. John's, Berkeley, S. C. 

Henry Poole, Albion Mines, N. S. 

Dr. Smallwood, Isle Jesus, Montreal. 

Capt. J. H. Lefroy, Toronto. 

Samuel Rodman, Esq., New Bedford. 

Dr. John Redman Coxe, Philadelphia. Valuable early 

Records. 
Major Alfred Mordecai, Frankford Arsenal, Pa. 
Dr. John F. Posey, Savannah, Ga. 
J. A. Lapham, Milwaukee. 

51 Espv ; Report on Meteorology: Letter of the Secretary 

553 of the Navy Transmitting the Report of Prof J. P. Espy. 
Embodies Second Report, Nov. 12, 1849, ^"^ Third Re- 
port, Jan. 24, 1 85 1. Folio, pp. 65, with many charts of 
storms, etc. Washington, 1852. Other editions of this 
folio report were issued in 1851 and 1853. 

53 Barton: Report of the Sanitary Commission on Yellow 
Fever of 1853 at New Orleans. By Dr. E. H. Barton, 
and others. Climatological records and maps. Reports 
of Dr. Riddell and Dr. Simonds. New Orleans, 1854. 
8vo, pp. 542. 

53 Blodget : In Proceedings American Association. Papers 
read at Cleveland ; On the Distribution of Rain in North 



America, pp. loi ; On the Monsoon of Texas, pp. 
109. with map ; The Distribution of Heat over the Conti- 
nent, and its Isothermal Lines; On the Subordination of 
Atmospheric Phenomena, as to the Primary Cause; Baro- 
metric Pressure in Different Laiitudes; On the Earth- 
quake of April 19, 185a ; these four papers were presented 
and discussed at the Cleveland meeting, but are printed 
elsewhere than in this report. 

1853 LooMis : Notice of the Hailstorm which Passed over New 
York City on the First of July, 1853. By EHas Loomis. 
From Sillinian's Journal, 1854. pp. ai. 

1853 Hahi : Ezpomre of tfie Enon of the Fmdi Academidiiis 
ReqwcttDgTonadoei. ByDr.Huc FfiiUddpbia. 1853. 
PP-I4. 

1853 Hau : The WUriwind Tlieonr of Stonns. Bjr Di. Sobt. 
Hare. Iluladelphia, iZss- PP- "• 

1853 Hau: Sltktmc 00 Fnf. Don't "On the lurorStonM.** 
Bf Robt. H^re, PhUadeliAM, 1853. pp. i«. 

1853 Hare: Qoeriei and Strictare* Reqiecting Eq^y't lleteonloB- 
ical 'Reptat. Bj Dr. Hare. Phtladelidtia, 1853. pp. 16. 

1853 Hare: De la Cooclosioii a Laqoelle Est arriYe micaraite de 
1' Academic de Sciences de Fraace. By Dr. Hare. New 
York, 1853. pp. 30. 

1853 American Journal of Soence and Arts (Silliman's 
Journal) ; This publication from iSai to i$53 was the 
favorite channel for the publication of essays concerning 
the several departments of climatological science, the 
principal ones by Dr. Robt. Hare, W. C. Redficld, Elias 
Loomis, Col. Reid, Prof. Bache, Prof. Espy, and others, 
and in these essays arc cited every foreign anihor then 
reputed to be in authority. 

Id Vol. xxxviii of this Journal is Dr. Hare's notice 
of Tornadoes, with an account of one which passed over 
Providence and one at Chatcncy, near Paris. In Vol. Ixii 
Dr. Hare's " Objections to Mr. Redfield's Theory of 
Storms. ' ' Also his strictures on Dove's Essay on the Law 
of Storms. 

1853 Davis: American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac for the 
year 1855. By Charles Henry Davis, U. S. N. Wash- 
ington, 1853. Large 8vo, pp. 498. (This is the first 



257 

issue of the Ephcmeris prepared in pursuance of an Act 

of Congress of March 3, 1849. 
1853 Maury: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany 

the Wind and Current Charts. By M. F. Maury, Lieut. 

U. S. N. Washington, 1853. 4to, pp. 498 and plates, 

5th ed. 
1853 Blodget: Climatic Conditions of the' Summer of 1853, most 

Directly Affecting its Sanitary Character. By Lorin 

Blodget. New York, 1853. 8vo, pp. 25. 
1853 Blodget: Summer Climate of 1853 in its Relation to Agri- 
cultural Production. By Lorin Blodget. Washington, 

November, 1853. 8vo, pp. 26. 
1853 Williams: The Chinese Empire and its Inhabitants. By S. 

Wells Williams. New York, 1853. 
1353 Sabine : On the Periodic and Non-Periodic Variations of 

Temperature at Toronto, 1841 to 1852. By Lieut. Col. 

Edward Sabine. Proceedings American Academy, 1853. 

4to, pp. 1 41-161 and plates. 

1853 Bond: Minnesota and its Resources. By J. Wesley Bond. 

New York, 1853. ^vo, pp. 364. 
1S53 Smyth: The Mediterranean. A Memoir, Physical, Historical 
and Nautical. By Rear Admiral William Henry Smyth. 
London, 1854. 8vo, pp. 519, etc. 

1854 Herndon and Gibbon: Exploration of the Valley of the 

Amazon, etc. By William Lewis Herndon and Lardner 
Gibbon, Lieuts. U. S. Navy. Washington, 1854. Part 
I, by Lieut. Herndon. 8vo, pp. 417. Part H, by 
Lieut. Gibbon. 8vo, pp. 339. 

1854 Dobbin: The Annular Eclipse of May 26, 1854. Authority 

of James C. Dobbin, Secretary of Navy. Nautical Alma- 
nac, Cambridge, 1854. 8vo, pp. 13 and map. 

1855 Le Frov: Magnetical and Meteorological Observations at 

Lake Athabasca and Fort Simpson. By Captain J. H. 
Le Froy. London, 1855. l^oyal 8vo, with Preface by 
Col. Sabine, pp. 1-288. (The following title embodied 
in the same volume.) 
1855 Richardson: Magnetical and Meteorological Observations 
at Fort Confidence. By Sir John Richardson. London, 
1855. Royal 8vo, pp. 391. 

FROC. AMEB. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. 2 G. rillNTKD JAN. 18, 1894. 



; Buys— Ballot: Meteorologisclie Wamemingeo, etc. General 
Report of Meteorological Observations in Europe for 
1854 to the Netherlands Meteorological Institute. 
Utrecht, 1855. Folio, p. a^-j. 

, HotTGH: Results of Meteorological Observations at the 
Academics of New York, i8?6 to 1850. By Franlcliit B. 
Hou^h. Albany, 1855. 410, pp. 499 and plates. 

; WiLKlM: Theory of the Winds. By Captain Charles Wilkes. 
of Ihc United Slates Exploring Expedition. Washington, 

1855. Printed from Vol, xvii of Reports of the Expedi- 
tion. Large 8vo, pp. 116 and map. 

; Blodget: Army Meteorological Register, for twelve years, 
1843 to 1854 inclusive, under direction of General Law- 
sou. By Lorin Blodget. Washington, 1855. 4to, pp. 
677 and plates. 

; Maurv ; The Physical Geography of the Sea. By M. F. 
Maury, LL.D., Lt. U. S. N. New Yoik. 1855. 8vo, pp. 
274 and plates. 

j Redfield: On the Gales and Hurricanes of the Weslcre 
Untie. By W. C. Redfield. New York, 1855. pp. 
and chart. 

i FoRCB ; Recort] of Auroral nieDomena, etc. Compiled by 
Peter Force. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. 
Washington, 1856. 4to, pp. 118. 

) Jewell: Sanitary Meteorological and Mortuary Report of 
the Philadelphia County Medical Society for 1855, made 
in May, 1856. By Dr. Wilson Jewell. Philadelphia, 

1856. 8vo, pp. 64. 

) GiLLiss: The United States Naval Astronomical Expedition 
to the Southern flemisphere during the Years 1849-1852. 
By Lt. J. M. Gilliss, Vol. vi, 4I0, p; 420. House of 
Representatives Ex. Doc., lai. Thirty-third Congress, 
first session, Washington, 1856. At Santiago de Chile. 

5 Coffin : P^ychrometric Table for Determining the Elastic 
Force of Aqueous Vapors, the Relative Humidity of the 
Atmosphere. By Prof. James H. Coffio. Washington, 
1856. 

5 Butler : The Philosophy of the Weather and a Guide to its 
Changes. By T. B. Butler. New York, 1856. 8vo, 
pp. 414- 



259 

1856 Humboldt: The Island of Cuba. By Alex, von Huniboldt. 

Translated by J. S. Thrasher. New York, 1856. 8vo, 

pp. 397- 

1857 Hall: Register of Temperature and Rainfall for thirty-six 

years, at Boston, Mass. By Jonathan P. Hall. Boston, 
1857. 4to, pp. 229-308. Transactions, Vol. vi. 

1857 Buys — Ballot : Meteorologische Warnemingen, etc. General 
Report for 1857. Utrecht, 1858. Folio, pp. 350. 

1857 Maury: Gales in the Atlantic. National Observatory. By 
M. F. Maury, May, 1857. 4to, pp. 2 and 24 plates. 

1857 Blodget : Climatology of the United States and of the Tem- 
perate Latitudes of the North American Continent. By 
Lorin Blodget. Philadelphia, 1857. Royal 8vo, pp. 536. 

1857 Smithsonian Institution: Meteorological Observations for 

the year 1855. Washington, 1857. (Printed for the 
examination of the Observers.) 8vo, pp. 113. 

1858 Maury: Explanations to Accompany the Winds, Currents 

and Charts. By M. F. Maury. Washington, 1858. 
4to, pp. 383 and plates. Eighth edition. 
1849 Pacific Railroad Surveys: These surveys authorized 
-1857 by Acts of Congress of 1849 '^ ^^5^ in most cases pro- 
duced a preliminary report in 8vo form for each of the 
principal lines. The Central Line on the Arkansas, by 
Captain Gunnison, came by his death to the charge of 
Lieutenant Beckwiih. All of these reports were oiitfutcd 
with barometers, purchased and tested by me, and with all 
other suitable instruments for determining altitudes, gra- 
dients, and climate of the line traversed by each party. All 
the altitudes were determined by me on the return of the 
several parties to VV^ashington, and the final reports were 
published in thirteen volumes, 4to, from 1854 to 185S. 
All of the 8vo reports of these surveys, twelve in nuiiiber, 
and the materials embodied in the 4to volumes, were 
necessary to the construction of the charts and the estab- 
lishment of the principal conditions of climate as em- 
bodied in my Climatology. A special catalogue of all 
the documents and volumes relating to these surveys has 
been prepared. 
Vmerican Association for the Advancement of Science: 
The several reports entitled, ** Proceedings of the Ameri. 




can Association for the Advancement of Science," Include 
papers of great value on cHmatological science by Guyot, 
in 1849; by Maury, Bache, Agassiz and Barion, March, 
1850; by Hare, Guyot, Redfield and Espy, in August, 
1850; by Loomis, Hare, Maury, Guyot, Hough, Morri*. 
etc., at Albany, 1851; by Redfield, Loomis, Blodgel, 
Coffin, etc., at Cleveland, 1853; by Hare, Maury, Rtd- 
field, etc., at Washington, 1854. The Utcr volumes of 
the Proceedings of this Association contain very few itii< 
portant papers on cHmatological science, 
1857 Canadian Journal of Science : The monthly issues of the 
Canadian Journal of Science, new series, 1856 and 1857, 
contain (he meteorological registers al Toronto, from 
1S4D to 1S57, and those for Montreal and Quebec Ua 
shorter periods. 
1857 American Philosophical Society: The annual publications 
of the American Philosophical Society in both quarloand 
octavo form, available for important papers by early writen 
and in all the publications down to 181J7. A catalogue of 
the publications of the American Philosophiosl Society Ji 
octavo and quatto forms is separately given. 

The library of the American Philosophical Society con- 
t;iins the entire series of Berlin Transactions (^propetly the 
transactions of the Royal Society of Berlin), also the fol- 
lowing : 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 

The Edinburgh New Philosophical Magazine. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Edinburgh Journal of Science, 

Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine. 

Annales Observaiorie Central de Rusaie. 

Bulletin of the Academy of St. Petersburg. 

Poggendorf's Annalen. 

Memoirs of the American Academy. 
1857 Scientific, Technical and Agricultukal Serial Pusua- 
TioNS : In addition to the sources elsewhere named tlit 
following series are mostly in my own collection, but i" 
some cases are more complete in Other libraries. 

Journal of the Franklin Institute. 

New York University Reports. 



y 



J 



261 

American Almanac. 

California Journal of Science. 

New York Journal of Medicine. 

Bulletin of the American Geographical and Statistical 

Society. 
Reports of the Metropolitan Boards of Health of New York. 
Reports of the New Orleans Board of Health. 
American Journal of Science and Arts. 
Reports of the Department of Agriculture, Washington. 
Reports of Wisconsin Agricultural Department. 
Michigan Agricultural Report. 
Southern Cultivator. 
St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal. 
Ohio Agricultural Reports. 

Transactions of the American Medical Association. 
Johnston's Physical Atlas. Edition of 1856. 
And others. 

1858 Silliman's Journal: Many numbers of this series contain 
valuable statistics of observation, reviews and notices of 
the progress of Atmospheric Science. See Forry, 1844. 
The most important were previous to 1858. 

1858 Neill: The History of Minnesota, from the Earliest French 
Explorations to the Present Time. By Edward Duffield* 
Neill, Secretary of the Minnesota Historical Society. 
Philadelphia, 1858. 8vo, pp. 628. 

1858 DovE: Tabellen und Amtliche Nachrichten iiber den Preus- 

sischen Staat, Statischen Bureau zu Berlin. Von H. W. 
Dove. Berlin, 1858, etc. Folio, pp. 179. 

1859 LowRiE: A New Theory of the Causes of the Tides, Oceanic 

and Atmospheric Currents. By W. H. Lowrie. Phila- 
delphia, 1859. 8vo, pp. 9. (Chief Justice Lowrie.) 
'859 Lachlan: Paper, etc., in Favor of a Uniform System of 
Meteorological Observations throughout the Whole Ameri- 
can Continent. Read at the meeting of the American 
Association, April, 1858. By Major R. Lachlan. Cin- 
cinnati, 1859. 8vo, pp. 14. 
»59 Dove •. Ueber die nicht periodischen Aenderungen der Tem- 
peratur Vertheilung auf der Oberflache der Erde, 1729- 
1855. Von H. W. Dove. VL Theil. Berlin, 1859. With 



\ 



special reporls of Iwenly-eighi pages each for 1S55, iSjti 
1857 and 1858- 4to. pp- 4'7- 

1859 Bache: Discussion of Magnetic and Meteorological Obnpn 
vaiions made al Girard College, 1840-1845. By A. D. 
Bache. Smithsonian Contributions, etc. Washington, 
1859. 410, pp. so- 

1859 Maurv: Nautical Monographs, No. i : The Winds at Sea. 
By M. F. Maury. National Observatory, Washington, 
October, 1859, 4to, pp. 8 and plates. 

i860 DiSTiiKNELL: On the Influence of Climate, Conimetcial, 
Social, etc. A Paper read before the American Geogra- 
phical and Statistical Society. New Voik, i8£o. 4(0, 
pp. 34- 

i860 American Almanac: Third Series, 1850 to t86o. DurJiij 
this period the publication of carefully taken olisei vat ions 
in various parts of the country was continued, and all 
these data were made use of, credit being given to each 
observer and to the Almanac in my " Climatology." 

i860 LowRiE ; A Dynamical Theory of the Motions of the Atmos- 
phere and of the Magnetic Needle. By W. H. Lowiic. 
Pittsburgh, i860. 8vo, pp, 8. (Chief Justice Lowrie.) 

1S60 Harris, etc: Fourth National Quarantine and Sanitary Con- 
vention, at Boston, June, i860. 8vo, pp. 2SS, Dr. 
Elisha Harris on Disinfection by Heat, pp. 317-138. 

1S60 Hind: The Canadian Red River Expedition of 1857 and 
the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Expedition of 185S. 
By Henry Youle Hind, Professor, etc., in charge. Lon- 
don, i860, z vols., Svo, pp. 454 and 473. 

i860 Dent: Aneroid and Mercurial Barometers. By E. J. Dent, 
F.R.S. London and Philadelphia, i860. 8vo, pp. 19. 

i860 liELviLLE : A Complete Manual of the Thermometer. By J 

H. Belvtlle, of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Lot:^ 
don and Philadelphia, i860. 8vo, pp. 56. 

i860 Belv[lle ; A Manual of the Barometer, etc. By J. H. Bc=i"l 
ville, of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. London aMr^i 
Philadelphia, i860. 8vo, pp. 47. (First London editic:»-K 
18^9-) 

i860 Bache: Lecture on the Gulf Stream. By Prof. Bac^'fci 
American Association for the Advancement of Scie*^^^* 
Newport, i860. 8vo, pp. 17 and map. 



263 



1 863 



■M, 



Buys— Ballot: Meleorologische Wameroiugen. General^ 

Report of Meteorological Observations throughout Europe 

for i860. Ulrecht, 1861. Folio, pp. 303, 
Buys — Ballot: Sur le Marche Annuelledu Thermometre et ^ 

de Barometrp. Amsterdam, 1861. 410, pp. 116. 
Maurv: Nauiical Monographs, No. II: The Barometer at 

Sea. By M. F. Maury. National Observaiory, March, 

1861. 4to, pp. 20 and plates. 
GiLLiss: Astronomical and Meteorological Observations at 

the United Slates Naval Observatory during iS6i. Wash- | 

inglon. 1861. 410, pp. 530. 
Bell. A Practical Illustration o{ the Movement of Hurrit.i 

canes, etc. By Caplaio John H. Bell. Baltimore, i 

8vo, pp, 8 and maps. 
Henry: Results of Meteorological Observations made under 

the direction of the United States Patent Office and the 

Smithsonian Institution from 1854 10 1859. By Prof. J. 

H, CotRn. Being a Report of the Commissioner of 

Patents, made at the First Session, 36th Congress, 

Vol. i. Washington, 1S61. 410, pp. laig. This volume, 

prepared under ihe direction of Prof. Joseph Henry, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
Ohio Agricultural Report: Eighteenth Annual Report 

Ohio Board of Agriculture for 1S63. Columbus, 1864. 

8vo, pp. 511. Pomological Society, p. 64. Climalo* 

logical Records, pp. 89-too. 
New York Colncil of Hygiene: Report of the Council of 

Hygiene and Public Health of the Citizens' Association 

of New York on the Sanitary Condition of the City. 

New York, 1865. 8vo, pp. 360, with maps and plates. 
METaoPOLiTAN Board OF Health, New York: Report for 

1S66. Albany, 1867. 8vo, pp. 800, and contains Prof- 
Morris' Meteorological Record, May t to December i, 

1866, pp. 458-488. 
Metropolitan Board of Health, Nkw York: Second 

Annual Report for 1867. Albany, 1868. Dr. EHsha 

Harris, Registrar. 8vo, pp. 480. 
Hennessey : On the Distiibution of Temperature in the 

Lower Region of the Atmosphere, etc. By Henry Hen- . 




265 

Dr. J. Hann. IV. Band. Wien, 1869. 8vo, pp. 615 
and plates. 
> Board of Health : Fifth Annual Report of the Board of 
Health of the City of New York, April 11, 1870, to April 
109 1871. By Emmons Clark, Secretary. New York, 

1871. 8vo, pp. 628. 

[ Blodgbt — Walling : The Climate of Massachusetts. With 
Isothermal and rain map. By Lorin Blodget. Waiting's 
Atlas of the State of Massachusetts. Boston, 1871. pp. 
22, 23, folio. 

I ScHOTT : Tables and Results of Precipitation in Rain and 
Snow in the United States and America Generally. Dis- 
cussed by Chas. A. Schott. Smithsonian Contributions 
to Knowledge. Washington, 1872. Folio, pp. 175 and 
plates. (See second edition in May, 1881.' Folio, pp. 
249 and plates.) 

I Blodget — Walling — Gray : Climatological Map of Ohio, 
Isothermal and Rainfall. By Lorin Blodget, in Walling 
and Gray's Atlas of Ohio, pp. 34, 35. Cincinnati, 

1872. Folio. 

I Myer : Daily Bulletins of the Signal Service U. S. Army, 
with Synopsis of Probabilities. Divisions of Telegrams. 
Gen. Albert J. Myer. Large 4to, monthly bound vols. 
September, October, November and December, 1872. 4 
vols. 

Jan. to Dec, complete 1873, '^ volumes. 

Jan. (ex. May) to Dec 1874, 1 1 volumes. 

Jan. only 1875, ' volume. 

None in 1876. 

Jan. to Dec 1877, 12 volumes. 

5 Blodget, etc. : The Climate of Maryland. With Isothermal 
and rain map. By Lorin Blodget, in Atlas of Maryland, 
by Martenel, etc. Baltimore, 1873. 
I Blodget — Gray : Climatology of the United States. With 
Isothermal and rain chart. By Lorin Blodget, in Gray's 
Atlas of the United States. Philadelphia, 1873. Folio, 
pp. 125-129. 
I Blodget: The Non-periodic Distribution of Heat in the At- 
mosphere. By Lorin Blodget. Read before the American 

BOO. AMEB. PHILOS. SOC. XXZIL 148. 2 H. PBINTBD JAlf. 18, 1894. 



>. Scholl, Washington. Smith- 
Knowledge, 1S76. Folio, pp. 
.rts. 

itural Report for 1877. Climalo- 
)r. Hiram A. Cutting, pp. lao to 
7- 

ults of Precipitation in Rain and 
rom collections by the Smithsonian 
. A. Schott. ad edition, Washington, 
'p. ago, with large rainfall maps, for 
year. "Including recordsto 1877." 
lOd of Measuring Heights by Means of 
y G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geological 
ro, pp. 408-566, 163, with plates. 

Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce ; 
Feb. 1884. Cincinnati, -1884. 8vo 

Stonn off the Atlantic Coast of the 
ch 11-14, 1888. By Everett Hayden, 
! Meteorology. Montreal Monograph, 
rographic Office. Washington, 1888. 
ites. 

in Pennsylvania, May 31 and June 
I Blodget, for the Department of In- 
mnsylvania. Harrisburg, 1889. 8vo 
th map. 

he Middle Atlantic States, May 31 
Report of the Weather Bureau, 
I May and June. Washington, i88g. 
ps. 



NAL Officer U. S. A., 1871 to 1891. 
of the Signal Service was authorized 
approved Feb. 9, 1870, the Secretary 
To provide for taking Meteorological 
Y Stations and at other points in the 
; of the approach of Storms, etc. On 
ronous reports were transmitted. The 



ti _ - 1 1 1 1 .« 



PhOosopUcal Society, Fefamarjr st, ityj* 
VoL xtii, 8vo, pp. 3. Hiiladelphia, 1873. 
1874 BijODaiT: A Downward Atmospberic CHrailatkm asQM 
Qmse of Extreme Cold. Bjr Loria Hodget. Read beibie 
the Americftn Phitosophtcal Society^ May i, 1874* ^^fo^ 
ceedings, VoL xiv, p. 150. 

1874 Blodgxi^— Wallotg : Climate oC Britiah North Amemau 

With iaothermal and rain charts. By Lorin Blodget, in 
Atlas of the Dominion of Canada, by H. F. Walling. 
Montreal, 1875. 
1873 WooDWORTH : The Cholera Epidemic of 1873. ^f J<^ ^« 
-1875 Wood worth, M.D., Supervising Surgeon U. S. M« H. 
Treasury Dept., Washington, 1875. Pr^Mued pursuant 
to Joint Resolution of Congress of March 25, 1874. 

1875 McClsllan and Otukrs: The Cholera Epidemic of 1873* 

Reports Prepared under the Direction of.the. Suqjeon- 
General of the Army. A. By Ely McClellan, M.D. 
B. By John C. Peters, M.D. C. By Jdm & Billings, 
M D. Washington, 1875. ^^^» PP- 1025. 

1873 Blodgkt: a Report upon Non-periodic Changes of Heat as 
an Element in Sanitary Climatology. By Lorin Blodget. 
Read before the American Public Health Association at 
New York, 1873. ^^ ^o^- ^ of Reports, pp. 157-163. 

1875 Harris: Reports and Papers of the American Public Health 
Association presented in 1873. Prepared by Dr. Elisha 
Harris, Secretary. Many Valuable Sanitary and Climato- 
logical Reports. New York, 1875. Large 8vo and maps, 

PP- 563- 
1875 Warren: Report of the Commission of Engineers on the 
Reclamation of the Alluvial Basin of the Mississippi. By 
G. K. Warren, Major Engineers, President of the Com- 
mission. Washington, 1875. 8vo, pp. 160, and maps of 
floods. (H. R. Ex. Doc. 25, 43d Congress, 2d Session.) 

1875 Jones: Report upon Northwestern Wyoming, including 

Yellowstone Park, made in 1873 ^V William A. Jones, 
Captain of Engineers. Washington, 1875. ^^^9 PP- 33i> 
with valuable maps. 

1876 Schott: Tables, etc., of Atmospheric Temperature in the 

United States. Collected by the Smithsonian Institution 



267 

and discussed by Chas. A. Schott, Washington. Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Knowledge, 1876. Folio, pp. 
345 » with Isothermal Charts. 
1877 Cutting: Vermont Agricultural Report for 1877. Climato- 
logy of Vermont, by Dr. Hiram A. Cutting, pp. 120 to 
141. Montpelier, 1877. 

1881 Schott: Tables and Results of Precipitation in Rain and 

Snow in the U. S., from collections by the Smithsonian 
Institution. By Chas. A. Schott. 2d edition, Washington, 
May, 1 88 1. 4to, pp. 250, with large rainfall maps, for 
each season and the year. "Including records to 1877.** 

1882 Gilbert: A New Method of Measuring Heights by Means of 

the Barometer. By G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geological 
Survey. Large 8vo, pp. 408-566, 162, with plates. 
Washington, 1882. 
1884 Relief Committees: Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce ; 
Flood in the Ohio, Feb. 1884. Cincinnati, 1884. 8vo 
pamphlet, pp. 193. 

1888 Hayden: The Great Storm off the Atlantic Coast of the 

United States, March 11-14, 1888. By Everett Hayden, 
in charge of Marine Meteorology. Montreal Monograph, 
No. 5, U. S. Hydrographic Office. Washington, 1888. 
4to, pp. 65, and plates. 

1889 Blodget : The Floods in Pennsylvania, May 31 and June 

I, 1889. By Lorin Blodget, for the Department of In- 
ternal Affairs of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, 1889. 8vo 
pamphlet, pp. 8, with map. 
1889 Greely : Floods in the Middle Atlantic States, May 31 
to June 3, 1889. Report of the Weather Bureau, 
Monthly Review for May and June. Washington, 1889. 
4to, pp. 6, and maps. 

Reports of the Chief Signal Officer U. S. A., 1871 to 1891. 

The Metorological Branch of the Signal Service was authorized 
by Joint Resolution No. 9, approved Feb. 9, 1870, the Secretary 
of War being authorized **To provide for taking Meteorological 
Observations at the Military Stations and at other points in the 
Interior," and to give notice of the approach of Storms, etc. On 
Nov. I, 1870, the first synchronous reports were transmitted. The 



issue of Synopsis and "Probabilities" was comraenced by ihc 1 
Office, Feb. 29, 1871, thrice daily; pp. 6-8. 



MvKR: Report of the Chief Signal Officer to the Secretary 
of War for the year ending June 30, 1871. By Albert J. 
Myer, Brigadier General, Ciiief Signal Office. Washing- 
ton, 1871. &V0, pp. 166. 

MvBR : The same for year ending June 30, 1871. 8vo, pp. 
agz. (See pp. 190-195 for List of Great Sti 
copies.) 

MvER: The same for 1872-3. pp. i^a to nog, and tnaof 
pUtes. 

MvsR : The same for 1873-4. October, 1873 to Sept. 31 
1874, with rain maps for each month and slorm maps. ATJ 
pp. 386 appear the orders turning over the Smithsonian' 
System and its observers lo the Signal Office. &vo, pfr' 
493, and 64 maps. 

Mver: The same for 1874-5 ; July, 1874, to June, 1875, witlf 
rain and storm maps. pp. 475, and 76 maps. At p. 130 
is a full list of Smithsonian observers. At p. 361 arc the 
orders of the Surgeon -General turning over the Meteoro< 



'873 
1874 



i 



logical Observations of the Medical Officers of the arcn^. 
Myer : The same for 1S75-6, fiscal year. pp. 509, and 77 

plates. 
Myer : The same for 1876-7, fiscal year. pp. 570, with 16 

plates. At p. 156 a list of publications received. 
Mver : The same for 1877-8, fiscal year. pp. 679, and 59 

plates. 
Mver : The same for 1878-9, fiscal year. pp. 78a, with 

74 maps, isothermal, rainfall, and storms, also river 

gauges. 
Drum — Greelv (Acting Signal Officers): Report dated 

Nov. 15, 1880, for fiscal year 1879-80. pp. iijo and 8>o 

plates. Publications received at p. 345. General Mjrer 

died Aug 24, 1880. 
Hazen: The same for 1 880-1. By Gen. W. B. Haxen, 

Chief Signal Officer, dated Oct. i, 1881. pp. 1186 and 

many plates. (Refers to death of Gen. Myer at Buffalo, 

Aug. 24, 1880.) 



269 

iBSi Hazen: The same for i88t~2, dated September 15, 1882. 
Message and Doc. Series, War Department. Part i, pp. 
974 and plates; Part ii, pp. 404 and plates. 

1883 Hazen : The same for 1882-3, dated October 15, 1883. 

As Vol. iv, Message and Doc. Series, pp. 11 64 and 
plates. 

1884 Hazen: The same for 1883-4, dated October 15, 1884. 

Also as Vol. iv, Message and Doc. Scries, War Depart- 
ment, pp. 712 and plates. 

1885 Hazen: The same for 1884-5, October 10, 1885. Part i, 

pp. 609 ; Part ii, pp. 440. 

1886 Hazen: The same for 1885-6. 

1887 Greely: The same for 1886-7. By A. W. Greely, Chief 

Signal Officer (succeeding General Hazen, who died 
January 16, 1887). Pari i, pp. 361 ; Part li, pp. 386 and 
plates. 

1888 Greely: The same for 1887-8. 

1889 Greely : The same for 1888-9. 

1890 Greely : The same for 1889-90. 

1 891 Greely : Irrigation and Water Storage of the Arid Regions. 

Letter from the Secretary of War communicating a Report 
of the Chief Signal Office of the Army in response to 
House Resolution of May 23, 1890, relative to Irrigation 
and Water Storage in the Arid Regions, By A. W. 
Greely, February 28, 1891. H. R. Ex. Doc, No. 287, 
51st Congress, Second Session. Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1891. 410, pp. 356 and 37 maps. 



A Short Note upon So-called ^^ Hereditary Optic-Nerve A trophy^ ^ — 
as a Contribution to the Question of Transmission of Structural 
Peculiarity, 

By Charles A. Oliver, A.M., M. D, 

Deeming it possible that the question of ** The Transmission of 
Structural Peculiarity ** may be judiciously studied from a patho- 
logical standpoint, as shown in the peculiar disease of man generally 



ryur- Xa * ' g ArropfcT, where certam morbid 
tr- r. :y.T.iz 'Txsr^z snimcs cc&sa&aexit mmonnt for readv 



.. ,. rii-. iL.ars nn-mc i:« resrs. ins: urerions to adolescence 



:: 5::;-^r.:r wur rrqiienxJT har» rMsanpiiDeaas lies, extending in 
fLTint nssLiitrsi- inrnarr. «rv-nJ rexkerar; ans. trie writer has ventured 
::^ -..[..w::^ ieT5t nois re one sor'r i&TrLr Thar be has had the op- 
:'.*n::;r- :» simmi: a c v g jL nf^s mezirier^io ctTrfnl and prolonged 



.: : S,^ :t «.» irr :n* ins: tnxiea msr. ared tweatr-se^'cn vears, 
T : . <LaTr^ :na- ut iik Tutrc i-cET iTie sx'* :»f l«oth e\es had been 
j~:iri-. ■ -^i -.Tvc :Tii- icnic arr.TfniiiLr.^fd i v frc-atal headaches and 
;. -- i-ir?--^ N. r.ben— *i: iai» rtoien- s-:k:;e5swas civen and no 
. ii.«-~-L r'-'uriirs- .T c:i* ii.r-:CDrr^:c :■:" anr tcxic agents into the 
f -cm r.^u-; :c :i;iii it*i He a«tfr:*i :ba: his mother's three 
:i*: »■::*:'-? v-:*^ sin^iii.-'^ an^ns-i.. 

tii^zi .:.:.: ..: sCir^r-*^ ~rjii rsrnJ i-is::.- :"ot bDih form and color 
v.s r.^!.r :.:trr. ^•i Tnf r»iir.:ntJTD:tK*c^r:r appearances were 
: .*>: : L >;■-.. ^r-.xir.ir r." rii u.-it: zc the vrc:c-"ene head. 

--• ~-r-^" .::i^ xs^ :^:^::^i es^cj-El*.} liter in the disease, vari- 
::^ . :• ;^: : ^:s:^^^•r»^5^ ui:tri-*i :r rbe re=:re »m" the visnal fields 
1 1 i~:.i.r : -" '.'cr Ti :' ' > :c "" i::-.rr 7*;rsT:ra::on without 
\ - t- J ' : : :> : : z. : :: ."•:; ir :i-i .iron exTX)>i:re to 



<^ " ■v ■ 



: .: ..-t :- iis> 5 ::::lir v-ouIj: >vn:z- 

m A 

W ■• % - • « « 

- ^ • 



«^ ■ K. k« • ^ ^. 



:::ion nrs: appear- 

..: ^ . -' J. ^ .::: :. c :c::r ii/.cj:er.ce, ar.d ever.rjating in 

:.:::i-i: c: : : -::!a. li.r.ir.r:^^ a: i.". ju: :vse:::v->evea vears 01' uije, is 



271 

here given as one among many facts based upon pathological 
changes that may be placed side by side with those so-called normal 
physiological acts and physical peculiarities of structure which are 
so often seen passing through several generations especially by ties 
of consanguinity. 

In other words, this fault of optic-nerve structure, which does not 
show itself for several years after the birth of the individual, indi- 
cates to the writer's mind at least that here there is an inheritance 
of a physical material which is not only shorter lived than that 
which is found in the same organ in other organisms, but that it has 
a briefer existence than the other organs in the same general organ- 
ism ; a fault which shows that an imperfect material has been born, 
and dies prematurely because it is subjected to an amount of wear 
and tear that would not seriously disturb or injure a properly formed 
substance. Further, it serves as a living evidence that a substance 
has been improperly made most probably on account of physical 
imperfection and repetition of faulty cell combination of similar 
kind extending through several generations ; an evidence which in 
measure says that primarily acquired pathological characteristics of 
structural form may be transmitted through forthcoming generations 
as imperfect formation of similar structure in due proportion to 
both the want of hygiene and care given to the afflicted subjects 
and the reassociation of similarly degraded developmental cells; an 
evidence which gives answer in part to the transjiussion of ordinary 
structural characteristics, which, if acted upon in the same way as 
those which are not made, as it were, in the same peculiar manner, 
will produce far different and even what may be termed idiocratic 
results. 

In other words, this disease, for example, which manifests itself 
as faulty transmission, teaches us conversely that a peculiar physical 
condition which has been obtained from frequently repeated physio- 
logical acts during the life existence of some antecedent containing 
animal form, may be transmitted to the ofTspring (more particularly 
by consanguineous ties of the parents) and thus render the new or- 
ganism more capable of evolving certain definite acts that are the 
physiological representatives of heredity of physical structure; the 
partial answer at least for so- termed hereditary genius. 



The AJapiive Forms and Veritx-Metien of (he Suhitanee ef (ht 
Rtd BloBd €orpui{{es of Vertelirittes. 

By John A. Rydtr. 

The fact that the red blood-corpuscles of vertebtales are discoidal 
or elliptical (latlened bodies seems to have had very liKic of im{x>rC 
lo physiological wriiers. I shall now attempt to show that not 
only has the shape of these bodies very great physiological signili- 
cance, but that these shapes are also adaptive. Tlic attempt will 
also be made lo show that it rnay be that there i!i a vortical flux of 
substance from the centre to the periphery, or from tlie pcrij>her]r to 
the centre of every such corpuscle during life on both sides of it ; 
(hat, moreover, such a flux taken in conjunclion with the vi»coMtj 
of the substance of the corpuscle and its original or embryonic 
globular form is responsible for its !>hape. The flattening and vor- 
tical flux of the substance of the corpuscle may be regarded U 
adaptive physiological devices by means of which its respiratory 
efficiency is vastly increasud. That such a flux has never been seen 
and may never be seen, owing to the practical impossibility of ob- 
serving these bodies in a perfectly normal living condition, is no 
proof that such a flux does not occur. Other practicKl difficultits ^ 
also present themselves in the demonstration of the vortical Hux of ^B 
the substance of red blood corpuscles, namely their t.j-tital homo- ~ 
geneity, as a result of which also the very highest powers of the 
microscope become useless in this investigation, since the particles 
of the substance He beyond the limits of microscopic vision and 
cannot therefore be differentiated microscopically so as lo demoD* 
strale such a motion, even were it possible lo observe the corpuscle 
in an active living slate under perfectly normal conditions. 

The first condition satisfied by the flattened form of the red 
blood corpuscle is an increase of its superficial area. TTiis would 
also be achieved if the corpuscle were elongated i*ito a filament. 
But it can be shown that if these corpuscles were filaments they 
would inevitably (end to choke up or occlude the vessels, because 
of becoming tangled amongst one another and thus bringing the cit. 
culation to a stand-still with consequent death. It can also be shown, 
with all the rigor of mathemaiical demonstration, that the super- 
ficial area of a filament of the same volume as a disk of the same 
substance does not increase at anything like the same rate, if the 



273 

filament is indcfinitdy and progressively lengthened, as compared 
with the rate of increase of the surface of a disk of similar volume 
indefinitely and progressively flattened. Everything is therefore in 
favor physiologically of the discoidal form of a mass of plasma as a 
haemoglobin bearer over and above that of a filament or any other 
shape whatever. The advantages which accrue to the discoidal 
form of the blood-corpuscle over a hypothetical filamentous form 
are thus seen to be conditioned by the geometrical laws which hold 
in respect to the progressive and equal change of the ratios of two 
of the dimensions of a solid or fluid body as compared with an un- 
equal change in its third dimension, provided there is no change 
of volume. 

This form of the blood-corpuscle by means of which its area is 
increased is also one which involves the conception that the 
average path traversed by all of its constituent particles is less than 
that by means of which it would be transformed into a filamentous 
body. A further conclusion derivable from this fact is that in the 
transformation of the globular embryonic blood cell there is less 
expenditure of energy involved in transforming it into a disk than 
if it were transformed into a filament. There is therefore an actual 
saving of energy consequent upon transforming the primitively 
globular blood-cells into disks instead of into filaments. Viewed, 
therefore, as a kinetic problem alone, it can be proved that the 
discoidal shaj)e of the blood-corpuscles of vertebrates requires the ex- 
penditure of a relatively small amount of energy as compared with 
that of any other form that might be assumed. 

Notwithstanding this fact, however, there has been an extension 
of the disks of many forms in one of their dimensions, so tliat in 
the greater proportion of vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, 
batrachia and fishes, the red corpuscles are elliptical, while in a 
mollusc Area they are flattened and [)yriform in outline. Nowhere, 
however, does the eccentricity of the elliptical form of the corpuM les 
develop great proportions; in fact, I know of no instances in which 
the great diameter of an elliptical corpuscle is as ^^reat as twic e its 
least diameter. The law enunciated in the preceding paragraphs 
therefore still holds essentially even in those cases where the cor- 
puscle becomes quite markedly elliptical, since nowhere does this 
ellipticity reach such an extreme as to become the expression of an 
extension of the substance of the corpuscle into the form of a fila- 
mentous body. 

PBOC. AMEB. PniLOS. 800. XXXII. 143. 2 I. PRINTED FEB. 7, 1894. 



This elliplicity of Ihe blood -corpuscles of the lower vertebrate* 
is, moreover, again adaptive, since it is well known thai in traveri- 
ing ihe smallest ca]iillan<;;i in such forms as the frog, for example, 
every corpuscle must in Iraversing the latter pUce its long axis 
parallel, or nearly so, with the axis of the lumen of Ihe vessel in 
order to pass through; in other words, the least diameter of the 
corpuscle only can traverse ihe lumen of capillaries. In thus ad- 
justing iis long axis lo the axis of the lumen of the capillary, such a 
corpuscle again presents a maximum amount of siirfjce and volume 
in the nearest relation to the tissues it is to oxidize, whereas if it 
traversed the capillary with its long diameter transverse lo the axis 
of the lumen of the capillary, it would present the least amount of 
its volume and surface in the nearest relation to the tissue to be 
oxidi/ed. Were this last condition prevalent it would require 
many more corpuscles todo the same work as is done by the ellipti- 
cal corpuscles that now traverse the capillaries lengthwise, or Hiih 
their long axes parallel with the axis of the luniina of the latter. 

A further supposition that may be made regarding the elliptidl 
blood-corpuscles is that, originally globular, they became at first dit- 
coidal, then elliptical, and that the elliptical form of the disks was 
consequent upon slight constraint within thccapillariesduring their 
passage through the latter ; in other words, the elliptical form was de- J 
rived from the discoidal as the discoidal wns derived from the stilt ' 
more primitive globular form. We may also suppose that very 
slight mechanical constraint in passing through the capillaries 
would distincMy tend to develop a tendency towards converting the 
disks that were slightly too large to pass through the capillaries into 
elliptical disks. I can thus conceive a mechanical origin for the 
elliptical form of the red blood -corpuscle in general wherever it 

It may also be assumed that the size of the corpuscle is directly 
related to the rate of metabolism of the organism. Thus in the sing* 
gish batrachia the corpuscles are large; in the more active fishes and 
reptiles smaller ; in mammals still smaller, and in the most active 
mammals and birds, such as the musk deer and humming bird, 
smallest of all, reaching minimum dimensions of j^^, to ,^ of 
an incli in these types, according to Gulliver. 

The impulse that tends to develop a vortical flux of matter ffom 
oi>posite poles of a young globular red blood-corpuscle in every 
direction from the centre, it would be difficult to specify further 



270 

tlian that it is purely ph]rdological and adaptive, and leads to a 
distinct gain of snrface and a consequent increase in the efficiency 
of each and every corpuscle in performing its function, that for such 
a caoae has assumed the discoidal form. That such a double vorti- 
cal flux must take place from two opposite poles of a primitively 
globular or embryonic red blood-corpuscle in passing from its 
primitive globular to that of its completed or adult elliptical or dis- 
coidal form is self-evident upon mere contemplation of the geo- 
metrical conditions that must on d priori grounds accompany the 
transformation of a semifluid globular mass to the form of a disk 
with rounded edges. If such a vortical flux of its substance were 
maintained by every corpuscle during its double cycle of wander- 
ings through the systemic and pulmonary circulations and through- 
out life, its efficiency in the processes of metabolism must neces- 
sarily be greatly increased. The fact that Amoeba cannot move 
without developing a vortical flux of its own substance through 
itself, is, it seems to me, evidence of the possibility and probability 
of the same thing occurring in red blood-corpuscles. If the fore- 
going hypothesis is true with respect to red blood-corpuscles, we 
have no less than ten millions of vortex rings of particles whirling 
together in pairs for every cubic millimeter of blood that circulates 
through the vessels of our bodies. 



A Study of the Transformations and Anatomy of Lagoa crispata^ a 

Bombycine Moth, 

By Alpheus S. Packard, 

The larva of this moth is exceptional among caterpillars, for it 
has the rudiments of two pairs of abdominal legs more than the 
five pairs common to all other known Lepidoptera. It is also re- 
markable for its metameric glandular abdominal processes. 

A very full and careful account of the life-history of this inter- 
esting moth has been published by Dr. J. A. Lintner, in his Ento- 
mological Contributions^ No. ii, p. 139. He describes six stages, 
and gives an interesting account of the cocoon and mode of pupa- 
tion.* 



AlfOtwobriefarticletbymyself : " On the Larva of Lagoa, n Bombycine Caterpillar 
with Seven Fain of Abdominal Legs ; with Notes on its Metameric Glandular Abdomi- 
nftl rro eeM ca ." Zoctogimher Anzeigcr, 27. Juni, 1892, pp. 229-234 ; " The Bombycine Genua 

Type of a New EamUy." Ptyche, July, 1892, pp. 281, 282. 



'.torn 

'Zd 

kin ■ 



The eggs were kindly sent me by Miss Emiljr L. Morion from 
New Windsor, N, Y., and received July 3, halc>iing in Biunswick, 
Me.. July 3. 

£:gg. — Length, about 1.5-i.S; breadth, about 0.5 mm, 
shell is very thin, membranous, and entirely transparent, and under, 
a J-iu. objective is seen to be structureless, showing no traces 
polygonal areas. 

They are similar to but not nearly so flat as those of PhobttrM\ 
pilhtcium. They are laid in small irregular patches side by side in 
[wo rows, and are densely covered wilh white woolly hairs from ihe 
body of Ihc moth. They are at first pale green, becoming yellow- 
ish as the embryo becomes mature aod nearly ready to hatch. 

Larva Stage I, Freshly Hatched. — Length, 1.5-1.8 mm. When 
first hatched ihey eat little holes in the upper surface of oak leavo. 
They have a thin soft skin ; are flat oval, lying on one side, and ai 
first are yellow. Body short and thick, rather broad, >eisomfr 
what cylindrical, with eleven pairs of large dorsal tubercles, which. 
are square at the tip, and give rise to very long white hair^ 
unequal size, some of which arc nearly twice as long as the body. 
Besides the white hairs there are also short erect setx, dark browft] 
at the attenuated ends, which also arise from ihe large long subdi 
sal, not lateral, lubeicjes. The body, including the bead. 

It moiled July lo-ii, the length of the stage being from six to 
seven days. In this stage the head is not covered by the prothoracic 
segment, which though large has not yet become hoodlike. The 
very long fine spinulated hairs arise from all the tubercles, of which 
there are six on each segment, the dorsal tubercles on the second 
thoracic segment being slightly larger than those on any of the suc- 
ceeding segments; the hairs in question are more abundant on the 
anterior segments, /. e. the second and third thoracic, and the five 
basal segments, than on those behind. From the dorsal and subdorsal 
tubercles arise about a dozen spine-like sets, which are slender and 
about half as long as the body is thick; the end is acute, dusky, 
and thus made conspicuous in the mass of white delicate spiuuUtcd 
hairs clothing the body. None of these are poisonous. Stinging 
sela: arise from the minute infraspiracular tubercles. The spiracles 
are very minute and difficult to detect. On each of the abdominal 
legs, situated above the planta, is a pair of short clavate setic, the 
seventh pair only bearing a single seta. 



277 

Fig. I represents the freshly hatched larva, Stage I, drawn with 
the tubercles, hairs and spines ; abP^ the first, abl*, the sixth, pair 
of abdominal legs. 

Fig. 2 represents the armature in Stage I; <?, part of an ordinary 
finely spinulated hair ; b, one of the smaller spinulated hairs situated 
on the head, and also on the tenth abdominal segment ; r, a group 
of three venomous setae, showing the glandular cells (/^.) at the 
base, by which the poison is secreted. 

Fig. 3 represents the cells (jc.) in the hypodermis which secrete 
the setae, and the poison-cells {pgic) which secrete the venomous 
fluid filling the setae or spines, and which makes them so irri- 
tant and annoying when the spines break off from the tubercles 
bearing them. ^ is a group of setae arising from a subdorsal tuber- 
cle ; cut,^ the cuticle; hy.^ the hypodermis; sc, the enlarged and 
specialized cells of the hypodermis which secrete the spines them- 
selves ; pgic, the nuclei which secrete the venomous fluid which 
fills the cavity of the seta (j.), seen at / in a broken spine. B, a 
short entire and a long broken seta; pgiCy four poison cells; /., 
the poison in the hollow of the spine. 

Fig. 4. Section of a subdorsal tubercle from a larva in Stage I. 
sc, the setigenous cells, one for each seta; pglc, nuclei by which 
the poison is secreted ; j., seta ; /., poison in middle of a broken 
spine; cut., cuticle; sd. tub,, spinulated surface of the subdorsal 
tubercle. Author tfei. 

Larva, Stage II. — Length, 3 mm. (Pi. V, Fig. 5). It differs from 
the previous stage chiefly in the head being nearly covered or over- 
grown by the hood-like prothoracic segment, so as to be almost as 
completely covered by it when extended as in the later stages. 
The short stiff" setae are white instead of brownish at the end ; the 
white hairs are, perhaps, more abundant, and the body is slightly 
thicker. The second and third thoracic and seventh to ninth pair 
of abdominal tubercles are now larger than the others. There are 
now about twelve crotchets on the middle abdominal legs. 

It molted July 16-17, hence the length of this stage is 6-7 days. 

Fig. 6 represents the seventh abdominal segment of this stage. 
// , the dorsal tubercle, with i2-[3 poison-bearing setic, with 
brown tips, and five long very finely spinulated hairs, which are 
about twice as long as the segment is thick ; sd.j the subdorsal 
tubercle bearing about twelve venomous setae, and two or three long 
spinulated hairs ; sp , the spiracle, and directly behind and a little 




below It a ktenl pmcem ('^) ; i., the ii 

ing Kbont eight luin, bat no utn ; ^i the]riutft; t., tbe dante 

Kta. 

The hain are more numeroos thia before, nearly eoncedii^ the 
body; mncb as in Stage V. 

•SK^f I//. — ^Length, 5 mm. Of tbe aame color aa before, and 
with no noteworthy cbange in appearance. 

It molted again July 95-26, the length of the Mage being abont 
nine day*. 

Sf^t IV. — Length, 7-8 mm. The larva only diffen from that 
of tbe preceding stage in all the hain being white, and in the 
woolly or finely spinulated ones being thicker. 

It molted August 3, the length of tbe stage being about 7-8 days. 

^a^ V. — Length, 9-10 mm. Same aa before, bat the hain 
have grown a little thicker (see Fig. 7, a, h). 

I am uncertain whether the larvs molted again before tbe final 
ecdysis, but Aug. i»-i3 they had become 15 mm. long, and were 
the same as before, but with more long hain in proportion to the 
short forked ones. This is perhaps the end of Stage V. 

This stage lasted about ten days, as they molted again Aug. tt~ 
33, and some as late as Aug. 30. 

Last Stage ( VJ) — Length, of body alone, ao mm.; but including 
all the hairs before and behind 30 ram.; breadth of body, 10 mm. 

Mature larval characters being acquired only at the last molt, it is 
now entirety different In shape and color from the preceding stages. 
The hairs on the anterior third of the body are slale-gray, behind 
reddish brown, and they are so dense and fine as to lie upon the 
body and entirely conceal it ; they rise into four longitudinal 
ridges. The head is not now visible, the head end is broader than 
the tail end, with overarching hairs, and a few longer scattered 
hairs oil the front and side of the thoracic segments, and a few long 
brown hairs on the posterior end ; none of these longer hairs are as 
long as the body Is thick, and none of the short barbed stinging 
hairs are to be seen through the dense pile of simple hairs. (See also 
Lintner's description, and my own in Report V, U. S. Ent. Com- 
mission on Forest and Shade Tree Insects, p. 139-) 

Unusual Number of ABOOMiNAr. Legs in the Larva. 
In the American Naturalist for July, 1885, pp. 714, 715, we 



279 

« 

published the following notes in an article entitled ''Unusual 
Number of Legs in the Caterpillar of Lagoa.*** 

*^ Lagoa cHspataVdcV. is an interesting moth forming a connect- 
ing link between the Dasychirae (Orgyia) and the Cochlidiae rep- 
resented by Limacodes and its allies. As we remarked in our 
Synopsis of Bombycidae (1864): * When we observe the larva we 
would easily mistake it for a hairy Limacodes larva, for like them 
the head is retracted, the body is short, and the legs are so rudi- 
mentary as to impart a gliding motion to the caterpillar when it 
moves.** After describing the transformations, we added : 'There 
are seven pairs of abdominal or false legs, which are short and 
thick. The first pair of thoracic or true legs are much shorter 
than the two succeeding pairs.* 

** Two years ago we found the fully fed caterpillars and also those 
before the last molt on scrub-oaks in Providence, and again noticed 
them while walking, then carefully examined them after placing 
them in alcohol, and again examined the specimens during the 
past winter. It is well known that caterpillars have no more than 
five pairs of ' proplegs,' 'false legs* or abdominal feet, as they 
are variously called ; and so far as we have been able to learn, the 
present caterpillar is the only one which has additional legs, even 
though rudimentary. As in all lepidopterous larvas, there are ten 
abdominal segments. In the larvae before the last molt there is a 
pair of rudimentary abdominal legs on the second abdominal seg- 
ment, forming soft tubercles about one-third as large as the suc- 
ceeding normal feet ; the crown of hooks was wanting, but a tubercle 
on the anterior side corresponding to a similar one on the normal 

• In 1S70, or six years before the publication of my note, Dr. II. Buniieister {Atlas de la 
drfrriptwn physique dc la Rii}ultliquf Ari]*iitim\ Lt^pidoptircs, Buenos Ayn'S, 1S70, p|». 
xxii, Flg^. (ki, 66, 6c ) had (les«;ribed an«l lij^urod willi details, the larva of C/iii/.sojn/r/d uu- 
dulata: "Les six auneaux suivanls, du (.'in(iuiome an (iixieiue, soiit pourvu.*; <le deux 
verrues charnues qui reprt-sentont len paites nu'n)braneus4\s venirah.-s, dunt le iininbrc vst 
de six Chez cette chenille, ce qui eonstiiue une exception ;"» la ref,'ie ^'<'nrrale dc la i»r«.''s- 
ence de quatre paires de i>attes membranenses sur lf.>' aiuieaux (i;\ Vi. La premiort' et la 
demi«>re de ces fsix pjilres de vermes hc tfrininent en uvant par un couHsin n>nd aplati. 
iioir, qui re>#iemble H laplantc d'un pied, mais difz U?s quatres vrrrncs moyt-nnes («", A i>). 
il y a un second cou>sin plus grand, qui ressfinble a nnc veritable ]>ati(' nicnibraiuMise 
poll rvue d' une plante 8inueu>e et d'une eonronne de ix'.tiis crofln.'t> fonn's. conune les 
pHttes membraneuses en j?»^neral (<>, c). Ix» onzit'-nH* anniMiii est oblit.'ro an niilii'u. ain.si 
que le quatrleme. mais sa prt^seriee est l)ieu reconnaissablo par ks<lenx portions ]at<''rak's. 
Enfln. le douzit>iue anneau est un jteu pins grand que U> ant res tt poitc la dt-rnirrc paiie 
<le jiaites membraneuses, la septii^nie qui est coniplC-tenu-nt confonni'v <'(»nnne les qnatres 
moyennes des six auneaux ant*>rieurs, mais sans la petil«' plante aeccSR<»irf de etlles ci, 
Ces dernleres pattes eout i;ourvne8 seulement de la plante sinuense garnie tie crochtMs 
comme les aiitres. 



feet had fiw ar six well-marked stout spines, also two or three scat- ' 
lered ones in ilic middle, the tubercle being louDded, convex, not 
flaiiened al the end, 

'■ On the sixth segment, following (he fourth jiair of normal »b- 
dominal legs, is a pair oT tuberclex like those on the second >«g- 
nient and exactly corresponding in siKiation with the normal legs; 
situated externally are two long straight spines, but none homol- 
ogous with those forming the crown. At the base in front of each 
tubercle is a tuft of sparse hairs, and on the oui&ide is a chilinata 
spot bearing a dense tuft of hairs; these two tufts precisely 8gr« 
in situation and appearance with ihoiie at the base of normal abdom^ 
inal legs. 

" In the fully fed caterpillar the tubercles are exactly the same* 
It thus appears that in the Lagoa larva the Grst abdominal segment 
is footless; the second bears rudimentary feel ; segments 3-6 boar 
normal proplegs ; the seventh bears a pair of rudimentary legs ; s^- 
ments 8 and 9 arc footless, while the tenth Wars the fully 
devcloiJed anal or fifth jjair of genuine ptoplcgi. 

" While these two pairs of tubercles diJTcr from the normal legs 
in being much smaller and without a crown of rtirved spines, ihef 
are protruded and actively engaged in locomotion, and in siluation, 
as well as the presence of the basal tufis, are truly homologous with 
the normal abdominal legs. 

" When we turn to the work of Kowalevslcy on the embryology 
of Sphinx, we find that it has (en pairs of abdominal legs which 
arise in the same manner as the thoracic or chiiinous, jointed legs. 
Of these ten pairs one-half disappear before hatching, leaving the 
five pairs usually present. Il seems to us that the two pairs of rudi- 
mentary legs in I-agoa are survivals of these embryonic temporary 
feet. Although the proplegs are not popularly regarded as true 
legs, they are undoubtedly so, as embryology proves. In the 
lower NoctuidK, luch as Catocala, Aletia, etc., the larvse are at fiisi 
geomeiriform, having but thiee pairs of proplegs; in the geomelrids 
there are but two pairs, while in the Cochlidi^e there are not even 
any rudimentary feet, thoracic or abdominal. As we have else- 
where observed, the jirimitive lepidopierobs larva must have had a 
pair of feet on each abdominal segment, and may have descended 
from Neuroptera.like forms allied to the Panorpidie as well as 
Trichoi)tera." 

As this and the case of Chrysopyga are unique, no other lepid(q>- 



281 

teious larva* being known to possess more than five pairs of abdomi- 
nal legs, when rearing the larva described above we again for the 
third time carefully and repeatedly observed the caterpillars when 
alive and watched the movements of the abdominal legs during 
locomotion, and saw how the two rudimentary pairs, viz., those on 
the second and seventh abdominal segments, were raised and put 
down. With the triplet in hand, and allowing the larvae to walk on 
the edge of the tin box in which they had been confined, it was 
easy to see that the above-mentioned proplegs were actively used, 
performing the same general acts of extension and retraction of the 
planta as the others, and like them serving to support the body. 
The first pair, particularly, viz., those on the second abdominal 
segment, were observed to be nearly as large and long as the normal 
legs, and to be retracted and then extended, and applied to the 
surface of the object on which the body was situated, in the same 
manner as the pair directly behind which have crotchets ; and the 
same was observed as regards the pair on the seventh segment. 

(Fig. 7. a, dorsal, ^, lateral view of the larva of Lagoa crispata. 
Stage V ; ^, ventral view of the same to show the seven pairs of 
abdominal legs ; //, front part of the same, still more enlarged to 
show the differences between the first and second pair of abdominal 
legs, also the under side of the head partly concealed by the pro- 
thoracic hood ; and the three pairs of thoracic legs ; ^, a side view 
of the hood, completely concealipg the head ; /, a tubercle with the 
hairs and spines ; g, a normal abdominal leg with the crotchets ; g\ 
one of the legs on second abdominal segment, without the crotchets ; 
h, side view of two abdominal segments showing the spiracle and 
the lateral glandular process {Ip.) behind it. Bridgham d^i.) 

To further prove to others, who might doubt whether these 
mobile and extensile processes were really legs at all, I made care- 
ful camera sketches of the alcoholic specimens of the freshly hatched 
larva (Fig. i), and of one after the first molt (Fig. 5). In Fig. 7 <r, 
the first abdominal segment is seen to be completely apodous, but 
the legs on segments 2 and 7 are seen to have a wcll-developed 
extensile plania, though without crotchets, but bearing on the out- 
side a pair of clavate selie just like those on the other legs. In 
Stage II (Fig. 5) are seen the same structures; //., the planta; 

♦Exception, however, shoiiM hn? iiiade of tho larva of I'hyllornistis. ami of Nopliciila, 
which possej^s nine imirsof aWoniinal loj^'s, whicii however bear no hcKiks. 

PUOC. A3AEU. PHILOS. 80C. XXXII. 143. 2 J. PRINTED FEB. 7, 1894. 



er. , crolchels of the fully developed abdominal legs ; s. , the pair of 
short clavate seiJE on the rtidimentary legs of the second abdominal 
segment. It thus appears that these legs are as well developed in 
the freshly hatched larvae as in the last stage of larval life. 

Their general appearance in the final stage is seen in Fig. je, 
which represents the larva enlarged twice as seen from beneath ; at 
£ is a normal leg, with the narrow elliptical oval circle of crotchets 
on the inner and hinder side ; £', one of the rudimentary legs with- 
out crotchets ; //, represents an enlarged view of the head entirely 
covered above, with the three abdominal segments, and the first, 
second and third abdominal segmenis, with the rudimentary leg 
of the second segment, and the normal legs of the third somite. 

The occurrence of temporary abdominal legs in 
the embryos of insects in general is now well known 
to students of embryology. Kowalevsky was the 
first to figure what seemed to be such temporary ap- 
pendages, in the embryo of Sphinx, though he docs 
not refer to these structures in the text of his work. 
(Fig. 8, which is copied from his work). In subse- 
quent researches by Hatschek on the embryology of 
Porthesia ehrysorrkma, they are neither mentioned 
in ihe text nor figured. Tichomiroff, in liis work on 
the development o{ Boinliyx mori, appears, however, 
to have siibslanliated the truth of Kowaleviky's 
figures. 

Tichomiroff represents in Fig. 26, p. 41, of his 
work the primitive band of Bombyx mori, with the 
temporary abdominal knob like appendages devel- 
oped on abdominal segments 2 to 10; they are in a 
situation bomotogous with that of the anterior ap- 
>n each side of the median line, and 
inients of the stigmata of the same 
Jes they are represented as developed 
d tenth segments, where there are no 
^^niata. Owing in ])art to the rather 
poor impression of the colored print of the wood- 
? inserted in thi; text, these delicate rudiments are 
rely printed. In Fig. 27, representing a more 
, it slionld be observed that the author omitted 
the^e rudiniL-ntary structures appeared to be still 



pcndages, o 



1 the ninth a 
aces of the s 



rut, whii'h 
fainlK' and obsi 



to Ittle 



288 

pera hten t, though not shown on segment 2, and not as distmct on 
segments 3 to 5 as before ; but on segments 9 and 10 they seem to 
stand oat distinctly from the surface of the segment, though the 
author did not letter them. In Fig. 28, representing a still more 
advanced step^ there are no traces of these deciduous structures, but 
the normal abdominal legs. (on segments 3-4 and 11) are distinctly 
drawn and lettered. 

Though with some hesitation I yet regarded the figures as repre- 
senting these deciduous structures, but was unable to read the Rus- 
sian text 

In his valuable treatise, Ueber die Polypodie bet InsekUn- 
tmbryonen (i888), Graber describes and figures the embryo of 
Gastnfpacha quercifoUa^ stating that there were no traces of these 
temporary structures to be seen. He also states that no temporary 
abdominal legs were found either by Buetschli, or by Grassi, in 
the honey bee. None have been observed in the Diptera by 
Weismann and others. Hence it appears, up to this date, that they 
only occur in the orders below those named above. Graber throws 
some doubt on Kowalevsky's observations, and states that Ticho* 
miroff also did not discover them. On this account he is led to 
consider the abdominal appendages of caterpillars as secondary 
structures. 

In his interesting article, " On the Appendages of the First Ab- 
dominal Segment of Embryo Insects," Mr. W. W. Wheeler* dis- 
cusses this question, and gives a list of the species and orders of 
insects in which these deciduous abdominal appendages have been 
found. His list shows that in all the Orthoptera which have been 
studied, pleuropodia, viz., the temporary appendages of the first 
abdominal segment, and in general those of the succeeding seg- 
ments, have been observed in the embryos of all the Orthoptera yet 
examined. In the Hemiptera they have not been observed in three 
species of Aphis, but have been detected in Cicada and Zaitha. In 
the Coleoptera they apparently may or may not be present, for ex- 
ample, they have been seen in Hydrophilus, Acilius, Melolontha and 
Meloe, but not in the chrysomelid genera Lina and Doryphora. The 
neuropterous genus Sialis and the trichopterous genus Neophylax 
possess them. He also states that pleuropodia do not occur in the 
honey-bee embryo studied by Buetschli and by Grassi. 

• TrwM, WiMeaMkn Aead, Sciences, etc., yiii, September 20, 1890. 



Graber,* in his last more elaborate and carefully considered work, 
however, refers more at length to Tichomiroff's memoir on the silk- 
worm, and quotes from him as follows; " Woodcut s6 represents 
the stage in which two new structures become apparent, namely, 
first, seven pairs of spiracles (from the second to the eighth ab- 
dominal segment), and, second, the ventral legs. The last become 
visible on all the segments, except the first. As regards the last 
oner, 1 could not satisfy myself that they, as those Kowalcvsky refers 
lo in Hydrophilus, arise out of a common germ with the outgrowih 
bearing the stigmata. This outgrowth arises much later. 

He adds further on (p. 42) : " The ventral legs, which originally 
appear on all the abdominal segments, with the exceplioD of tl 
first, exist in thtir complete number only a short time. Five pairs 
them, namely those which belong to the third, fourth, fifth, 
aud ninth segments, begin to develop rapidly, white the olhtr^ 
very imperceptibly disappear in the mass 0/ the primitive hypotUrmit 
( Stammhypoiiermis) . 

On the other hand, in Bombyx mori, Selvalicof neither mcnlions 
nor figures these deciduous organs. With these fads before him, 
Graber concludes that the question of the presence or absence of a 
continuous series of abdominal appendages in view of the extraor- 
dinarily short and transitory development of these embryonic struc- 
tures cannot be answered yes or no, and (hat the question whether 
these processes correspond Co true appendages, to primary or second- 
ary appendages, cannot in the present state of our knowledge 
be solved. He then goes on lo stale that in the embryo of Bom- 
byx mori (in all the abdominal segments except the ninth and tenth) 
faintly marked knob-like elevations are to be seen which may yet 
{immerhin) be considered as the first indications of rudimeniary ap- 
pendages (see his Fig, 108). He adds that " they are much 
fainter and are also less sharply defined than those figured by 
Tichomiroff in wood-cut 26, although on the whole a return to the 
view of the observer mentioned would be in accord with the 
truth. "^ In a word, the observations and figures of Graber appear 
to confirm the text and figure of Tichomiroff, which we therefore 

\e Stuilleii am KuimBlretrrler Ins 






™. isw. 



IThlsltiBClimisy translfttlonortiraher's rathfr Kunrded endoTBement of the correclara 
of Tii'homlrolV'B ol><frVH linns. IiIk eipression betni : "Obmihl h»iU 
Wttclfntobe wjicna <les gcnitiinl^ii Koischera der Wlrkllcbbelt ubr DKbe 



285 

reproduce (Fig. 9). Graber also goes on to remark: "In gen- 
eral, however, they appear to be completely homotypic (homolop) 
with the thoracic jointed appendages, and in this respect there could 
be no reason to call in question their homology with the abdom- 
inal appendages of other insects, viz., the Coleoptera and Orihop- 
tera.** Finally he concludes that in Bombyx niori ** the stage of 
pantopody has only a very ephemeral duration.*' 

In Pieris there are the same relations as in Bombyx, ** though 
the persisting pantopody is more latent.'* However, he did not 
perceive any clear traces of the deciduous abdominal legs in Pieris, 
nor after a reexamination of his preparations of the primitive streak 
of Gastropacha did he discover them in that form. 

(Fig. 9. Piimitive band oi Bombyx m or iy showing the temporary 
legs on abdominal segments 2-1 1. After Tichcmiroff. A, Early 
stage, in which the abdominal legs al^-aP^ appear. B. Later stage 
when they are very faint and all except al^-al^ and aP^ are about 
to disappear. C. The persistent abdominal legs aP-aP and a/", 
j/*, j/% the 2d and 3d pair of stigmata.) 

As regards the appearance of these structures in ihe Hymenop- 
tera, Graber states that Buetschli, as is well known, makes the state- 
ment that in the primitive streak of the honey bee at a certain 
stage rudimentary appendages resembling tubercles arise on all the 
abdominal segments; though Grassi could not confirm this obser- 
vation.* Very recently, moreover, Carri^re reports that in the 
wall beef at least on the first two segments, after the appearance 
of the thoracic legs, "small tubercles" become visible, which 
however are "only of short duration." In Hylotoma Graber 
found no traces of these deciduous structures. 

From the foregoing facts it would seem reasonable to infer that 
the figures of Kowalevsky are in the main correct and that the 
statements and figures of TichomirofT have been substantiated by 
Graber. Hence we would feel warranted in concluding that these 
structures appear in the embryos of certain Lepidoptera and Hy- 
menoptera, though much less distinct and more evanescent than in 
the lower orders of insects. 

If it should be eventually discovered that the deciduous append- 

•Bnlfour. In his CamparaUvr Embn/ofoffij, accepts Buotschli's stuteinents without 
qacstiuning them (I, 33Sj. See also Biietschli's own htntoiiieiit on p. oM of his essay : 
•' And after clo-se observation of the following ubdoiuiual segmeula we perceived a very 
ikint siirailar outgrowth on all of them," etc. 

t Chtdiccdoma muraria. 



386 



ages are not developed in all Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, and 
not at all Id the Diplera, this would show that the power of inher 
ancc of these ancestral trails had already in the first two of these or- 
ders begun to wane; that their evolution had begun on a higher plant d 
than the [jolypodous one of the Coleoptera, Orthoptera and amet»- I 
bolous orders, and that the power was on the verge of t 
Hence their appearance in certain forms and the cessation of their 
development in others may be accounted for, jusl as the scattered 
and sparse distribution of certain a.nimals, and the reduclion in the , 
number of individuals is a preliminary step to iheir entire 

The lack of these structures in dipterous embryos appears to con- ( 
firm the view that they are the most extremely modified of all 
insects. It should be borne in mind that such obsen-ations areeit- 
ctedingly difficult to make, the parts are so delicate and faintly 
developed, and yet when we take into account the fact that «u 
skillful an observer as Kowalevsky detected ihem, who was the pio- 
neer in these studies, and who probably had no expectation of dis- 
covering such structures, and whose mind was free from any theory 
in the matter, it seems scarcely probable that he would have figured 
them unless he had actually seen them. 

Returning to the Lepidoptera and to Lagoa, with its rudimeDlarf^J 
abdominal legs of ihe second and seventh segments of the hind ^ 
body, we feel warranted in the present slate of the subject in con- 
cluding that they may represent a persistent condition of two pairs 
of these deciduous abdominal legs. They are certainly of some 
use to the creature, and thus have survived because they, in a par- 
tial way to be sure, have been of service. The others have evi- 
dently disappeared from disuse. And it would thus seem that the 
Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera have descended, like other insects, 
from polypodous ancestors. 

If these concl'isions are correct, then Lagoa, in respect to its ab- 
dominal legs, even if we do not take into account other characteis, 
is a survivor of an ancient and very generalized type, and repre- 
vn caterpillar, the polypodous ancestor of all 



I 



sents, as no other known 
Lepidoptera. 

The other alternative is 
inal legs of caterpillars ai 
tivcMruclures. Of cours 
further researches. And 



that, as Graber once claimed, the abdonw 
e not primitive, but secondary and adap- 
e these questions can only be settled by 
it is possible that the similar abdominal 



287 

legs of larval Tenthredinidae and the abdominal tubercles of Diptera, 
which, as in Chironomus and Ephydra, bear hooks, may, instead of 
being new, adaptive characters, be the homologues of the jointed 
appendages of the other regions of the body. 

After reading Graber's first paper on polypody in insect embryos, 
and Wheeler's essay, I took it that I should have to abandon the view 
I expressed in my note in the American Naturalht in 1885, and it 
occurred to me that the seven pairs of lateral processes on the first 
seven segments of Lagoa might be so many pairs of pleuropodia. 
These processes we may now consider. 

The External Lateral Abdominal Glandular Processes of 

Lagoa. 

These are present at birth and in all the larval stages and are 
represented by Figs. 10 to 13, also Figs, i and 5. 

There are seven pairs of them, a pair to each of the first seven 
abdominal segments. They are situated near to and directly 
behind, but a little lower down than the spiracles and above the 
infraspiracular tubercles. In fact, they occupy the exact position 
of the cvaginable glands of Hyperchiria to and HemiUuca maia, etc. 
In shape they are elongated pyriform conical, or digitiform, being 
slightly contracted at the base, and with two slight contractions to- 
wards the free end, and they remind one of the shape of the append- 
ages of insect embryos just when the joints are beginning to appear. 
The free end is conical, rounded and, so far as I have been able to 
discover, imperforate. They are not capable of being retracted 
and appear to be permanently evaginate, since each i)air along the 
side of the abdomen is of the same general length and size, none 
being wholly or in part retracted. 

Fig. 10. Ay di camera drawing, represents the shape in the 
third stage, just before molting; sp., spiracle; the i)roc:ess was on 
the point of being molted and is hollow. B represents tlie pro- 
ress just after evagination, belonging to Stage IV. It is a little 
longer and larger than before (both figures are drawn to the same 
scale, X one half inch A eyepiece) and filled with granules in the 
middle, with narrow linear cells (hy ?) on the outside or cortex 
which remind one of the linear cells in the pleuro[)odia of Blatta 
figured by Wheeler (PI. i, Figs. 3, 4). It is to be observed that 
the spiracle in this stage (x/.^) is nearly twice as large as in Stage III 
(^A. sp,). 



290 

ble tubercles in the larvae in question are of the same color as the 
skin and are armed with fine hairs or setae. 

The third view is one which is incapable at present of proof, so 
that we are driven to provisionally regard these processes as per- 
sistently evaginate repugnatorial, or at least scent glands or osmateria 
which have possibly lost their power of ejecting a poisonous or 
disagreeable spray or fluid, owing to the fact that by a change or 
transfer of function the spine-like setae are poisonous, thus function- 
ally replacing a set of organs originally actively repugnatorial. 

It is also to be observed that the fact that in the Hemileucidae 
these eversible glands are restricted to but two of the abdominal 
segments, shoe's that in the ancestral forms these structures may 
have l)een doveloi)ed on all, or at least nearly all the abdominal 
segments. 

Laooa, as Regards its Larval, Pupal and Imaginal Charac- 
ters, A Generalized Type. 

We have already seen that in respect to its general appearance 
the larva of I^goa is in some res|)ecls intermediate between the 
Cochliopodidx and Liparidx. It resembles the former group in 
the short thick body ; in the head being concealed by the pro- 

tlioi\u ir hood, and in the venomous spines. 

On iho oiluT h.xnd it resembles the Liparidx in the hairy body, 
:\\c hair^ l\'ii\c iinoly plumose, a i)eciiliarity of more common oc- 
iiiMoiue :n t!.e l.iparid.e llum in the Cochliopodida?. 

A^ ieL:.iu;> ii\o lo^wni, tliis is intermediate in form and texture 
Iniween lluii ot" Or^ua. eti . , and the Cochliopodida^, but it more 
I !v ^ely approaches t'.iat oi" the latter; it varies somewhat in density 
\n liiiiVrent spci ies, hcin:; usually (juite tirm and dense like parch- 
iiK-nl, nearly a^ niurh. so a^ in those of the Cochliopodids, and also 
appivKU'hir^ :iicm i:i s!\ape, being oblong-cylindrical, oval, con- 
it a* led ai the ar.ter.oi end, and with a separately spun lid, closing 
ilu- ar.U'iuM cud. A^ Ur. Lintner has shown with many interesting 
drtai!.^ : •* The lid i> woven by the caterpillar separately from the 
rest o\ the cvH'v>on. and. is not a section cut from it after its com- 
pK'liou " (^p. i.\2 K 

The pupa is much like that ot" Limacodes, etc., the integument 
oi rasi cuticle beuiL: remaikablv thin, and after the exit of the moth 
t!u" antenna' and legs, as well as the wings, are free from the body ; 



291 

while the latter is split both down the back and along the under 
side to the end of the thorax. Moreover when the moth escaj)es 
from the pupa-skin, the latter is left with the head and thorax pro- 
jecting out of the end of the cocoon. 

As regards its imaginal or adult characters it is also intermediate 
between the two families mentioned. In the short stout body and 
short broad wings it has the habit of a Limacodes, rather than of 
such Liparid genera as Porthesia^ etc. 

In the shape of the antennae and palpi it is about as near the 
Liparidre as the Cochliopodidaj. 

In respect to the denuded head, Lagoa is much more like Euclea 
than the Liparidai. The clypeus is rather long and narrow, similar 
in shape to that of Euclea, though rather narrower, and is thus 
more like that of the Cochliopodidae than that of the Liparida^, rep- 
resented by Orgyia and the European Porthesia chrysorrhcsa, whose 
denuded heads I have examined. The epicranium and occiput 
taken together (on the median line of the body) are about one-third 
as long as the entire clypeus. 

As regards the venation, Lagoa is decidedly nearer Euclea and 
other Cochliopodids than the Liparidae (I have examined the vena- 
tion of Orgyia and Parorgyia). Lagoa has the same wide costal 
region of the fore wings as in Euclea, that of the Liparidae being 
very narrow ; the fiw^ branches of the subcostal vein are thrown off 
in nearly the same manner as those of Euclea and Limacodes. The 
discal veins and origin oi the independent (sixth subcostal) are 
almost precisely as in Euclea, and the four branches of the median 
vein are also similar in their mode of origin, and unlike those of 
Orgyia and Parorgyia. 

In the hind wings, as in the Cochliopodidae, there are ten veins, 
in the Liparidx only nine ; there are but two branches of the sub- 
costal vein ; the third branch being detached, so that there are two 
mdependent veins, one arising from the anterior, and the other 
from the posterior discal vein. In the Liparidai mentioned there 
is no independent vein at all. The four median veinlets have the 
same peculiarities in their mode of origin as in Cochliopodids and 
the same differences from the Liparidie. 

To sum up : in the superficial characters, of the imago, and in 
having in the larva abdominal legs, Lagoa resembles the Liparid:e, 
but in all its essential characters, those of the egg, larva, pupa and 
imago, it belongs with the Cochliopodidx\. except in the matter of 



the presence of abdominal legs in the larva. Oo thh 
seems fairly entitled to be regarded as the type of an independent 
group. We may either regard it as a generalized, ancient group o( 
Cochliopodidfe, ai>d refer it to a subfamily Ltgoinx, or we may 
boldly remove it altogether from either of the iwo families men- 
tioned and consider the genus as the representative of a distinct 
family and designate the group by the name of LagoiJa. This on 
the whole seems to ns to be perhaps the most Judicious course to 
pursue. At all events the insect Is plainly cnongh an ancient, 
ancestral, or generalized form. It is, so to speak, a primitire 
Cochliopodid with larval abdominal legs. It lays eggs like thoM 
of Limacodes, etc.; its head in the larval stnlc is concealed frow 
above by the prothoracic hood ; its larval armature is more of the 
Cochliopodid tyiie than Liparid ; eo arc ihe pupal characters and 
the nature of the cocoon ; and the shape of the important pans of 
the head and the essential features of the venation are overwheli 
ingly Cochlioix)did. Under the^e circuniHiances we feel jusiifiediK 
regarding Lagoa as a most interesting ancestral form, and as aflbfd^ 
ing arguments for considering the Bombyres asa whole asa 
ized and ancestral group, and epitomizing the other higher Lcp<do 
leroHs families somewhat as Marsupials do the placental orders 
mammals. 

The genus is peculiar to North and Sooth America, and nt 
rank uiih siicli forms as ihe colossal sioihs, and certain American 
vertebrate survivors of middle Tertiary times. In some respects it 
is intermediate between the Salurniidx, especially the higher Alta- 
cinre, and the Cochliopodidre ; its clypcus, and the larva, approach 
in some respects those of the Attacinse. 

[Note. 1 find since this paper was read to the Society that, ac- 
cording to Berg {Misce/laaea Lepitioptero/fgica, iSS^), Mcgalopyge 
of Hiihner preoccupies Lagoa. Berg also founded the familr 
Megalopy^iiitB, of which Lagoidas is a synonym.] 



> 




faatHip licf, F&lloi. Sot, 



Vol. n«i, Id, m, 




H\tp Inr, Phlln. Sit 




Armature, ctr., of Lngoa. 



i II [Paci-ard). 



Il 



ll 

\i 

•I 

r. 

I 



i 



'it 
I 

I 

1 



Jil 






II 



bA^ tner, Ptllii, Sdc 



iai,miiiti.m. 




f jew front Sidt of SeMMh Abdominal Segment if £• 



1! 



I 



■ i 



. I 



'■.■ 



m 

ill 



■ • ; 



3f 



1 1 



s:- 



1 



■r. ruta ^ 





Larva, Stage If, and Embryo of Bonbyt moH. 
{^Packard). 



"'\ 



I 



I* 




Strtioiit through the l.iteriil Otandiilar Proeama 

mrrr ^ 



"1! 


. 1 • 

-. 1 •■:■ 



1* 



:i 



293 



WU Mohammed Kbprulu Vezier geworden. 

Ein Guslarenlied der slavischen Mohammedaner im Herzogium, 

Aufgezeichftet^ verdeutscht and erldutert^ von Dr. Friedrich 

S, KrausSf in IVien. 

Unter den 190,000 Versen bosnischer, herzogischer und dalma- 

tischer Volkepen meiner noch ungedruckten Sammlung, besitze ich 

auch sechs grossere Epen im Umfange von mehr als 6000 Versen, 

c3ie die Eroberung des Ungarlandes bis hart an Niederosterreich 

durch die Tiirken zum Vorwurf der Behandlung haben und aus- 

^^hliesslich die Kampfe und Heldentaten des Reorganisators der 

<j^mals dem Zerfall nahen Tiirkei, Mohammed Kopriilus schildern. 

Wie den Freunden meiner wissenschaftllchen, ethnographischen 

Fbeiten bekannt ist, werden solche Epen von Leuten aus dem 

Ar'^oike zu einer Geige, die GusUn (plur.) heisst, vorgetragen, wonach 

<IIc Sanger Guslaren (Fiedelleute, Geiger) benannt werden. Es sind 

d i^s in den allerseltensten Fallen und nurausnahmweiseselbstsiandige 

II>icr titer, sondern einzig und allein Recitatoren von Epen, die sich 

ciiit-c^h miindliche Ueberlieferung seit Jahrhunderten im Volke bis 

aiu f" unsere Tage erhalten haben. 

^^^osnier und Herzoglander haben unter der Fahne des Islam an 
<i*^ir ^iederwerfung Ungarn teilgenommen. Die Blute der slavi- 
scrl^^ri Jugend war in den Reihen der Janicaren vertreten. Vor 
^^'^i liundert Jahren mochte es eine Zeitlang scheinen, dass halb 
teuropa bis vor die Tore von Wien der Serbisirung unterliegeri 
s. Wiiren jene kriegerischen Bewegungen wiihrend zweier 
J^-^rl^underte von einer intensiveren kulturellen Slromung des Sla- 
^^^^'^ t i_i ms begleitet gewesen, wie dies nicht der Fall war, so hiitte 
^^'^^r-^cheinlich ein Teil Europas ein politish ganz anderes Aus- 



-■^iir^geleitet ward die Bewegung voneinem der bedeutendsten liir- 

■^^sohi^n Slaatsmariner aller Zeiten, von dem creisen Mohammed 

"^^Pi'iilu. Sein Auftreten war fiir Jahrhunderie folgenschwer, und 

^s tst l<ein Wunder, dass die Nachkommen jener Krieger, die unier 

^ine K- Fiihrung gekiimpft, von jenen fiir sie gliicklichen Tagen noch 

^name-r- singen und sagen. 

^s ist bewunderungwiirdig, mit welcher Treue das Gedachtniss 



des Volkes ohne schrifiliche Bchdfe den Gang der Ercignisse jener 
Zeilen im Grossen und Gailzcn fcslgehalcen hat. Zum Vergleiche 
gebe ich im Commenlar die zuverlassi^en Bericliie zeii^jero^i-isclier 
osmtniicher tind abendllndiicbchiutiidier Hiitoricgi ip bei i ludt 
Hunmer-Purgstall uad Sdamos, bzw. don SiebntbOiiBa: Kn»- 

Wann tch in der Lage leia werde, mrio gtomfi* WeriE fiber Kfip- 
rlllQ zu ediien, weim ich noch nicht Wim idi hier darbiete, irt 
bloss etn Probestflck, cUs ich eigens znr tsc^rigen Jobelfeier der 
'" Americsn Philoiopfaical Society," deren Uit^icd ich lo sein die 
Ehrc babe, flberwltte. Die Publikation dea alaTtictaeD Teztei, die 
ohne cingeheDden philologiKheo Apparat nicht aDgueigt wire, 
beholie ich mir far mein Buch vor. Bemerkoi mm Ich jedoch, 
nm jeder Hivdeutung vonubeugen, dan dch die Verdeotachnng 
wdrfUtA an daa Original anschlieat. 

Lehrreicli ist anser Lied all eia Bci<ipiel, wte uch gioae Ereigniae 
in der Voratellung eines anf tiefer Cultnntnfe befindUdKn Volkei 
widerspiegein und als autfaentiicbes ZengniH ftbr mdktSmUche 
Sitten und Gebi&uche, McinuDgen and Anschainingeti. In dicMr 
Hinsicht sind die lOdslavischen Guslarenlleder f&r den Ethnogn- 
phen nicht minder werlvoU ala die altassyrischen, altgriechitcbeo, 
malayischen, finnischen und turkoiatarischcn Volkepen. Unserem 
Liede wohnt zum Ueberflusse auch ein nicht geringer poetischer 
Gehalt inne, weshalb ich der Hoffnung Raum gebe, es werde als 
bescheidene Feslgabe eines Vereingenossen aus weiter Feme, dera es 
zn seinem lebhaften Bedauern nicht moglich ist bei den Feierlich- 
keilen personlich anwesend zu sein, eine freundlichc Aufnahrae 
finden. 

Von Koprulu, dem Vau in Travnik. 

Ill Krankheil fiel der Sultan ijuleiman 
in seiner weissen Herrscherstadt Istambol 
auf seinem Throne wohl in seinens Keiche 
am dritten Tag des Monais Ramazan, 
5 wohl auf dem Schoosse Ibrahims des Sohnes. 
Er krankelte den ganzen Ramazan. 
Am Abend vor des Bajramfestes Anbruch, 
da sprach zu ihm der Sultan Ibrahim : 
— " O hor', mein Valer Sultan Suleiman ! 
lo du krankelst nun den ganzen RZtmazan ; 



295 

heut Abends vor des Bajramfestes Anbruch^ 

was meinst du nun, wirst du die Krankheit meistern ? 

wie? Oder meinst du, dass der Tod dir naht?" 
Darauf bemerkte ihm Sultan Suleiman : 
15 — ** Mein lieber Sohn, o Sultan Ibrahim ! 

bei Gott, die Krankheit iibersteh' ich nimmer, 

im Augenblicke werd* ich dir versterben !" 
Da spricht zu ihm der Sultan Ibrahtm : 

— *' O liebster Vater, Sultan Suleiman 1 
20 was schafft dir soviel Leid in deinem Sterben ? 

hat Leid dein Herz um diesen Ort des Heiles ? 

tut leid dir deine ganze Kaiserherrschaft ? 

tut leid dir um die I^len und Ridzalen, 

um deine Stellvertreter, die Veziere? 
25 oder um deine neun erwahlten Frauen ? 

Oder um mich den Sohn, den zarten Jiingling?" 
Da sagt zu ihm der Sultan Suleiman : 

— '* O du mein Sohn, o Sultan Ibrahim ! 

ich trag' kein Leid um diesen Ort des Heiles, 
30 und kenn' kein I^id um meine Kaiserherrschaft 

und hab' kein Leid um Lalen und Ridzalen 

noch um Veziere, meine Stellvertreter, 

noch um die neun erwahlten Sultaninnen, 

auch nicht um dich, mein Sohn, den zarten Jiingling ! 
35 Doch mir, o Sohn, am meisten liegt am Herzen : 

drei beste Stadte sind zuriickgeblieben 

in Kafirlianden, aber nicht in meinen ; 

die eine Erlau und die and're Ofen, 

dazu Seniendra lieferwiirts von Belgrad. — 
40 Auch lut's mir leid um Koi)riilu den Edlen ! 

Das war ein alter Diener seines Herrn ! 

Verriiter hatten ihn bei mir verliiumdet, 

ich hab- ihn dann geschickt in die Verbannung 

weit uber's Meer an hundert Lagerrasten ; 
45 zwolf Jahre sind seit damals schon veiflossen, 

und daruin werd' ich nun zu fiiih versterben ! 

Doch horch der Rede, Ibrahim, mein Sohn ! 

Sobald ich hier auf deinem Schooss' enlschlumm're, 

erscheinen hier die Hodzen und die Hadzi, 
50 die Mollah auch, es sammeln sich die Kadi ; 



296 



ausstatten wird man mich, o Sdhnchen Ibro, 

forttragen wird man mich, o Sohn, zum Grabmal, 

zum Denkmal auf dem Grab des heirgen AH, 

zum Inschriftstein der heiligen Talim, 
55 und dort, mein Sohn, dort wird man mich begraben, 

und auch ein Grabmal wird man auf mich setzen. 
Du aber flieh davon von meinem Grabmal ! — 

Und wie du kommst zum Thron und Reichpalaste 

verschliess dich in den festen Kafig, Sohn ! 
60 Bald kommen nach die Hodzen und die Hadzi 

und rufen dich,— du offne ihnen nicht ! 

Dann kommen nach die Mollah und die Kadi 

und rufen dich,— du offne ihnen nicht ! 

Dann kommen nach die Lalen und Ridzalen 
65 und rufen dich,— du offne ihnen nicht ! 

Dann, Sohn, dann kommen alle die Veziere, 

die hier mir Dienst geleistet in Istambol, 

und rufen dich, — du offne ihnen nicht ! 
Letzt kommen auch die Janicarenbaschen ; 
70 und rufen dich die Janicarenbaschen : 

'* O Sultan Ibrahim, Prophetensprossling ! 

Magst du sclbst uns die Thiire nicht eroffnen?" 

Dann cndlich riegele auf des Kiifigs Thiire; 

dich nt'hnicn drauf die Janirarenbaschen 
75 und hiillon dich in des Pruphetcn Mantel, 

und si ill pen dir aufs Haupt die goldene Miitze 

nnd setzen dich auf meinen Platz hinauf ! 

Traun ! sie crhebcn dich zum neuen Kaiser ! 
Ks werdcn alle Lalen und Rid/alen 
80 und die Vczicro und die Stellvcrtreter, 

getiihrt voni Sigelhiiter, hier erscheinen, 

an seiner Seile Pasc ha Scidi. 

Das wird wohl gut drei weisse Tage wahren, 

und Wunder nimnit's die Lalen und Ridzalen, 
85 was wohl der neue Kaiser wird verordnen, 

was fiir Krliissc nun er wird verkiinden. 
Aufjainmernd wird dor Sigelhiiter fragen : 

— 'M) (juade, Kaiser, o Prophetenspi()Ssling ! 

was spannst du uns drei weisse Tag' auf Foller ! 
90 gevvahr uns hier Hescheid nach Lust und Liebe!" 



297 



Dann, Kaiser, sprich mit leiser Stimme also : 
" Wer unter Euch ist Koprulu der Vezier?*' 
Zur Antwort gibt dir wohl der Sigelhiiter : 
" Hier weilt dir nicht Herr Koprulii der Vezier ; 
der Vezier ist schon hoch betagt bei Jahren, 
der Vezier weilt auf seinem Meierhofe.** 

Darauf entgegne du dem Sigelhiiter : 

*' Den Vezier her, sonst hau* ich dir das Haupt ab !" 
Der Siegelhiiter wird darob erschrecken, 
er wird betroffen, fassunglos verstummen ; 
nun wird dir sagen Pascha Seidi : 
— " O Gnade, Kaiser, o Prophetensprossling ! 
o weh, dein Vater selbst hat ihn verbannt, 
ach ! liber's Meer an hundert Lagerrasten ; 
zwolf Jahre sind seitdem schon hingeflossen. 
Gewahr uns einen Ferman mit dem Namen, 
^ewahr uns auch die Frist von vierzig Tagen, 
^ir schaffen dir den Vezier her zur Stelle !** 

O Sohn, erteil den Ferman mit dem Namen, 
sie werden dir den Hodza her verschaffen. 

Und wann dir anlangt Koprulu der Vezier, 
sprich so zu ihm, mein Sohnchen Ibrahim : 
•' O alter Lala meines teu'ren Vaters ! 
xnein Vater tauschte diese Welt mit jener, 
doch liess bei mir er einen Gruss fiir dich. 
Cehort mir auch das ganze Kaiserreich, 
ist die Vervvaltung, Koprulu, doch dein ! 
X.ass Erlau uns erobern und auch Ofen, 
cJazu Semendra tiefer warts von Belgrad ! 
^rfullen wir des Vaters VVunsch und Willen !** 

Da tauschte friih' er diese Welt mit jener. 
O weh ! so sprach der Sultan Suleiman ; 
o weh ! er starb auf seines Sohnes Schoosse, 
und jammernd schluchzte Sultan Ibrahim. 

Es sammeln sich sie Hodzen und die Hadzi, 
es kommen an die Mollah und die Kadi, 
sie statten aus den wackersten der Kaiser 
und tragen fort den Kaiser hin zum Grabmal, 

iOC. AMEB. PH1L08. SOC. XXXII. 143. 2 L. PRINTED FEB 5, 1894. 




ja wohl, zum Grabesmal des heil'gen Ali, 
130 zum Sauleiisiein der heiligen Falim. 

Sie bargen Sullan Suleiman ins Grab 

und slellten iibcr ihm ein Grabmal auf. 
Da floh davon der Sultan Ibrahim 

und schloss sich eiti in seinem festen Kafig. 
135 Nun kommen her die HodXen und die Hadii 

und rufen ihn, er soil die Thiir' eroffncn, 

doch mag cr ihnen nieht die Thiir eroffncn, 
Dann rufen ihn die MoUah tind die Kadi, 

er&Saea mag er ihaea aidtt die TJiiJr. 
140 Dranf mfen ibc die lalen and lUdzalea, 

selbtt thnea ri^elt er nicht anf die Tlt^. 
£• nah'n die StdlTcrtTeter, die Vnieie, 

erfiffiiea ni^ er ihoen nicht die Thtk. 
Letzt ntfen ihn die Janicarenbtsdien : 
145 — " O Solum Ibrahim, PropbetenipriMhigl 

magBt do selbit luu die Thflre nicht erdffiWD ?** 

Nod schlcM aich lur der Saltan IbnUttm ; 

es Dahnwo ibn die JanicarentMuchen, 

und hUllten ihn in des Propheten Mantel 
150 und stUlpten auf sein Haupt die gold'ae MQtze 

und (rugen ihn zum Thron und Reichpalaste 

und setzten ihn wohl auf den Kaisersiuhl, 

und, traun, erhoben ihn zum neuen Kaiser I 
Zum Divan nah'n die Lalen und Rid^len 
tss und die Veziere, seine Stellvertreler, 

an ihrer Spilze sleht der Sigelhiiter, 

an seiner Seite Pascha Seldi, 

So harrten sie vor ihm drei weisse Tage, 

und bald geraten sie in machtig Wundern : 
160 " Was wird der neue Kaiser uns verordnen ? 

" was (tlr Eriasse wird er uns verkiinden?" 
Aufjammernd sprach zuletzt der SigelhUter : 

— " O gib Bescheid uns, Kaiser von Islambol !" 

Nun sprach das Wort der Sultan Ibrahim : 
165 — " Wer ist mir hier Herr KopriilQ der Vczier ?" 

Darauf enigegnet ihm der Sigelhiiier; 

— '* FUrwahr, der Vezier ist schon sehr gealtert, 

er weilt auf seinem grossen Meierhofe 1" 



299 

Darauf zu ihm der Sultan Ibrahim : 



f > 



— ** Den Vezier her, sonst hau' ich dir das Haupt ab ! 

Vor Furcht erbebend steht der Sigelhiiter 

und schweigt beklommen, spricht kein einzig Wortchen, 

Da nahm das Wort der Pascha Seidi : 
— ** O Gnade, Kaiser, o Prophetensprossling ! 
Dein Vater schickte fort ihn in Verbannung, 
weit liber's Meer an h under t Lagerrasten, 
zwolf Jahre sind seitdem schon hingeflossen. 

Gewahr uns einen Ferman mit dem Namen, 
gewahr' uns eine Frist von vierzig Tagen, 
wir schaffen dir den Vezier her zur Stelle ; 
dann sitzst du da, dein Vezier steht vor dir !*' 

Der Kaiser gab den Ferman mit dem Namen 
und liess auch eine Frist von vierzig Tagen. 

Es nahm der Pascha Sei'di den Ferman, 
nach aller warts zerstiebt sodann der Divan. 

Schnellfiissig rennt der Pascha Seidi, 
er rennt in das Tatarenheim des Kaisers 
und fragt nach Idris, nach dem Hof-Tataren, 
dem allerflinksten Hofcourrier des Kaisers. 
Drauf gibt er ihm den Ferman mit dem Namen, 
und kiisst und herzt auf beide Wangen ihn : 
— ** O Idris, sei durch Gott mir wohlverbriidert ! 
renn schleunigst, such mir auf den Kopriilii 
und iiihr* ihn her vor unsern wackeren Kaiser ! 
Du hast, o Sohn, die Frist von vierzig Tagen !" 

Da hieng sich Idris um die Reisetasche, 
verbarg den Ferman wohl in seiner Tasche 
und schwang im Nu sich auf das schnelle Ross. 

Ei, rennt da hurtig der Tatar des Kaisers 
und kommt gerannt zur dicken Flut des Meeres, 
am Meergestade steigt er ab voni Rosse. 

Ein schnelles Ruderschi fi" empfieng ihn allda, 
drin liess sich der Tatar des Kaisers nieder 
und schlug mit Handen auf den jungen SchifTer: 
— '* Fahr rascher zu, sonst hau' ich dir das Haupt ab !*' 
Ei, schnell durchfurcht das Schiff des Meeres VVellen ! 



300 



Sobald aU er das diclte Meer verlassen 
und auf der Iroek'iien Erde Fuss gefasst, 
so schwang er sith auf's vorbereilet Rosslein 
und jagle hin deni kalten Meer entiang. 
Friihzeitig war's, noch vor der lieben Sonne, 
als seine dunklen Augen dort erschauten, 
als sie am Strand des ktihlen Meers gewahrlcn 
wohl einen liochbeiagten, alien Herrn ; 
der Bart so weiss und silvergrau das Haupt 
und seinen Korper schmiickt ein grtlner Rork ; 
er schiirzt auf seintn Armen auf die Aermcl, 
urn jusl die lilrk'sche Waschung vorzunehnicn. 

Da rief ihin der Tatar den liirk'schen Gruss zu. 
Der Greis bedankie sich mit Gegengru&s 
und Thranen perlfen Qber seinen Batt, 
so wie von Tannen/.wcigen Regentropfen, 

Darob sich wundert der Tatar des Kaisers 
und halt ira I.auf sein athnelles Rosslein an : 
— " Ehrwilrd'ger Greis. so lieb dir beide Wellen, 
warum soviel vergiesst du grause Tluanen ?" 

Auljammernd gab zur Antworl ilim der Greis: 
— "Ach weh ! wie sollt' ich keine denn vergiessen ! 
zwdlf Jalire sind schon wohl dahingeflossen, 
dass keinen SuUanboten ich erschaut, 
noch einen Sultanferman an dem Boten ! 
Wie viele hab' ich selber ausgefertigt 
am Hof des Kaisers Sultan Suleimans ! 
Doch sprich, wie weit bemuhst du dich, niein Sohn, 
und Iriigst den Ferman, jagst die schnellen Pferdc?" 

Da spricht der Mann : " Ich such' den Kopciilti !" 
Daraut bemerkt der Greis mit leiser Stimme: 
— " Der Vezier KOpriilii, der bin ich selber !" 

Vom Rosse schwang sich der Tatar des Kaisers 
und zog herausden kaiserlichen Ferman 
und iibergab ihn Vezier Koprulii. 
Der Vezier kiisste gleich dreimal den Ferman 
und liess ihn niedfir auf den griiuen Rasen. 
Dann nahm er vor mit sich die tUrk'sche Waschung. 
Sonach enlfaltet er des Kaisers Ferman 
und liest ihn und vergiesst dariiber Thranen. 



301 



Der Ferman mit dem Namen sagt ihm namlich : 

** O Kopriilii, du kaiserlicher Kariipe, 

" komm schnellstens nach Istambol in die Stadt !** 

Es sprang sofort der Vezier auf die Beine 
und gieng zum Schiff hinab mit dem Tataren ; 
sie setzten sich ins schnelle Schiff hinein. 

Der SchifTer gab dem Schiff den schnellsten Lauf. 
Sie schifften crliicklich liber's dicke Meer, 
und als sie auf das trock'ne Land gelangten, 
so schwangen sie sich auf die fcisten Pferde. 

Es rennt viel schneller der Tatar des Kaisers, 
es rennt ihm nach der Vezier Kopriilii, 
er rennt und rennt und schreit auf den Tataren : 
— ** Gemach, gemach, o Idris Hof-Tatare ! 
o meine Knochen sind im Leib zerbrochen, 
und meine Kleidung ist mir auch zerschlissen, 
den Dienst versagen mir auch meine Hande, 
und beide Fiisse sind mir abgefallen, 
ich kann mich nicht behaupten mehr, o Sohn !** 

Darauf entgegnet der Tatar des Kaisers: 
— ** Ach tummele dich, o Herr, so Gott dir lieb ist ! 
ivofern mir vierzig Tage Frist verstreichen 
"und du in Stambol in der Stadt nicht anlangst, 
so fliegt von meinem Leib das Haupt herab !" 

Drauf sagt zu ihm der Vezier Kopriilii : 
— "Sei ohne P'urcht, o Idris Hof-Tatare, 
solange mit dir der Vezier Kopriilii ! 
o Tropf, dich sabelt nictit der Kaiser nieder, 
o junger Freund Tatar, schon mir zu Liebe, 
^nd bleibst du aus auch voile hundert Tage !" 

So sprachen sie und ritten ihre Rosse, 
l)is sie nach Stambol in die Stadt gelangten. 

*** 

Sobald der Vezier vor den Kaiser hinkam, 
so flog er zu des Kaisers Rockschooss hin, 
der Kaiser aber fieng ihn bei der Hand : 
■ — " Halt ein, halt ein, du mein getreuer Diener, 
tiu brauchst dich meinem Kleide nicht zu nahen ! 
mein Vater, als er diese Welt vertauschte, 
so liess er einen Gruss bei mir fiir dich. 



Wohl tnetn ist insgesamtnt das Kaiserreich, 
doeh dein ist die Verivallung in Islambol I 
Erobern miissen Erlau wir uiid Ofen, 
dazu Semfindra lieferwarts von Belgrad ! 

ago " O Jammer, Herr, drei kaiserliche SladtCj 
und aUc drei in Kafirhand vcrblieben [ " 

Drauf tausclUe ftiih' er dieae Welt mil jener. 
Lass uns des Kaisers Siadte drei erobern, 
erfilUen wir's aus Liebe filr den Toten !" 

agS Der Kaiser zicht heraus das Raiseriigel, 
reicht dar das Sigel Kopriilil detn Veiier, 
dass ihm der Veeier Sigelbiiter sei. 
Es schlagl das Sigel aus Herr Koprlilii ; 
denn schon dreimal besass er's Kaisersigel, 

300 und hatt' es auch dreima! ziirijckgestellt. 

— " Hah ein, halt cin, o liebster Padischah ! 
cs halt nicht leicht den Blick auf dich zu werfcn, 
geschweige denn mil dir zu unierreden, 
doch heute gilt's ein mannlich Wort zu reden. 

305 O Padischah ! dein Sigel nchm' idi nimmcr, 

und nitnmer mag ich etwas dir verwalten, 

wofern du meinen Willen nicht erfiilUt, 

den ich, o Kaiser, dir nun sagen werdc!" 

Darauf zu ihm der Sultan Ibrahim : 

310 — " O sag's heraus, mein Vezier Kopriilii, 

nur frisch heraus, was dir am Herzen liegl !" 
Da spricht zu ihm Herr Kiiprulu der Vezier : 
— " Willst du Genehmigung mir hier gewahren, 
und was du sagst, auch nimmer widerrufen ?" 

315 — "So sei's, bei Gott, o Vezier Kopriilil, 

der Kaiser spri(ht's, — dem Kaiser ziemt nicht Luge !' 

Da hub der Vezier also an zu sprechen : 
— " Gewiihr mir freie Hand auf vierzig Tage, 
was ich auch tu, dass du's mir nichl verkUrzest!" 

jzo Er gab ihm freie Hand auf vierzig Tage, 
er miige lun, was immer ihm gefalie. 

Nun kehrt zuriick der Vezier Kopriilil 

und ruft herbei den Pascha Seidi : 

— " Wohlan, so fiihr' mir her der Rufer vier !" 



303 



325 Es kamen hin sogleich der Rufer vier. 

Da sagte laut Herr Kopriilii zu ihnen : 

— '* Vier Herolde, so horcht auf meine Worte : 

zieht aus und ruft in Stambol in der Stadt : 
** Soviel es immer gibt in Stambol Lalen, 
330 '* soviel als Lalen und soviel Ridzalen, 
*' dazu Veziere, Kaiserstellvertreter, 
" vor alien doch der alte Achmedaga, 
** das Oberhaupt von alien den Vezieren, 
** das Alterhaupt von alien den Ridzalen, 
335 ** der holier sleht denn alle and'ren Lalen, — 
** in die Moschee des Kaisers, in die alte, 
"in die Moschee, die alte, solt Ihr kominen ! 
** Es traf der Kaiser solcher Art Verliigung; 
'•denn einen Kriegzug will der Kaiser lUhren, 
340 " hier muss er Gold verteilen unter Euch !" 

Vier Herolde nun liefen fort behende, 

drei weisse Tage lang erscholl ihr Rufen, 

sie kamen dann zum Vczier Kopriilu: 

— ** O Kopriilii, du alter Kaiserdiener, 
345 in der Moschee, der alien, sind sie alle!" 
Da sprang er auf, der Vezier Kopriilii, 

und rief zusammen dreissig Henkerknechte 

und obenan den Henkerbascha Ibro. 

Zu ihm nun sprach der Vezier Kopriilii : 
350 — '* O Henkeroberhaupt von dreissig Henkern, 

so lass uns geh*n zu der Moschee, der alten ; 

wir bleiben steh*n vor der Moschee, der alten ; 

wer auch drin weilt in der Moschee, der alten ; 

und heil aus der Moschee herauskommt, Ibro, 
355 und heil sein Haupt auf seinen Schultern forttragt, 

dann wird dein Haupt dir abgesabelt, Ibro! 

Drum iibergeh* in Schonung Niemands Haupt!** 
Sie stiegen zur Moschee, zur alien, nieder. 

Aufstellung nahmen dort die dreissig Honker, 
360 an ihrer Spitze Henkerbascha Ibro, 

und ihm zur Seite Vezier Kopriilii. 

Zur Thiire sandten sie nun einen Herold, 

der Herold rief vor der Moschee, der alten : 

— ** O kommt heraus aus der Moschee, der alten ! 



304 



Der Kaiser ruft euch aufs Geslade fauig !" 

Es driingten sich die Lalen und Ridxalen 

und die Veziere, KaiserslellverCreter; 

Trat wer heraus aus der Moschce, der alten, 

flujjs stand nichi mehr sein Haupt auf seinen Schulicnx 

Verlassen hatten alle die Moscliee, 
nor einer fehit, der Lala Achmedaga, 
der Obrisllala alter der 'Ridjalen, 
das Alterhaupi von alien den Vtzieren. 

Da schrie laut auf der Vezicr Kopiulil: 
— " So geh' hinein deiin, Hetikerbascha Ibro, 
geh' raal hinein in die Moschee, die alle, 
heraus mir filhr' den Lala Athmedaga !" 

Mao hurt den Lala Achmedaga wimmern : 
— " O Henfcerliau[iimann, sei durch Gott mein Sohn I 
o raub mir von den Scimllern nicht das H3ii|)(, 
dann geh' ith schon vor die Moschee, die alle I" 

Daraiif entgegnet Henkerhanplmann Ibro: 
— " Cell' frohen Mnt's, o alter Achmedaga I" 

Es schlich heraus der alte Achmedaga, 
sein Bart ist weiss und silbergrau sein Haupt, 
kein Zahn ist niehr in seinem Mund vorhanden, ^^h 
auf seinem Kopf ein alter weisser Turban. ^^B 

Den Sabel schwang der Henkerbascha Ibro, 
er schwang den Siibel, schlug ihm ab das Haupt ; 
es fiel sein Haupt in's griine Gras hinab 
und von dem Haupie fiel lierab der Turban. 

Am Haupte sieh I die Kreuze und Marien, 
Dazu am Haupte Kreuze in Quadraten ! 

Dem Vezier Kopriilii enlsiUrlzlen Thranen 
und Athmedagas Haupt vom Boden hob er auf: 
— " Gedankt sei Gott, der heut'ge Tag gepriesen, 
ich sah das Hau])t des alten Achmedaga ! 
Der da, der hat gemacht niich zum Verbannten 
durch Ranke bei dem Sultan Suleiman, 
weit iiber's Meer an hundert Lagerrasten, 
zwolf Jahre sind seiidem schon hingeflossen I 

Der Sultan Suleiman, der ist verschieden, 
und hinterblieben Sulian Ibrahim. 
Der Sultan Ibrahim, der Hess mich kommen; 




305 

ich werde seinem Vater Dienste leisten, 
dem Toten werd* ich eine Lieb' erweisen !" 

*** 

Dann lief er hin zum wackersten der Kaiser, 
das tote Haupt, das trug er in den Handen 
und warf es hin vor Sultan Ibrahim ; 
es kollerte ganz nah zum Knie des Kaisers : 
— " Hier, Kaiser, schau dir deinen Erzvenater ! 
dass, Kaiser, ist dir mein geschwor'ner Feind ! 
Der wehrt uns ab von Erlau und von Ofen 
und von Semendra tieferwarts von Belgrad ! 
Er war's der mich geschickt in die Verbannung. 
So wollt' es Gott, er musst' sein Haupt verlieren ! 

Nun werd* ich dir mit meinem Rate dienen 
und deinem Vater eine Lieb' erweisen. 
Schreib*, Kaiser, einen Ferman mit dem Namen !" 
Da schrieb der Kaiser einen Namenferman. 
Noch spricht zu ihm der Vezier Kopriilii : 
— " O send' ihn ab ins lehm'ge Land der Bosna 
nach Sarajevo in die weisse Stadt, 
zu Handen Rustanbegs des Glaubenstreiters, 
ausheb' er Mann und Ross im Bosnaland ! 
Und leg*s in deinem Ferman ihm ans Herz, 
den einz*gen Sobn der Mutter nicht zu nehmen, 
ins kaiserliche Heer ihn nicht zu pressen; 
auch jenen, der sich kiirzlich erst beweibt, 
er soil auch solchen Mann in Ruh' belassen ; 
denn jammerklagend bleiben sonst die Mutter, 
und junge Edelfrau'n verbleiben weinend 
und fluchen dir, o Sultan Ibrahim 
und jenem Mann, der seiches angeordnet ; 
du hast's befohlen, angeordnet ich. 
Ein schlimmer Segen konnte heim uns suchen I 
Er soil das ganze Bosnaland erheben, 
von jedem Dorf je zwei bewehrte Mannen, 
von jedem Markt je sieben reis'ge Kiimpen. 
Dann soil das machtgewalt'ge Heer, o Kaiser, 
auszieh'n, o Sultan, unter Temtsvar, 
dort wo die Save in die Donau miindet 

^OC. AMER. PHILOS. 80C. ZXXII. 143. 2 M. PRINTED JAN. 30, 1894. 



30S 

und unterhalb der neissen Stadt von Ofen ; 
vor allera woUen Ofen wir erobern. 
Jetzl aber schreib noch einen andren Ferman, 
und lass ihn abgeh'n in das Land des Herzogs 
za Handen Ljubovits dcs edlen Begs, 

Er soil das ganze Herzogland erheben, 
nur nehm' er nicht den einz'gen Sohn der MuHcr, 
noch jenen, der sich kiirzUch erst beweibt ; 
sonsl jammern alle Miitier ach und wehe, 
und junge Fraucn breclicn aus in Thranen 
und fluchen dir, deni Kaiset von Istambol, 
und jenem Mann, der aolches angeordnet ; 
von dir ist der Befehl, von mir die Weiaung ; 
ein schlinimer Segen kcinnte beim tins suchen 1 
Wann er das ganzc Herzogland erhebt, 
von jedem Dorfe nehm' er je zwei Mannen, 
von jedem Markt je sieben reis'ge K^mpen." 
Der Kaiser machte nun den Ferman feriig. 
Da nahm das Wort der Vezier Kopriilii : 
— " Geduld ein wenig. Sultan Ibrahim ! 
bis ich die zwei Fermane abgesendet, 
den einen g'radenwegs ins lehm'ge Bosna 
nach Sarajevo in die weisse Stadt, 
den and'ren aber in das Herzogland." 

Es eiil in das Tatarenheim des Kaisers 
der Vezier, rilstet junge zwei Tataren 
und sendet ab des Kaisers zwei Fermane. 



> 



Es zogen fort die schnelten zwei Fermane. 

Der eine stieg hinab nach Stadt Sarajevo 

zu Handen Rusianbegs des Glaubenstreiters. 

Ersclireibl das Aiifgebol ins Bosna Kotland, 

doch heischt er nicht nach dem Geheiss des Fermaos 

von jedem Dorf nur je zwei reis'ge Mannen, 

von jedem Markt je sieben reis'ge Kampen ; 

er heischt vielmehr nach cigenem Belieben, 

von jedem Dorf je sieben reis'ge Mannen, 

dazu von jedem Markt je sieben Fahnlein. 

Auch bol er auf den einz'gen Sohn der Mutter 

und auch den Mann, der jiingst sich erst beweibt. 



307 



Der zweite stieg hinab ins Land des Herzogs. 
Es bietet auf das Heer Beg Ljubovic 
und halt sich auch nicht ans Geheiss des Fermans ; 
485 er schreibt vielmehr nach eigenera Belieben 

und heischt vom Dorf je sieben reis'ge Mannen, 
dazu von jedem Markt je sieben Fahnlein. 

So bot er auf den einz'gen Sohn der Mutter 
und auch den Mann, der kiirzlich sich beweibt. 

490 Dann sprach das Wort der Vezier Kopriilii : 

— ** O hor* mich, Kaiser, hor' mich Padischah, an ! 
im Bosnaland, ist immerdar ein Notstand 
und die BoSnjaken sind bediirft'ge Helden. 
Ach, tatst du. Kaiser, meinen Rat befolgen, 

495 entscnden Geld fiir sie zur Reisezehrung, 
dass jeder folgen konnt' im Heereszuge !** 
Gleich macht der Kaiser bares Geld bereit, 
Maultiere lasst er, Freund, damit beladen 
und schickt sie in die Stadt nach Sarajevo 

500 gerad zu Rustanbeg, dera Glaubenstreiter, 
dass jeden Helden er damit beteile, 
auf dass es jedem moglich sei zu folgen. 

Es zogen fort aus Stambol aus der Stadt 
nach Sarajevo all* die Maultierlasten. 

505 An einem Freitag war's. Der Glaubenstreiter 
Beg Rustan war in der Moschee und eben 
verliess nach dem Gebet er die Moschee, 
als zur Moschee die Maultierlasten kamen. 
Am ersten hiingt die Meldung, fein geschrieben. 

510 Was mag ihm wohl die feine Meldung sagen ? 
ein Maultier schnaubt das andre Maultier an ; 
wie's erste vor die Hauptmoschee gelangte, 

V 

am End* der Cemalu^a stand das letzte. 
Es trieb sie fort der Glaubenstreiter Rustan ; 
515 dort auf dem Abhang lud er ab die Schatze 
und teilte auf dem Abhang aus die Schatze, 
beteiligte den letzen gleich dem besten, 
doch jeden rccht, als wie den eig'nen Bruder. 



306 



Dann sprach das Wort der Vetier KoptSia : 
510 — "So Us das Heet ans ats I^ambol schicken !" 
Fort nog du Heer avs Isambol lus dcr Sudt 
uod lies iich okcdcT tintcr Tcme^var, 
don ao die Sarc in die Donau mSndet. 

Wohl DDlMhatb der wetssen Sudl vod Ofcn, 
515 don lagette das He«r rwei rolle Monde. 

Bald kam aoch Ru^taolieg der GUubrostreiler 
und bnchtc mit das game vQste Bosna. 
Oana batrlen sic wohl einen vollen Monat, 
bb Ljxibo<ric der Beg hioiugesiDssen 
5JO nnd hiDgebrachl das ganze Hcrzogland. 

Ste Aochtcn (ur 4ea Rampr die SchuUgeflecbtc 
and pfUnuten auf die Rider Feldlunaunen 
uod schlugeo ein den Weg zum weissen Ofen. 
Vicr Monde Uog sic Ofcn bombardierten 
5^5 uber die Save uod den Donauslrom 

und waren nicht ini Stand, det Stadt ui schadcn, 
nicht Kaik, nidit Stein der Maner abzincMsgcn, 
geschweige denn den Mauenrall zn brecben, 
und wis=i?n c.ii I'ii-'^!, ivc A.\- F^■=•vIip:'■r 
540 Da sprach Herr Rustanbeg, der Glaubenstreiter : 
— "So lasst uns eine Weile hier verweilen 
und lasst uns einen Mcldungbrief entsenden 
nach Stanibol in die weissgetunchte Stadt 
zu uns'res Kaisers glilckumstrahlten Throne, 
545 zu Handen uns'res Sultans Ibrahim 

und seines Grossveziets, des KopriilU!" 
Sie folgten Rustanbeg, dem Glaubeostreiler, 
und stellten ein der Kriegkanonen Donnem. 
Der Beg verfasst den feinen Mcldungbrief 
550 und ruft herbei den flinksien der Tataren : 

— " Aufs Pferd hinauf, da nimm den Meldungbrief 
und trag ihn fort nach Slambol in die Sladt 
zum gluckumstrahUen kaiserlichen Throne ! 
Und irr' dich etwa nicht, mein guter Junge, 
555 und iiberreich' ihn keinem and'ren Manne 
als nur allein dem Kaiser in Isiambol, 
falls nicht zur Hand der Vezier Koptiilii ; 
du wirst schon sehen, was das Brie fc hen' sagt. " 



309 

Aufs Ross sich schwang der schnelle Feldtatar 
und nahm den feinen Meldungbrief entgegen 
und floh davon aus Temesvars Gemarkung. 
Er jagt den Schlachtenzelter wild und wiitig 
und jagt mit ihm nach Stambol in die Stadt 
zura gliickumstrahlten kaiserlichen Throne. 

Er steigt vom Pferd herab und nimmt den Brief, 
rennt grad zum Throne hin und Reichpalaste, 
wo Sultan Ibrahim im Glanze thront. 
Beraerkt hat ihn der Vezier Kopriilii, 
der eben in des Kaisers Nahe weilte ; 
der Vezier sprang vom Bolster auf die Beine 
und hielt des Kaisers Feldtataren auf: 
— " So wart, Tatar, du sollst den Kopf verlieren, 
bis ich den wack'ren Kaiser erst befragt, 
ob's dir gestattet wird, vor ihn zu treten ! 
Es war' doch schad, du stiirbst so jung an Jahren !" 

Da blieb der Feldtatar des Kaisers stehen. 
Dann fragt ihn noch Herr Kopriilii der Vezier : 
— ** Woher des Wegs? aus welchem Orte bist du?** 
Und der Tatar, der stand ihm Red* und Antwort : 
— ** Aus weiter Feme, unter TemeSvar, 
allwo die Save in die Donau mundet, 
allwo des Kaisers ganzes Heer gelagert 
und obenan der Glaubenstreiter Rustan. 
Ich bring* da einen feinen Meldungbrief.** 
Drauf sprach das Wort Herr Kopriilii der Vezier : 
— **Gib her den feinen Meldungbrief, Tatare !*' 
Doch spricht zu ihm der schlanke Feldtatare : 
— '* Mir aus dem Weg, du kaiserlicher Schranze ! 
dir geb* ich nicht den feinen Meldungbrief, 
dem Kaiser nur allein zu eig*nen Handen ; 
wo nicht, nur einem sicher'n Kopriilii !** 
Es lachte satt sich Vezier Kopriilu, 
nahm an der vveissen Hand den Feldtataren 
und fiihrt* ihn vor den wack'ren Kaiser hin. 

Da nimmt den Meldungbrief der Feldtatare 
und uberreicht ihn Sultan Ibrahim 
und rennt im Saal zuriick zur Eingangtiire. 

Darauf hub an der Sultan Ibrahim : 



310 

— "O Koptilla, o du mein aller Lala ! 
600 so lies mir vor den feinen Meldungbrief 1" 

Der Vezier Kopriilii den Brief beUttchlet, 

an seiner Seite Kaiser Ibraliim. 

— " Die Unterschrift : ' Beg Rustan Glaubenstreitcr,' 

er sandte diesen Brief zur Hand des Kaisers, 
605 Das, Kaiser, ist ein feiuer Meldungbrief! 

" Du wirst die Stadt von Ofen nie erobem. 
"Gat nichls vermogen wit der Stadt zu schadcn, 
"auch wissen wir nicht wo das Stadttor ist, 
"das gen die Save fiilirt und gen die Donau." — 
610 Uarauf bemcrkt der Vezier Kopiiilii : 

— " O hor micii an, du Kaiser von Islambol ! 

nun muss auch ich micli auf die Wander niaclien, 

auch du, mein Kaiser, musst nun Stambol lagsen. 

Wir muisen wandern hin nach Temeivar, 
615 damit wir seh'n was unser Heer verrichlet, 

ob wir im SUnde sind, was auszuricbten. 

Wir miissen, Kaiser, Ofen uns erobem, 

und, Kaiser, einen Licbedienst erwcisen, 

wohl deinem Valer Sultan Suleiman !" 
610 Darauf bemerkt der Sultan Ibrahim : 4 

— " Wie's immer dir beliebt, so handle, Vezier ! 

hab' ich's dir nicht schon lang vordera gesagt : 

das Kaiserreich ist mein, o guler Fteund, 

doch die Verwallung Vezier Kopriiliis ! 
625 dass Eriau wir erobem und auch Ofen, 

da^u Semcndra lieferwikrts von Belgrad !" 
Da sprang der Vezier hurtig auf die Beine 

und rilitete sich in der Stadt Islambol 

an seiner Seite Sultan Ibrahim. 
6jo Sie liinterliessen Seidi, den Pascha, 

als Stellvertreler eines wack'ren Kaisers, 

und zogen fort von Stambol aus der Stadt. 



So zog des Wegs der Ve/.ier Koprulii 
und neben ihm der Sultan Ibrahim. 
Sie stiegen nieder unter Temesvar, 
allwo die Save in die Donau miindet, 



) 




311 



allwo das tiirk'sche Heer im Lager stand, 

an seiner Spitze Rustan, Glaubenstreiter, 

aus Sarajevo aus der weissen Stadt, 

als Unterfeldherr Ljubovic der Beg, 

der mitten aus dem Herzoglande stammt. 

Und Heerschau halt der Kaiser von Islambol ; 

vier Lager bildete die ganze Heermacht. 

Da stellt die Frage Sultan Ibrahim : 

— " O KopriilU, du mein getreuer Diener, 

aus welchem Land ist jedes einzMne Heer?" 

Bescheid erteilt ihm Kopriilii der Vezier. 

Es spricht zu ihm der Sultan Ibrahim : 

— "Aus welchem Land ist jenes macht'ge Heer, 

dess* Volk mit Silber und mit Gold beladen, 

dess* Rosse reich mit Goldgeschmeid beladen?" 
Darauf bemerkt der Vezier Kopriilii : 

— ** Das ist das Aufgebot des eb'nen Bosna, 

dort sind allein dir alle die Bosnjaken.*' 
Da sagt ein Wort der Sultan Ibrahim : 
— '* O Kopriilii, du mein getreuer Lala, 
wohl steht nicht alles so, wie du mir's darstellst I" 

Darauf betroffen Kopriilii der Vezier : 
— "Was meinst du, Kaiser, sprich, so lieb dir Gott ist I" 
— "Du schilderst mir das Bosnaland als lehmig 
und die Bosnjaken als bediirft*ge Helden ; 
nun schau, die sind mit Goldgeschmeid beladen, 
und schau die Rosse, silberreich beladen !" 

Darauf bemerkt der Vezier Kopriilii : 
— " O hor* mich. Kaiser, an, was ich nun sage ! 
das ist ein leid*ger Brauch im Bosnavolk. 
Wo einer was besass, er hat's verschachert 

und gleich mit Gold und Silber sich behangen 
und unterm Leib ein Ross sich angeschafft, 
damit er, wann es gilt, ins Heer zu rucken, 
wenn*s Not tut deine Ehre hoch zu halten, 
gleich ausgeriistet seinen Mann die Stelle. 
Stiegst du hinab ins ebne Bosnaland, 
wo ihre Miitter sie zuriickgelassen, 
der seine Mutter, der die junge Schwester, 
und mancher, Kaiser, sein getreues Eh'lieb; 



i 



da sahsl du erst wie iiire H^user ausscbau'n ! 
Mil Zaunwerk sind sie nngsherum umflochteo 
iind obenauf mit Stroh bedeckt cin wenig; 

»8o da fehlt's an Kupfer — und an Holzgcschirr, 
man isst vielraehr aus irdenen Gef iissen !" 

Datauf bemerkt der Sulian Ibtahlm : 
— ■' Was fangen wir nun an niit unsenn Leben ? 
wie werden wir die Ofner Sladt beslOrmen ?" 

685 Darauf erwidcrt KcipriiliS der Ve/ier : 

— "So wan' ein wenig. Kaiser von Istambol t" 

Nun sucht er auf zwei junge Heeresrufer, 
sie rufen aus nach alien Hinimelstrichen : 
— " Wer wird als Held im Heere sich bewahren, 

690 wer kann die Donau und die Sau duTchschwireicnen, 
um bis tut Ofner Feslung hinzukommen, 
und wo der Feslung Tor ist, lu erkunden ?" 
So riefen aus die beiden juitgen Rufcr; 
ihr Rufen halUc zwci gc^chlag'ne Siundcn, 

695 doch mochte NJemand Bum Bescheid sicli meldcn. 
Da sprach ein Wort Herr Ljubovii der Beg, 
der nach dem Herzoglande sich benenni : 
— '* O KftpriilU, o leuerslcr Gebieier ! 
ich will die Donau uud die Sau durchschwiianacn 

700 uud unserm Kaiser etnen Dienst erweisen, 

und kelirt' ich nun und nimmermehr zurtick !" 

Si:lion wird er ab von seinem Leib die Kleidung. 
Er siiir/.i sich in den dicken Savestrom, 
durchscluvimnit die Save, lenkt zur Donau ein. 

705 Just war er in des Saveslromes Mitte, 

als ihm gar Wundereames dort begegnet: 
ein selttiam Miidchen sass im Savewasser, 
die Save abwarts sireckt' sie ihre Beine, 
sie hiilt auf ilirem Schooss ein Siickgcstelle, 

710 darilber liat sie aufgespannt ein Linnen. 
Und sie erschaule Ljubovic den Beg, 
crschaul" ihn wohl und sprach zu ihm das Wort: 
— '• Woliiu dcs Weges, Ljubovic, o Beg? 
hal dich der Kaiser gar geschickt nach Ofen, 

715 wohl um das Ofner Biirgior auszukunden? 

So kehr' nur um, du soUsi den Kopf veiliereni 



313 

den Savestrom, den kannst du nicht durchschwimmeny 

den raschen Savestrom, die breite Donau ! 
Kehr ruhig wieder um zum wack*ren Kaiser, 
720 bei ihm verweilt der Vezier KopriilU. 

Bring meinen Gruss dem Vezier KopriilU ; 

verbringt die Hebe Nacht auf freiem Felde 

und seid geriistet frilh beim Morgenanbruch. 

Darauf berate KopriilU den Vezier, 
725 er soil's gesammte Kaiserheer erheben, 

cin jeder nehm* die tUrk'sche Waschung vor, 

vor alien ander'n Sultan Ibrahim 

und gleich nach ihm der Vezier KoprUlU ; 

verrichtet Morgens fruh die Morgenbeugung. 
730 Und nach dera Fruhgebet der Morgenbeugung 

aufs weisse Ofen richtet eu'ren Blick, 

da werdet Ihr das Ofner Tor erschauen, 

und leichter MUh' die Ofner Stadt erobern !" 

Beg Ljubovic, der schaut die Maid verwundert, 
735 aus Gold die Hande bis zum Ellenbogen, 

und goldig wallt das Haar herab den Nacken. 

Im Nu verschwand auch schon das holde Madchen I 
Der Beg geriet gar machtig in Verwundrung, 

auf was fur Wunder er da aufgestossen, 
740 und machte Unikehr auf der eb'nen Save. 

Als er herauskam unter Temesvar, 

was spricht zu ihm der Vezier Koprulu? 

— *' Schon dort gewesen, Ljubovic, o Beg? 

hast gar so schnell die Save durchgeschwommen ?" 
745 Da nun erzahlt der Beg sein Abenteuer, 

welch wundersam Gebild er angetroffen. 

* 

So blieb denn hier zu Nacht das Heer gewaltig 
und war schon auf den Beinen fruh am Morgen. 
Sogleich erhob sich Vezier Koprulu. 
750 Das lurk*sche Heer, das nahm die Waschung vor, 
Allen voran der Sultan Ibrahim, 
und gleich nach ihm der Vezier Koprulu, 
und alle beugten sich zur Morgenandacht. 
Nachdem die Beugung sie verrichtet hatten, 

PROG. AMER. PHILOS. BOG. XXXII. 143. 2 N. riUMTKD JAN. 30, 1894. 




Drauf setzten sie die Heerraachl in Bewegung, 
foir Stundcn fiilirt der VVeg zum eb'nen EHau. 
Die Tiirlcen sturmten los nunmehr auf ErUu. 
Bei Gotl, das Christenheer empfieng sie i 
Allhier entspann sich bald ein blulig Ringen, 
und siebeii Slunden wahn das Schlachlgemetiel. 
Es klang in einem fori der krutnme Sabel. 
die laiigen Taler futllen sich mit Blut ! 
A!s let£t die Tiirken Erlau eingenommen , 
da hattcn sie auch Leichen viel^ gelassen 1 
Von hier ethob sich dann das Heer der Tiirken 
und stieg hernieder tieferwlirts von Beigrad. 
Sie griffen an die alle Stadt Sem^ndra, 
— die Chrislen hatien sie ?,iileizt erobert, 
bevorsie Erlau und auch Ofen halien, 
und sie mit bestem Mauerwall umgeben. — 
Sie wehren sich von viet bewehrten Seiten, 
und von Semendra drohnen die Kanonen. 
Daselbst erfuhr das Heer ein wenig Schaden ; 
vier Tage lang auch dauetCe das Kiimpfen. 
Hier ward verwundet Ljubovic der Beg, 
Man trug zu Grabe alle Tilrkenleichen, 
und auth Semendra nahmen ein die Tiirken. 
Von hier erliob sich dann das Heer der Turken, 
voraus als Fiihrer Sultan Ibrahim 
und hinter ibm der Vezier Kopriilii, 
ihm folgt Herr Ruslanbeg der Glaubenstrelter, 
in gleicher Reih' mit tlim Beg Ljuboviij. 
So stiegen sie htnab mm eb'nen Stambol, 
ziinx Tiiron des Kaisers und zum Reichpalast. 
Daselbst verweilten sie wohl einen Monat, 



> 



315 

entliessen allwarts hin das Heer der Tlirken, 
bezeigten ihre Lieb dem toten Kaiser, 
dem toten Kaiser Sultan Suleiman. 

Dann spricht das Wort der Sultan Ibrahim : 

— *' O Ljubovid aus meinem Herzoglande ! 

da nimm das ganze Herzogland entgegen ; 

ich werde nichts von dir an Steuer nehmen, 

nicht einen weissen Heller noch Denar, 

nur kurze Zeit hindurch, zwolf voile Jahre !'* 

Darauf zu Rustanbeg, dem Glaubenstreiter : 

— ** O Glaubenshort vom eb'nen Sarajevo ! 

zieh' heimwarts, Aermster, in die Stadt Sarajevo ; 

du hast ein neues Gotteshaus erbaut, 

doch ich bezahle, was du ausgegeben. 

Soviel als in Sarajevo Gotteshauser, 

dir sei die Oberaufsicht iiber jedes, 

vom Kirchengut der Stadt von Sarajevo, 

dass keine Steuern du entrichten magst 

wohl nach Istambol in die weisse Stadt, 

so lang in TUrkenhand das Bosnaland !" 

Und spricht zu Vezier Kopriilii gewendet : 
— ** Ja, Vezier, o du mein getreuer Lala, 
mit was fiir Gabe soil ich dich bedenken ?*' 
Darauf erwidert Vezier Kopriilii : 
— ** Was willst du, liebster Sultan Ibrahim ?" 
Darauf entgegnet Sultan Ibrahim : 
— ** Zieh g'raden Wegs ins lehm'ge Bosnaland 
und in die weissgetiinchte Stadt von Travnik, 
dort sei im Bosnaland mein Landesvogt !'* 
Zum weissen Travnik wandert hin der Vezier, 
der Glaubenstreiter in die Stadt Sarajevo 
und heim ins Herzogland Beg Ljubovic ; 
in seinem Reichpalast der Kaiser blieb. 

Erlauterungen. 

V. I. Die Volkiiberlieferung kniipft auch hier, wie sonst 

an den ruhmreichen Namen Suleiman II. an (1520-1566), 

dessen Regierung die tiirkische Machtentwicklung ihren Hohe- 



316 

punkt erreicht hatte. Sultan Ibrahlms Vorgiinger auf dem Thro 
war Miirad IV. und Nachfolger Mobammed IV. 

V. 33. LaUn un/l RidtaUn. — Lala liirk. Dkner. Ala Lehn* i 
wort auch bei den Bulgaren, Folen und Russen. Im serbischn.il 
nur fdr " Kaiserliciie Diencr," so z, B. (der Sultan sprichtj : 

lala moja, mubur sahibija, 
sto mi zemlje i gradove iJuvaX! 

O du mcio Diener, dn mein Sigclwahrcr, 

der du mein Stadt und Land inir wohl behittesi ! 



Divan cini care u Siambola 
za tri petka i tri poiicdiljka ; 
sva gospadu sebi pokupio, 
okupio pasc i vezire : 
— Lale luoje, paSe i veziri 1 

Divau bemft der Kaiaer ein in Stambol 
dreimal je Frtitags und dreimal je MoDiags; 
berief zu sicli die Herren allzumal, 
berief die Pasciien und Vezieren ein : 
— O meine Lalen, Pasciien und Veziere ! 

Ridial arab. itirk. Reisiger, Ubcrtragcr; hoher WUrdentrager 
zum redzal; albaneslsch : ridzal, Advokat, griecb. rhit%a!i. 

V. 25 u. 33. Neun erwahlte Fraue». — " Von dcn Frauen des 
Sultans Ibrahim fiihrten sieben den Titel Chasseki, d. i. der innig- 
sten Giinstlinginnen, bis zuletzt die achte, die beriihmte Telli, d, i. 
die Drahtige, ihm gar als Gemahlin ror alien angctraut ward, 
Eine andere liiess Ssadschbaghli, d. i. die mtt den aufgebundcnen 
Haaren, Jede diesersieben innigsten Giinstlinginnen hatte ihreo 
Hofstaat, ihre Kiaja, die Einkunfte cines Sandschalks als l^ntofTel- 
geld, jede hatte einen vergoldeten, mit Edelsteinen besetztea 
Wagen, Nachen und Reitzeug. Ausser den Sultaninnen Gilnstlicg- 
innen hatte er Sklavinnen Gunstlinginnen, deren zwei berUbmtesie 
die Schekerpara, d. i. Zuckerstiick und Schekerbuli, d. i. Zucker- 
buUe liiess ; jene ward verheiralel, diese aber stand zu hoch in der 
Gunsl, um je vetheiratel zu werden. Die Sultaninnen GUnstling- 
nnen eihielten Statilialterscharten zu ihTem Pantoffelgeld, die 



317 

Schiltzlinginnen Sklavinnen hatten sich die hochsten Staatamter 
vorbehalten." I. von Hammer- Purgstall, Geschichte des Osmanischen 
Reuhes^ Pressburg, 1835, ^> S. 255 f. 

Zu V. 37. Kafirhdnden, Im Texte : u Kaurina, tiirk. gjaur^ 
gjaviry aus dem arab. ci Kafir ^ pers. gebr^ der Unglaubige. 

V. 38-39. Die Nennung dieser drei Stadtenamen, sowie spater- 
hin Temcbvars hier eine dichterische Freiheit. Die Eroberung von 
Erlau (Egra) und Kanisza bilden Glanzpunkte der Regierung Mo- 
hammed III. (verstorben 22. Dezember 1603). Ueber Erlau vergl. 
Franz Salamon, Ungarn im Zeit alter der Turkenherrschaft (deutsch 
v. Gustav Turany), Leipzig, 1887, S. i25f. u. besonders S. i38ff. — 
Die Einnahme Ofens erfolgte im J. 1541. Soliman, der 1526 Ofen 
nicht besetzten wollte, nimmt es 1541 endgiltig in seine Hand. 
Im J. 1543 setzte er seine Eroberungen fort. Der Sultan nahm 
zuerst die Burgen Valp6, Sikl6s und Fiinfkirchen, darauf Stuhl- 
weissenburg und Gran. Bis 1547 gehorte den TUrken Peterward- 
ein, Pozega, Valpo, Essegg, Fiinfkirchen, Siklos, Szegszard, Ofen, 
Pest, Stuhlweissenburg, Simontonnya, Visegrad, Gran, Waitzen, 
Neograd und Hatvan ; jenseits der Theiss nur das einzige Szegedin, 
das sich im Winter 1542 freiwillig ergeben und als tiirkischer Besitz 
isolirt dastand. — Semendria (Szendro) versuchten die Turken im 
J- 1437 einzunehmen, um sich den wichtigen an der Donau gele- 
genen Schliisel des Morava-Tales zu sichern, aber das ungarische 
Heer unter Pongraz Szentmikl6si errang einen glanzcnden Sieg 
iiber sie. Als sich 1459 die Festung Semendria an Mohammed II. 
ergab, gelangten zugleich zahlrcichere kleinere Festungen in seine 
Gewalt. Serbien wurde zum Sandzak, und der Tiirke siedelte an 
Stelle der massenhaft in die Sklavcrei geschleppten Kinwohner, 
Osmanen in die Stiidte und fiihrte daselbst seine Verwaltung ein. 
X466 als Konig Mathias beschiiftigt war in Oberiingarn cinige Auf- 
riihrer zur Ruhe zu bringen, Ulsst ein tiirkischer Pascha seine Truppen 
in Serbien einriicken und nimmt durch Ueberrumpclung die Festung 
Semendria. Vergl. Dr. Wilhelm Fraknoi, Mathias CotvinuSy Konig 
von Ungarn^ Freib. i. Br., 1891, S. 7ofr. 

Zu V. 59. ^' Verschliess dich in den/es/en Kiifig.'' — **AIs nach 
Murads Verscheiden der Hof bedienten Schaar mit Freudengeschrei 
an die Thure des Kiifigs, d. i. des Prinzengemaches drang, um den 
neuen Herrn gliickwiinschend auf den Thron zu zichen, verram- 
melte Ibrahim die Thiir, aus Furcht, dass dies nur List des noch 
atmenden Tyrannen Murad sei, um ihn, den einzigen liberlebenden 



318 

Bruder so sicher ins Grab voraus zu schicken. Mit ehrfurchtvoller 
Gewalt wurde die Thiir erbrochen, und noch immer weigerte sich 
Ibrahim der Freudenkunde Glauben beizumessen, bis die Sultanin- 
Mutter Kosem (eine Griechin) selber ihn von des Sultans Tod ver- 
sicherte und ihre Versicherung durch den vor die Thiir des Kafigs 
gebrachten Leichnam bestatigte. Da begab sich erst Ibrahim aus 
dem Kafig in den Thronsal, empfieng die Huldigung der Veziere, 
Reichsaulen, Ulema und Aga, trug dann mit den Vezieren des 
Bruders Leiche selber bis ans Tor des Serai und ward hierauf nach 
altem Herkommen osmanischer Thronbesitznahme zu Ejub feierlich 
umgurtet." Bei J. v. Hammer, a. a. O., V, S. 2i5f., unter Beru- 
fung auf Rycauts Continuation of K nolle s If, p. 50. Die neu eroff- 
nete otomanische Pforte t. 458. 

Zu V. 75flf. Am neunten Tage nach der Thronbesteigung fand 
die Umgiirtung des Sabels in der Moschee Ejub in den durch das 
Gesetzbuch des Ceremoniels vorgeschriebenen Pormen des Aufzuges 
und der Feierlichkeiten statt. Mit Sonnenaufgang versammelten 
sich alle Klassen der Staaibeamten im ersten Hofe des Serai. Die 
ausfiihrliche Schilderung siehe bei Hammer, a. a. O., IV*, S. 499- 

450- 

Zu V. 76. ''Goldne Miitze. ' '— Im Texte tadla. Sultan Bajezid I. 

(gestorb. 1403) trug als Turban weder die Goldhaube (uskuf) der 

ersten sechs Sultane, noch den vom siebenten angenommenen runden 

Kopfbund der Ulema (urf ), sondern nahm den hohen, cylinder- 

formigen, mit Musselin iimwiindenen an, der sofort unter dem Na- 

men Mud/evesc (tad/a) der Ilof- und Staatturban geblieben. 

Zu V. 8of. Die ersten Siiulen des Reiches und Siiitzen des 

Divans sind die Veziere, d. h. die Lasttrager. Es gab ihrer unter 

Ibrahim schon vier. Die Vierzahl gibt als eine dem Morgenliinder 

beliebte und heiligc Grundzahl den Teilunggrund der ersten Staat- 

iimter ab. Vier Sllulen stiizen das Zelt, vier Engel sind nach dem 

Koran die Trager des Thrones, vier Winde regieren die Regionen 

der Luft nach den vier Kardinalpunkten des Ilimmels, u.s.w. Aus 

diesem Grunde setzte Sultan Mohammed der Eroberer, vier Siiulen 

oder Stiilzen des Reiches (erkiani devlet) fest in den Vezieren, in 

den Kadiaskeren, in den Defterdaren und in den Ni^andzi, die zu- 

gleich die vier Siiulen des Divans, d. h. des Staatrates sind. 

Anfiuigs war nur ein Vezier, dann zwei, dann drei unter den ersten 

Suhanen ; der Eroberer erhob ihre Zahl auf vier, deren erster und 

alien iiberigen an Macht und Rang bei vveitem vorhergehende. 



319 

r dcr Grossve^ier wurde, der unumschriinkte Bevollraachtlgte, das 
I tkhlbare Ebenbild des Sulians, sein vollgewaltiger Stellvertrcter, 
I der obcrste Vorstelier aller Zweige der Staatverwaltung, der Mittel- 
[lunkt und det Hebel der ganzen Regicrung. 

Zu V. 8i, " Sigel/iutfr" (muhiir sahibija). — Der Kanun des 
Sigels (nach Sultan Mohammed II.) tibertragt dem Grossveitier 
dariibcr die Obhul, als das Symbol der hochslen Vollmachi ; in der 
Ucberreichung des Sigels liegt auth die Verleihung der liochsten 
Wilrde des Reiclies. Der Grossvezier darf sich {abgesehcn von der 
Versigelung der Scliatzkammer, die, beiliiufig bemerkt, nur in 
Gegenwarl der Defterdare geoffnet werden kann) dieses Sigels nur 
zur Besiglung der Vortrage bedienen, und da alle Vorlriige durch die 
Hand desGrossveziers gehen niussen,und Niemandals erdas Rechi 
hat, an den Sulian schriltlich zu berichien, so siehl der Leizlere kein 
. anderes Sigel als sein eigenesoder elwadas der fremden Monarchen, 
wenn deren Gesandte ilire BeglaubigUDgschreiben in feierlicher 
Audienz Qberreichen. 

Zu V. 8i. " Pasdxa SeiiU." — Ueber Achmed Sidi, Kopruiiis 
Schwager, die Geissel Siebenbiirgens, Pascha von Neubausel, vergl. 
Hammer, a. a. O., VI, S. 272. Wird in den Epen moslimischer 
Guslarcn haulig auch a!s ein Heiliger genannt und getiihmt. In 
cinem Guslarenliede heissi es : 



efendija muhur sahibija 
sa svojijem pi^om Seidijom, 
ato je pasa na leleres pa&a. 

[Erschienen wat] Efendi Sigelhflter 
zugleich mit ihin sein Pascha Seidi, 
der Obrist Pascha iiber vierzlg Paschen. 

Zu V. 93ff. Im J. 1696 war Mohammed mil dem wunden Halse 
\ Grossvezier. 

10. September 1696 fand ein Divan statt. Der Sultan 
I ssgte zum Grossvezier: ' Icli will selbsl in den Krieg zichen, du 
musst durchaus tQr die notige Rustung sorgen 1 ' Der hitflose Greis 
(alteCe die Hande, als ob er die ganze Versammlung um HiKe an- 
dehte und saglc: ' Glorreichster, gniidigster Padischah, Gott gebe 
euch langes Leben und lange Regierung ! bei der herrschenden 
L Vcnririung und dem Mangel an Rriegszucht ist es schwer, Krieg 



lu fuhren; zurMoglichlteit der nStigen Rilstungen ist von Seitedn 
Reichsschatzes eine Hilfe von zwanzig tausendB euteln nolwendig'.' 
Der Sultan schwieg zornig uud hob die Versanimlung auf." Ham- 
mer, V, 461. 

" Schon bei der crsten Unxufriedenheit nach der Einnahme vol* 
Tenedos und Lemnos haiten der Chasnedar der Walidc, Swilalt 
Mohammed, der Lehrer des Serai, Mohammed Efcndi. der vorijtf 
Reis Efcndi Schamisade und der Baiimeisler Kasim, welchcr schoi* 
ein paarmal den alien Kopriili zum Groasvezier in Vorschlag;' 
gebracbl, sich insgehcim verbundei, diesem das Reichssigcl eu »«■ 
achaffen. Der Grossvezier ha[le ihn aiif seiner Reise von Syrieo 
nach Konslanlinopei zu Eskischehr wohl empfangen iind nach Kcin" 
stanlinopcl miigeiiommen, wo er dcrmalen sich riihig veihiclt; 
sobald er aber durch den Silihdar des Sultans Wind von dcm Vor- 
schtage erhalten, ernannle cr den Kopriili sum Pascha von Tripoha* 
und befahl ihm sogleich aurzubrechen. Der Kiaja, ins Verlraueai 
der Freunde Kcipriilis gezogen, suchte vergebena den Reisebefehl w' 
verzogern. Da die Sache noch nicht reif zum Schlag war, brschten 
die Freunde KopiilHs durch die Walide sehr geschickt die Ernen- 
nung des Silihdars znm Statthailer von Damaskus und die Einbeni* 
fung des dortigen Wesiers Cbasaeki Mohammed zuwegen, u-odurdi 
das allgemeine Gerede entstand, dass dieser eucu GrossvczicT: 
bestimnit sc\, und die Aufmerksamkeit des Grossveziers von Kop- 
ruli abgelenkt ward. Der Silihdar, der Patron des Grossvcziers 
beim Sultan, war entfernt, aber noch siand den Freunden Kopriilis 
ein anderer machliger Feind desselben, der Janicarenaga im Wege. 
Sobald derselbe abgesetzt und an seine Stelle der Stallmeisier 
Solirab, ein Freund der Freunde Kopriilis ernannt war, erklartc sich 
dieser gegen dieselben, dass er einigc Pnnkte der Walide vorzutra- 
gcn, nath deren Zusjgc er die Last der Regierung auf seine Schul- 
tern zu nelimen bereit sei. Noch am selben Nachmittage wurde 
KiiptiHi heiralicb vom Kislaraga zur Walide eingefuhrt, und ant- 
woricie auf ihre Frage, ob er dem ihm bes'.immten Dienst als Gross- 
vezier z» veisehen sich nicht lilrchte, mit dem Begehren folgender 
vier Punkte: er^lens, dass jeder seiner Vorschlage genehmigt werdc; 
zweilens, dass er in der Verleihung der Aemter freie Hand und auf 
die Fllrbiite von Niemand zu achten habe : dieSchwachen entstan- 
den aus Fiirsprechen ; drittens, dass kein Vezier und kein Grosser, 
kein Verlramer, sei esdurch Einlluss von Geldmacht oder geschenk- 
tem Vertrauen, seinem Ansehen eingreife; vierlens, dass kciuc 



:> 



321 

Verschwarzung seiner Person angehort werde ; wOrden diese vier 
Punkte zugesagt, werde er mit Gottes Hilfe und dem Segen der 
Walide die Wesirschaft ubernehmen. Die VValide war zufrieden 
und beschwur ihre Zusage dreimal mit: * Bei Gott dem Allerhoch- 
sten !' Am folgenden Tage (15. September 1656), zwei Stunden 
vor dem Freitagsgebete, wurden der Grossvezier und Kopriili ins 
Serai geladen. Dem Grossvezier wurde nach einigen VorwUrfen 
iiber den Mangel seiner Verwaltung das Sigel abgenommen und er 
dem Boslandzibaschi zur Haft iiberlassen, dann Kopriili in den 
Thronsal berufen. Der Sultan wiederholte die vier versprochenen 
Punkte, einen nach dem andern und sagte : * Unter diesen Beding- 
nissen mache ich dich zu meinem unumschiankten Vezier; ich 
werde sehen, wie du dienst;*meine besten WOnscbe sind mit dir !* 
Kopriili kiisste die Erde und dankte ; grosse Thranen rollten den 
Silberbart herunter ; der Hofastronom hatte als den glUcklichsten 
Zeitpunktder Verleihung das Mittagsgebet voni Freitage bestimmt, 
cbcn erionte von den Minareien der Ausruf: 'Gott ist gross!'" 
Hammer, a. a. O., V, S. 462, 2te Aufl. 

Zu V. 170. Dem abgesetzten Grossvezier Mohammed mit dem 
wunden Halse, dem neunzigjahrigen Greise, wurde nach Einziehung 
seiner Giiter, dass nach dem Ausspruche des Sultans verwirkte 
Leben auf KopriilUs Fiirbitte geschenkt und ihm zur Fristung des 
schwachen Restes seines Lebens die Statthalterschaft von Kanisza 
verliehen. Hammer, V, S. 467. 

Zu V. 36ofr. Ganz erfunden ist diese Episode nicht. Hammer 
bcrichtet B. V, S. 467ff. : 

"Acht Tage nachdem Kopriili das Reichsigel erhalten, Freitag 
den 22. September 1656, versammelten sich in der Moschee S. Mo- 
hammeds die fanatischen Anhanger Kasisades, die strengen Ortho- 
doxen, welche unterdem alten Kopiiili^ den sie fiir einen ohnniiich- 
tigen Greis hielten, ihrer Verfolgungswut wider die Ssofti und 
Derwische, Walzer- und Flotenspieler, um so freieren Lauf zu geben 
hofften. Sie beratschlagten in der Moschee und fa^sttn den Ent- 
schluss, alle Kloster der Derwische mit fliegcnden Haaren und kro- 
nenformigen Kopfbinden von Grund aus zu zerstciren, sie zur 
Erneuerung des Glaubensbekenntnisses zu zwingen, die sich dess 
weigerten zu toten, u.s.w. In der Nacht war die ganze Sladt in 
Bewegung ; die Studenten der verschicdenen Collegien, welchen 
orthodoxe Rectoren und Professoren vorstanden, bewaffneten sich 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. 80C. XXXII. 148. 2 O. PRIKTBD F£B. 6, 1804. 



322 

mit Prtigein und Messern und fiengen schon an die Gegner zu 
bedrohen. Sobald der Grossvezier hievon Kunde erhalten, sandte 
er an die Prediger Scheiche, welche die Anstifter der Unruhen zur 
Ruhe bewegen sollten ; da aber dies nicht fruchtete, erstattete er 
Vortrag an den Sultan iiber die Notwcndigkeit ihrer Vernichtung. 
Die sogleich dem vortraggemasse allerhochste Entschliessung des 
Todesurteils wurde von Kopriili in Varbannung geraildert." 

Zu V. 371. ^^ Der alte AchmedagaJ*^ — In der liirkischen 
Geschichte heisst er Achmedpascha Heberpascha, d. h. der in tau- 
send Stiicke Zerrissene (Hammer, III, S. 930). Nach Hammer, B. 
Ill, S. 930, fiel talsachlich ein Grossvezier des Namens Achmedpascha 
durch Henkershand am Vorabende der Thronsturzung Sultan Ibra- 
hims. Es war am Abend des 7. August 1648. Kaum hattc der 
abgesetzte Grossvezier Ahmed pascha einzuschlafen versucht, als er 
mit der Botschaft geweckt ward, er moge sich aufmachen, die auf- 
riihrischen Truppen verlangten ihn und er, der Grossvezier m5ge 
als Mittler versohnend dazwischen treten. Als er die Stiege hin- 
unter gekommen, griff ihm jemand unler die Arme. Er sah sich um, 
wer es sei und sah vor sich Kara AH, den Henker, den er so oft 
gebraucht. *' Ei, unglaubiger Hurensohn !** redeteerihn an. '*Ei, 
gnadiger Herr!" erwiderte der Henker, ihm lachelnd die Brust 
kiissend ; unter die Linke Ahmedpaschas griff Hamal Ali, des 
Henkers Gehilfe. Sic fuhrten ihn zuni Stadttor, dort zog der 
Henker seine rote Ilaiibe vom Kopfe und steckte sie in seinen 
CJiirtel, nahm dem Ahnicdpascha seinen Kopfbund ab, warf ihm 
den Slrick um don Hals und zog denselben mit seinem Gehilfen 
ziisammen, ohne dass der Ungliickliche etwas anderes als: ** Ei, du 
Hurensohn !" vorbringen konnte. Der ausgezogene Leichnam 
wurde auf ein Pferd geladen und auf des neuen Grossveziers Sofi 
Mohammed Befehl auf den Hip[)odrom geworfen. 

Zu V. 392. '^Kreuze und Marieny — Im Texte Krizi i maizi. 
Ivreuzchen und Marienmedaillen, wie solche im Haare von Christen 
j.ener Zeit getragen wurden. Eine anschauliche Beschreibung 
gibt uns eine Stelle in einem noch ungedruckten Guslarenliede 
meiner Sammhnig. Halil, der Falke, ist entschlossen, an einem 
Wettrennen im christlichen Gebiete teilzunehmen, um den ausge- 
sctzten Preis, ein Madchen von gefeierter Schonheit, davonzutragen. 
Seine Schw-igerin, Mustapha Hasenschartes Gemahlin, hilft ihm bei 
der \'erkleidung zu einem christlichen Ritter, wie folgt: 



323 

ondar mu je sa glave fesic oborila 

i rasturi mu turu ot percina 

i prepati ccbalj ot Rldida 

te mu rasceblja turu ot percina 

a opiete sedam pletenica 

a uplete mu sedam medunjica 

a uplete mu krize i maize 

a uplete mu krstc cetvrtake 

a savku mu podize na glavu 

a pokovata groaom i tarjeron 

a potkicena zolotom bijclom. 

Vom Haupte sie warf ihm das Fezlein herab 
und loste den Bund des Zopfes ihm auf 
und griff nach dem Kamm aus Elfenbein 
und kammte den Bund des Zopfes ihm auf 
und flocht ihm sieben Flechten das Haar 
und flocht ihm sieben Medaillen hinein 
Und flocht ihm Kreuze hinein und Marien 
und flocht ihm hinein quadratige Kreuze 
und stiilpte den Helm ihm auf das Haupt, 
der beschlagen mit Groschen und Talerstiicken^ 
dcr geschmiickt mit weissen Miinzen. 

So wie bier Halil als Christ auftritt, so ist dcr als Moslim ver- 
kappte Christ eine stehende Figur des Guslarenliedes. Christ und 
Moslim sind in der angenommenen Rolle einander wert und wiirdig. 

Zu V. 447. Ljubovic, der beruhmteste moslimische Held des 
Herzogtums, eine stehende Figur der Guslarenlieder beider Confes- 
sionen. Mustapha Hasenscharte schreibt einmal ein Aufgebot aus. 
Der Brief zu Handen des Freundes Saric : 

O tur<jine Saric Mahmudaga! 

Eto tebi Knjige na^arane ! 

Pokupi mi od Mostara turke, 

ne ostavi bega LjuboviCa 

5a siroka polja Nevesinja, 

jer brez njega vojevanja nejma. 

O [Bruder] TUrke Saric Mahmudaga ! 



324 

Da kommt za dir cin Schreiben zierlich fein ! 
Von Mostar biet mir auf die Tiirkenminnen, 
lass nicht zuriick den Beg, den I.jubovit, 
vom weitgestrecklen Nevesiiijgefilde ; 
denn ohne seiner gibi es keinen Feldzug, 

Als jangling meldeCe sicli Beg Ljubovic einmal bei Sil Osman- 

beg, dem Pascha von Essegg, als frciwilliger Kundschafter, urn 
durchs feindliche Belagertinglieer durchzudringen und dem Pascha 
von Ofen Nachricht von dcr Bedrangnis der Stadt Essegg zu iiber- 
bringen. Si! Osmanbeg uniarral und kiisst ihn und schiagt ibtn 
mit der flachen Hand auf die Schulier: 



Haj aferim bcie Ljubovitu I 
vuk od vuka, hajduk od hajduka 
a vazda je soko ot sokola ; 
vaida sii se sokolovi legli 
u otJiaku bega Ljubovica I 



1 RaubeFf ^^^1 



Hei traun, fiirwahr, niein Beg, du Ljubovit 
Vom Woif ein Wolf, vom Kauber slammt ein 
doch stels enlspross ein Falke iiur dem Falken 
und immer fand sich vor die Falkenbrut 
am heimischen Herd des Ljiiboviil, des Beg 



Zu V. 678. Die Schildening nalurgelreu. Auf racinen Rciaen 
zog ich es milunter vor in eine Rossdccke eingehiillt unterm frcicn 
Himmel selbst zu Wintcrzeil zu iibernachten, als im Schrautz und 
Ungeziefer und Gestank einer bosnischen Bauernlitille. Auch 
meine Aufzeichnungen maclite ich meist im Freieii im Hofraumeoder 
an der Sirasse sitzend. Ich fragte den Bauer Mujo beferoviL aus 
Sepak, einen recht liichtigen Guslaren, ob er wohl ein eigenes 
Heim besilze, Darauf er: imam nesto malo Kuce, Krovnjak (ich 
besitze ein klein Siiickchen Haus, eine Bedachung). Neugierig, 
wie ich schon bin, gieng ich zu ihm ins Gebirge hinauf, um mir 
seine Behausung anzuschauen, eigentlich in der Hoffnung, bei ihm 
raeinen Hunger au stillen. Ein hohes, mit verfaullem Slroh 
bedecktcs Dach, und stall der Wande aus Stein oder Ziegeln ein 
mit Lehm beschmiertes Reisergefiechte 1 Biod und Fleisch fehlle im 
lieblichen Heime. Durch meinen Besuch fQhlte er und seine 



325 

Familie sich aufs Aeusserstc geehrt und geschmeichelt. Die Haus- 
frau, die nicht zum Vorschein kam, sandte mir mit ihrem Sohnchen 
einen Bohnenkase und eingesauerte Paprika hinaus. Als Getrank 
Kaffeeabsud und Honigwasser. 

Zu V. yoyff. Das seltsame Madchen ist als die Sreca, d. h. 
fortuna Kopriiliis aufzufassen. Vergl. meine Studie, Sreca, Giiick 
und Schicksal im Volkglauben der Sildslaven^ Wien, 1887. 

Zu V. 821. Zwei Kopriilii waren Veziere (Vali) zu Bosnien : 
KopriilUzade Numan, der Sohn des Grossveziers 11 26 (17x4) und 
Kopruluzade Hadzi Mehmed 1161 (1748); zum zweitenmale de;r- 
selbe 1 1 79 (i 765). Der erste Kopriilii war naliirlich nie bosnischer 
Gouverneur, nur der Guslar erhebt ihn zu diesem nach seinen bau- 
erlichen Begriffen ausserordentlichen Ehren- und Wiirdenstellung. 



Gshichtfun dd attd tsai'td in Pensilfdni.'^ 
By W. /. Hoffman, M,D, 

Di num'mer fun men'sha in Pensilfani das fun da arsh^a dai'tsha 
ai" sid'lar bar shtam'ma, tse'la alawail' kshwi'sba acht hun'rt dau'- 
send un a° milyan', a'wer wl fll fun den'nii wis'sa was fer tsai'ta das 
di al'ta lait als kat hen, wi si arsht a" kum'ma sin in dem landt far sich 
en he'met tsa mach'a. Far en fol'li gshicht tse shrai'vva dots me° 
plats uf nem'ma das mer nem'ma diirf an so'era tsait, wl niir alawail' 
un'ser hun'rt un fuftsichsht yores' fesht fai'ara und wu noch fll 
an'arii a eb'biis tsa sa'gha hen. 

Mer wis'sa tsim'Iich al das di arsh'ia wai'^a lait in dem shladt di 
Shwe'da wa'ra. Dl hen sich shun gset'l'd kat uf der Del'awer im 
yor 1638, un wa'ra dart bis 1655, wi di Ho'lender si raus gedri'wii 
hen, un dl sin sel'wer raus gcpush't war'rii nain yor shpc'ter, bai dii 
Eftg'lisha. Wi der Penn kum'ma is in 1682, wa'rii shun Dai'tsha 
dabai', un di mensh'ta fun den'nahen sich ni'dtcr gset'l'd am a plats 
wu Giir'mendaun [Germantown] nau is. 

'Sneksht yclr sin par mc° Dai'tsha rai° kum'ma, un so wid'der 
yc'der yor bis 1708, und fun sel'arii tsait a" bis 1720, sin si baim 
dau'send kum'ma. Di mensh'iii wa'ra aus der Pfalts, wail un'ich da 

* Sketch of the olden times in Pennsylvania. 



r 



I'vrericli'a wi'ra d6l, ami Bi'da [Baden], Sak'sa [Sachsen], nn 

fun da gle'na Dait'sha sht^'ia. 

'S landt ab tsa klo'ra und t^a sei'lii is lafSg'som gafl'^a, und iS I 
a'rawet wir shwEr. Di hai'ser wa'ra net so nSksht bai nan'ner dn 1 
mer laicht psuch'a kan, od'ier far hilf tsa shpriflg'a wan eb'bas wich'- I 
tiches gshe'na is. Du hen di lait sich als sel'wer hel'ta mus'si wan's. 1 
krank'.i ge'wa hot, un y^'deri al'ti frl hot ah ir gif'na sek fol ■ 
gegrai'der kat, far le a' isa bri'a od'tcr en blash'ter tsa mach'a. I)d 1 
fuu den'na relsep'ia hen si draus niit rai° gabrochl', un del hen si * 
dohin aus gfun'na dar'ich arlar'ufig. No war a'wcr noch en set 
men'sha das gebrancht' hen, un ai'Ia sar'ta karyO'sa sach'a gedQn', 
das w['s hlflt shtop'p^j gaish'ter aus drai'wa ; fai'erlesh'a, Ic^l^ti'lafta 
sach'a tsa fin'na; hek'sa tsa beu'iclia, und so wai'der. Ftl fun 
den'na dw'ergla'wa hen alawail', noch an heU'gar. 

Di kit hen als ir duch un kle'der sel'wer mach'a in is'sa, un rerwol 
tsa fa'rawa hen si del karyO'sa sach'a gebraucht'. 

Flaks brech'a, hii'et, arndl, di sOt, un's dresh'a, vfk'rk als Isai'll-I 
das 5'rawet gemachl' hen, un ofi'mols hen di bau'era nan'ner kol'IS..J 
An so tsai'ta hois als gshpas ge'wa un'ich den yull'ga lait. 

Am wel'shkarn bash'la, dep'pich kwil'tii, un lalwat'ik rlr'ra hotsal 
nie° oar'haila ge'wa und do hen si alsamol' der dai'hc'k'er kshpttt. ' 

Alsamfll' hen si in de° fei'der 's welsh'karn gebashi', un wan itaM 
fun da bfl'wa en ro'ter kol'wa kfun'na hot, hot er en'ich ens fun da ' 
met gebof^i' das ar failg'a hot ken'na, od'ter das ar gegli'cha hot. 
Wan a'lver 0ns fun da met en rij'ter kol'wa gfun'na hot, nO hot dar 
was es arsht gso'na hot si gebosi'. Wan's bash'ia far'tich war, hen 
si en dans kat, alsamOl' im feldl, a'wer mersh'tens in der shai'er. 

Wan als di yufig'a men'ner gaflg'a sin t^a shpat'iya, sin si shir 
al'fart garit'la. No wan si ir gail neksht am haus a° gehun'na hen, 
hen si glai aus'finna kenna eb si wil'kum wa'tii o'der net j wail, wan 
di mOt si net gewelt' hen, hen si ir gail shie° los'sii, un wan di bQ'wa 
wil'kum wa'ra hot e'bar di gail glai im shtal kat. 

Samsli'dak o'wets war shpar'iya (sail, und bai del fun da bush lait 
war's biind'la's gebrauch', so das di karls als fun samsh'd^ks bis 
mflndaks bai da met wa'rli. Sun'daks sin si als an di ka'rich gaBg'i, 
«n dan hot mer oft ro'ia blak'ka uf da met I'ra hels se'na ken'na wu 
di bfl'wa si tsu hart gebost' hen — oder fcriaicht' a bis'sel gebis'sa. 

S kan nai* das in da al'ili tsai'ta fershi'dena sach'a kol'fa hen's 

rik gebraich'lich Wi mach'a. Di lait hen hart gshaft im 

10 fil in* bed ; lich'ter wa'ra rar und dai'er, und di Wwa. hen 




327 

oft wait tsa ge" kat. Oft mols war yusht e" shlof shtub im haus, 
und so hen di al'ta und di yufig'a sich hr gelekt' tsa blau'dera o'der 
tsa shpar'iya. 

Des bund'la war a'na tswa'i'wM fum aus'landt rai° gebrocht', un 
si hen's a in Nai Yar'ik gedu'*' sowol' als in Pensilfani. Alawail' 
dO'na si noch in Centre County, hi" un do, a bis'sel bund'la, a'wer's 
nemt nim'mi lafig bis di lait se*^na wi shandbar'lich so en gebrauch 
is. 

Ens fun da karyosh'da sach'a das mer alawail' noch findt, is der 
wek wi del fun den'na brauch'a dok'iar du'na. E'ner das ich shun 
fll yOr ken is gans hend'ich am ras"lshlafig'a fafig'a. Desdut ar mit 
em a° said'-ena shnupduch das ar ge'gha di shlaftg hept. Di tsen in 
der shlafig sin wen'ich tsarik'tsus gebo'gba, so wan si sich in di he 
shtrekt *s shnupduch tsii bai'sa, hen'ka di tse" fesht wi ho'ka; 
seKawek dut dar dok'tar di shlafig no in di he he'wa, so das ar mit 
der an'ara hand si hin'na am kop nemt. No wa'rii di tse" raus 
geropt' das si en net bai'sa kan. 

Del sa'gha das mer en shlafig fafig'a kent un das si em a net bai'sa 
kent, wam mer di war'tii sakt : 

** Wi Moses di shlafig in der wil'dernes in di he ko'wa hot, so heb 
ich dich uf. Im na'ma dem Fa'der, Sa° un Hai'lich Gaisht solsht 
du ken gewall' ha'wa mich tsa bai'sa." 

D'no kam mer di shlaftg a'*'na gfor uf he'wa. 

Wan awer di shlaftg ens baist, no wart en mit'tel gebraucht' das 
die lait i'weral sa'gha, dot ni'mols fe'lii. Der en'sichsht wek aus tj-ii 
fin'na eb 's gut is o'der net, is far, e'biir's shtoft re'ghelmc'sich tsa 
brauch'a wi 's gebraucht' sai° sot. Des is en blants das si mcsh'ter 
wart'sel hesa. Der recht na'ma is Sanicula marylandica L. Wen'ich 
fun der wart'sel wart ferklopt' und in mil'ich gekochl', und no 
gedruftg'ka ; di scm tsait wiirt a fun der ferklop'ta wart'sel in was'ser 
ksOkt und uf di wund gelcki'. 

Del fun da al'la a'wargla'wisha lait sa'gha mer sot en hin'kel in 
der mit dar'ich shnai'ta, und e" helft uf en shlaftga bis le'ghii ; des, 
sa'gha si, tsikt's gift aus der wundt so das es hin'kel gans grl** wart. 
A'nara sa'gha das mer*m'a hin'kel sai° bart'zel ufdi wundt le'ghii 
sot, un das es gift so raus getso'gha wart. 

Der alt dok'tar sakt a das ar di ras'Mshlafig'a tse° ferka'fa det tsu 
da yuft'ga men'ner, so'ichii wu di met si li'wa mach'a wod'ta. ^ Der 
karl das en met'*l libt das net fil fun Im denkt, dut di shlaftg'a tse 



:in 



in sai' hen'tthiltg, tind wan '9 ra&i"! nfi sai* hand nenit kanstnc * 
nim'mi nic° hel'ia ; si mm'n li'wa eb si wil o'dcr net. 

Wan en ras"lslilaflg ab'getso'gha is, heRg'ka si si uf in di sun, s^ 
das's e! o'der fet, ab'dropst. Dea wart no gebraucht' fit in d - 
O'ra taa drop'sa warn'mer hari'harich wart. 

ShlaOg'a bis wa'ra a fershl'deiia we'ghfi gekiQri' la fcnhi'iet^ 
plets. Del lait fershtara'pa 'n tswi'w'l un mik'siL 's uf mit sals, uuS 
le'gha 's blashder uf di wiind. 

In Lecha County hen si als shwarl'si shlaffg'a wart'scl (ai^ 
geniasht' un in was'ser gckoehl', vin d'r no dafua' in'nctlich gc'«rS 
un uf di wund gelekt'. Di sem tsait hot des, was gebraucbl' hot, dH 
wat'ia gsliproch'a : 

'■ Golt hot al'les arehapfa. und aJ'lei war gOt, 

Als du ille", ihladg, biiht ferfluchi', 

Fecflunht' sotsht du iai° ua dai" gift 1 

t t t 

Tsifig Tsing Tsifig." 

Ytd'ennol das cs wart tsing aus'gshprocha war, hot der braichVr 
mit cm finger, en kraiis i'wer di wund gemacht. Des wart shain 
das wan es fum wart isifigla hai'shlamma det ; awer dO Icara er ae 
shut sai", net mc° das in der brauch'a gU'wa sel'wer. 

Des is a*na tsai'w'l en alt Daiish sa'ghas, wail mer ea shun im ^ 
burh find das in Red'in [Reading] g^-tniki' war in iSu oder 1S13 
wu es so shtedt : 



" Gott halle Allcs erschafTen, und Allcs wa 
Als du allein, Sclilange, SEJesI vcrflucht; 
Vcrlluclil sollit du sein und deia Gift. 






t 



Zin; 



as"lshlaftg' en shwar'tsi bai 



, das (8 ■ 
s grai fart genkt un de: sich shwarl'si shiafig'a wart'sel such' -^3. 
:t dafun' fres'sa, so das es gift ken sha'da dfit. 
n'mer di raa"l fun'cra shlafig in a gle° sek'ilchia bind und ai^d 
sai° hals henkt, grikt's ken gich'tera war's Isant. 
1 di rj'a'l im but gclra'gha wart, grikt mer ken kopVe-- 
» tsai'ta tsiirik' hens si als haul, fun e'nicha sar'ia shlallg'a, ur«i 
riira gtbun'na far ru'matis tsa farhl'ta. Des war shir gar «-»" 
m plan das wi di bu'wa als O'la haul urn's b5°, o'der um C 



329 

a'ram, gebun'na hen far kramp tsa farhl'ta wan si im was'bcr wa'ra 
far tsa shwim'ma. 

Far shtich fun wesh'pa, har'nesel, hum" la und i'ma, hen del lait 
als nas'ser le'^ma uf di wund geleki^ 

A'nara hen en shiik sil'wer uf der shtich ko'wa. Del hen kbat si 
ken'ta wesh'pa ban'na, und's sa'gha dafor' war : 

«* Wish'bli, wesh'bli, shtech mich nicht, 
Bis der Dai'w'l di se'gha shpricht.'* 

Wam'mcr sO getsil'fer uf he'wa wil a°na gshtoch'a tsa sai", mus 
mer dl wai'ta sa'gha : 

'' Weshp [oder was es sai" makj, du hosht net me° gewalt' far 
mich tsa shtec'hii, das der Dai'w'l se'lichkait hot far mich fum dot 
tsa wek'ka.*' 

En al'ter hex'a dok'tar hot mer ksat das er e'nicher hund ba'na 
kent das cr net blaffa kent. Wan er der hund j-e'^'na det, det ar 
en shtik hols, o'der, noch bes'ser, en fen'sa shla'ka, in grund rum 
dre'a, und di wari'a sa'gha : 

«* Hund'li hald dai° mund'li, 
Bis dar shta'ka wid'der recht 
Kumt im grund'li." 

Wan ar no wid'der tsarik' get dret ar den shta'ka, o'rder's shiik 
hols, rum, we's dafor' war. 

Des laut a'rik ftl das wan es fun em a° al'ta buch genum'ma war 
fgetruk't beim Hr/hman in Reading abaut i8i2-*i3], wa*s shtet : 

** Hund, halt deinen Mund auf die Erden ; mich hat Gott 
erschaffen ; dich hat er lassen werden. 

t t t 

** Dies machst du nach der Gegend hin, wo ungefahr der Hund 
ist ; den du musst die Kreuze machen nach dem Hunde zu, und er 
ciarf dich vorher nicht erst sehen, und du musst auch erst den Spruch 
sagen." 

Der sem brauch'a dok'iiir sakt a das er rot'lafii shtop'pii kent wan 

er di hand drei mol i'wer der we plats raibt, und ye'dermol di wai'ia 

sakt : 

" Der rot'lafa un drach fart i'wer 's dftch : 

Der rot'lafa fargi^gt', un der drach fersliwint'." 

Far en shnit tsa he'lii, shnait mer drai kan'sii shtek', elchiar 
fun ep"l hols. No nemt mer si gshwish'a di fift'gar und hebt di 

PROC. AMER. PHIL08. 80C. XXXII. 143. 2 P. PRINTED FEB. 6, 1894. 



330 

cn'ner ens noch em a'nara, wed'der den shnit, wik"lt si ai* in bablr' 
o'der lum'pa und benkt si in der sharn'shle'. Wi no di shtek'- 
elchair uf drik'la wart di wund druk'ka und belt. 

Far wart'sa tsa fardai'wa, raibt mer }e'deri warts drai mOl und 
sakt: 

" Der hin'ncrsicht und der fSLr'sichsht; 
Der hin'nersicht und der f^r'sichsht ; 
Der hin'nersicht und der far'sichsht." 

Des kan a'wer yusbt glik'lich gadu°' sai° wa mer tswg men'ner uf 
em gaul sent. 

Nocb en wek far en warts tsa fardra'iwa is wa mer'n bend"! drum 
bindt und no grat ab nem'ma und wek henk'ka un'icb 's dacb. Wi 
der bend'*l farfault so get di warts wek. 

'S dut farlaicbl' ken sba'dii wa mer a wen'icb e'bas me* sakt fun 
da bai'ser un *s bem'lewa. Di eld'shta bai'ser wa'ra nall'rlicb fun 
blek, a'wer si ben e'wa glai a a°'fafiga sbte^^'na tsa bau'a. 

Mer wis'sa sblr al, das di sbai'era gawe'"iiellicb gre'ser un bes'ser 
gebaut wa'ra widi bai'ser. Shir al'les das im baus gebraucbt' war, war 
bem'gemacbt. Disb, sbtll, bed'lada, licb'ter-sbttk un fet'-licbter, 
kiir'apet und dep'picb, sowol wi di kle'der un sbu, wa'ra bai ens 
o'der' m a'nara in der nocb'barsbaft gemacbt'. 

Di waib'slait ben der flaks gsbpun'na, un di kai'apet lum'pa 
tsam'ma ganct', wail di men'ner's duch un der ka'rapet gewo'wa 
hen. Di waib'slait hen a di shtrimp und hendshing gshtrikt. 

We'ghii w;Vrii shpar, un di was es not iirfor'da hen ken'na en 
weg"lchia tsii hal'ta hen hVfa mis'sa far uf psuch o'der an di kar'ich 
tsa gO°. 

Di menshta sin ga rit'ta, wail di wOghii e'wa net i'weral gut wa'ra, 
un debai' hot mer so fil bes'ser rum gekenl'. Hoch'tsich parl'issin 
tsumpa'ia gerit'lii, un sel'amols hot di pa'rasfra di hoch'tsich kuch'a 
und a'ner cs'siis gfnn'na. Al'samdls hot der pa'ril gar niks grikt far 
sai" dinsht. 

O'vvets hot als slilr al'lii famil'iii gekoch'ter mush kat. Der war 
i'narii gro'>a shi's'l mit mil'ich, in der nut fum dish, und do bo.t sicb 
no vC-'ders sel'vver kol'ta. 

Wan si mitdaks llcsh kat hen, mit gro'wi — dun'kes hen si 's kc'sa 
— no hot yc'ders sai" brdd in gle'na shtik'ker farbroc'ha und 
mii'cra ga'w'l in di shis'scl gcdunkt'. Do hots alsamdl' shtrait gewa 
wan ens sai" dun'kes a! ges'sii kat hot, und hot no saim noch'bar 
sains shte'la wel'la. Sauer kraut hen als del lait mit da fis nun'ner 



331 

gedrg'ta, wail si 's net mit em sbtemp"! farda'wa hen wol'la. Bai, 
un shnits un knep, ben si a als fll me" ges'sa wl hait'sedaks. Obsht 
war als gedart', und fll hen si a ai** gemacht far im win'tcr tsa 
cs'sa. 

Lad'warik par'tis hen si als im shp5t'yor kat, wan di ep"l tsaitich 
wa'ra un der sai'dar war shun gemacht'. Do hen si als dergan'sa dak 
cp'*l gshelt un im sai'dar gekocht', un wi es no shir far'tich war, 
g^'gha oVets, sin di buVa kum'ma tsa hel'fa, und wan al'les far'tich 
wir hen si en dants kat. 

AlsamoK hen si a'rik gemachi', mit nan'ner rum nar'ra ; und si 
hen als ksat das dro'wa in Le'cha coun'ti 'n par'ti mOl di kats so 
gcyakt' hen das si *s letsht in der kes'sel getshumt' is. No, wi ens 
gfrOkt hot was si a'wer nau mit em lad'warik du° ken'ta, hot di alt 
ksat, "Ai, mer shik'ka 'n e'wa noch Mach Tshonk' " [Mauch 
Chunk]. Si sa'gha dart hait noch, wan e'pas net gut is, das mer*s 
noch Mach Tshonk shik'ka sot. 

Di rel'we'gha un di efXg'lisha shu'la mach'a en gros'ser un'nershit 
un'ich di lait, so das mer nim'mi so fll Daitsh hart wi drais'ich yOr 
tsarik' ; un was noch bes'ser is, is das di al'ta aw'ergla'wa shtar'ik 
aus ge'na. Di kin'ner lar'na was recht und nOt'wennich is, un hal'ta 
sich uf mit der tsait. 

Phonetics. 

t JI3 in father. ai as in aisle. 

i a.s in hat. di as oy in boy. 

4 SLs in law, tsh as ch in chip. 

gh as soft g, approaching the sound of ch 

in ach, or Arabic x. 
fig as in sing. 
* apostrophe indicates ihe elision of a 

sound. 
' added to accented syllables. 
» the superior ;/ indicates that the pre- 
ceding vowel is to be nasalized. 

Note. 

Kher papers by the present writer, relating to the Pennsylvania Germans, were 

P^t^lished in the /V<7tvr<////^j of this Society, Vol. xxvi, 1888, as follows : " Gram- 

iB^*-*^ic Notes and Vocabulary," pp. 187-285; "Folk-Medicine," tfiu/.,pp. 329- 

3S ^^- Also in the yournal of Atfterican Folk- Lore ^VtosKon and New York, Vol. 

I, » 888, as follows: "Folk-Lore," pp. 125-135; Vol. ii, 1889, *• Folk-Lore," pp. 

IJ — 35; and ibid.<t "Tales and Proverbs," pp. 191-202. 




333 

On the Growth of the T-ortitry ItUa in Pennsylvania. 

By Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Secretary of (he Pennsyivania Fareitrf 

Association ; and Mtmfier of the Pennsylvania Forestry 

Commission. 



n like the present, when this Society celebrates its cen- 
tury and a half of useful activity, might also mark a fitting period PM 
ihe Stale to inaugurate a change from a period of wasleful extravi^ 
gance in its forests to one of jealous care for their perpetuity. We 
may, at least, record the fact, that the first serious attempt on the 
part of Ihe Commonwealtli to adopt protective forest laws data 
from the spring of 1893, 

It is quite true that Penn had stipulated, with those whom he 
styles adventurers, in his newly acquired domain, that they should: 
retain one acre in six in trees ; especially that the oak and the mul- 
berry ihould be preserved, the one for ships and Ihe other for silk. 
How these healthful restrictions came to be abrogated, or set aside, 
is unknown to the writer. 

The following letter is of interest, not because it indicates an^ 
real forestry ideas, for it does not, but because it is so strikingly aj^-' 
propriate yet. 

" Fassv, December 24, 1782. 

" 1 Iliank you for youi ingenious pnper in favor of the trees. I own I wish we 
lull two rows of them in every one of our sircets. The comfortable shelter ihey 
would afTord u.i Id walking, from our burning summer suns and the greater cool- 
ness of our walls and pavements, would, I conceive, in the improved hejllh of 
Ihe inhsbilanls, amply compeinsate the loss of a house now aod then by fire, if 
lucli should lie the conseijuence ; but a tree is soon felled, and al axes are a.t bud 
in every neighborhood, may be down before tlie engines arrive. " — Dr. BeojaodB 
Franklin to John Hopkinson. 

Viz.s%\i3X\'% Arbustum, published in 1785 in Philadelphia, was not 
only a notable contribution to the forest literature of its lime, but 
is now of increasing interest in view of important changes in nomeU' 
clalure which are pending. 

The earliest settlers on the New England coast did, here and 
there, farm out timber privileges and grant special wood rigbb 
under certain circumstances. It was not to be expected that the] 
could at once come to consider trees as of no value. Educatioi 
and experience both forbade ihis. 



333 

It was otherwise with the first generation born here. In their 
eyes the forest was simply illimitable ; and without it the soil was 
of greater value than with it. Two centuries have matured the 
tree-destroying tendency into an instinct ; and in regard to the 
proper use and conservation of our forest resources, we, as a people, 
are in the position of France, for example, four centuries ago. To 
put the proposition in another form, we furnish an illustration of a 
nation lapsing into the extravagance of barbarism because of the 
abundance of our supplies, so far at least as our use of the trees is 
concerned. 

April 3, 1872, marked an era in our national forestry legislation, 
for on that date, Hon. Richard Haldeman, of Pennsylvania, intro- 
duced into Congress, by unanimous consent, a bill (21,971) to en- 
courage the planting of trees, and for the preservation of woods on 
the public domain. Mr. Haldeman, explaining his measure, on 
April II, speaks of it as a ** subject hitherto unattempted in legis- 
lation," by which, of course, he meant in this country. On the 
17th, he further explained that his bill was only to meet a pressing 
need, without discouraging the rapid settlement of the great West. 
It is fair to say that, considered as a whole, Mr. Haldeman's address 
on the subject has not been improved upon, to this day. April 30, 
the measure was further discussed, and was defeated by a small 
majority. The agitation, however, was not without result; for in 
1873, ^^^ American Association for the Advancement of Science 
urged an examination into the subject. The President made the 
recommendation the basis of a special message, out of which grew 
**a bill for the appointment of a commission for inquiry into the 
destruction of forests and into the measures necessary for the pre- 
servation of timber.** March 17, Mr. Dunnell, from the Committee 
on Public Lands, submitted a report upon the cultivation of timber 
and the preservation of forests. It is a matter of some pride that a 
Pennsylvanian, a member of this Society, was Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Public Lands, which reported favorably upon the request 
for a commission of inquiry ; and he was largely instrumental in 
aiding the passage of the bill, authorizing it, through the lower 
House. I refer to the Honorable Washington Townsend, of West 
Chester. The years 1877, 1S78, 1879 ^"^ 1S82, witnessed the 
publication by the late F. B. Hough of his reports upon forestry, 
through the Department of Agriculture in Washington. With all 
their defects they are to this day landmarks in our forest literature. 



With these preliminary statements, we may i 
mediate subject, The Growth of the Forestry Idea in Pennsylrtni*. 

In 1877, the State Board of Agriculture began an active advoacj | 
of forest restoralion in this State ; no less than five papers tleaiini 
with the differem aspects of the problem were primed in its icpori 
for that year. In 1878, there were two brief papers. The cuntol 
was started, and from that time on to ihe present, each year hu 
witnessed a more or less extended presentation of the subject ID the 
agricultural reports of Peunsylvania. 1 

Among the contributors are Prof. Meehaii, Josiah Hoopcs, FmhI- 
lin B. Hough, Thomas J. Edge. Prof. William A. Buckhoiil. Dt. jolm 
P. Edge, Dr. W. S. Roland, and the writer. The repof I of Dr. RoW 
is, up to ihistime, the most painstaking and satisfactory that has b«a 
produced on the trees of PennsyU'ania. It serves, however, to illm- 
trate how much the Slate is in need of a full, reliable rcfiorl bur- 
ing on every asj^ct of the subject. Nothing better than the repof 
of Dr. Roland could have been produced at the lime and undcrliie 
circumstances. In 1885, the Senate resolved and the Houw cm- 
currcd in a resolution requesting the Governor to appoint oucdif 
each year as " Arbor Day." This resolution received the Go*H- 
nor's signature : but for some reason, a similar resolution »« 
passed at the next session of the Legislature, 1S87, which re^latian, | 
however, originated this lime in the House. What Ihe ultirnaK 
outcome of the day may be here, it is impossible to predict; though 
the promise is not encouraging. It was natural enough that Arbor 
day should have been eagerly adopted in treeless States. The case 
is wholly different in a Commonwealth ranking as the second 
lumber-producing Stale in the Union. There was not only indif' 
ference, but actual hostility, in some quarters, to any agitation 0' 
the forestry problem. Until within a brief period even the lumber- 
men recognized neither utility nor sense in it. 

The year 1877, however, produced another active force in mould- 
ing public opinion in favor of forest conservation and restoratioii- 
The legacy of F. Andre Michaux (commonly here called Tht 
Younger Michaux), a member of this Society, became availabit J* 
a fund which could be legitimately devoted to the support of*- 
course of forestry lectures. 

It would be clearly improper to fail to record the fact that tl>« 
earliest funds available in this country for instruction in a scttnc^ 
which every other civilized government had come to rccognirt ** 



^ 



335 



worthy of Stale support reached us as a. legacy from a foreign 
savant. 

Michaux had iraveled exiensively in ihis country, alone and also 
in company with his father. While he recognized the crude condi- 
tion of much of what he saw, indeed of whal we were proud, and 
criticised it freely, he, nevertheless, retained a feeling of respect 
xnd affection for the young Republic where he was hospitably re- 
ceived and of which he evidently entertained great hopes. 

His wili provided that, after the death of his wife, his property 
should be divided between the Agricultural Society of Massachu- 
setts and the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, It 
was specified that the money so received was to be utilized in the 
interest of agiiculture and forestry. 

It also befits the time that the part taken by another member of 
this Society in the institution of the Michaux lectures should be re* 
corded. 

It was to the late Eli K. Price that the idea of commemorating 
Michaux, the testator, in this manner seems first to have occurred. 
He was not led from the plain conditions of the bequest into any 
illusions which the will neither contemplated nor allowed. The 
money was clearly devoted to the most practical of sciences, and it 
is creditable to this Society that it has been conscientiously so ex- 
pended. 

We may fairly measure the value of the work done in moulding 
public seniiraent into healthy form, when it is remembered that it 
was in these Michaux lectures the following points were first sug- 
gested as representing a healthful public policy for Pennsylvania, 

I. That the individual forest owner is under moral obligations 
not to recklessly despoil the State by waste of limber resources ; and 
that it is equally the duty of the State to see that he does not impair 
the future prosperity of the Commonwealth by any willful extrava- 
gance. This follows from the simple proposition that the first duty 
of a Slate is to provide for its own peipetuity. It is for this reason 
that we submit to legal control ; for without perpetuity the strong 
inducement to thrift, in the interest of our children, is lacking. 

I, Thai so long as any owner of (imber land allowed his limber 
to stand, he receiving no benefit therefrom, he was entitled lo an 
exemption from taxes because the chief value of trees under such 
conditions was lo hoard water for a community at a distant point. 




In other words, the owner paid the 1ax«s, and another parly recaw 
the benefit. 

3. That it would be a wise policy for the Stale 10 pay the taxes- 
Oh poor water sheds from which the timber has been remu<rcd 
(when these were sold by the sheriff), and then cither hold them 
itself, as permanent forest preserves, or to turn them over lo the 
counties, under cetlain restrictions, as a sort of communal property . 
to be kept in timber, allowing only renaoval of that which if 
matured. 

4. That whilst it is true that trees are raore important to the 
Stale than lo the individual land owner, it would be " un- Ameri- 
can " to deprive him even under this pressure of the right to do as 
he wishes with his own ; but that it is in order for the land owner 
to ask what aid does the Slate propose to offer in production and ' 
protection of the trees which are of such vast importance to it? 

Mr. Price may well have been called a seer. His vision has 
•ince often proved to have been prophetic. His relation to the 
great questions of the day was so close that no history of Penniyl- ' 
vania can well be written without reference to his name, and it is 
but justice to say, that he was about the year 1S77, the most actire 
and powerful friend of forestry in tlie Slate. His memory extended 
back clearly for three-fourths of a century. He could recognise ihe 
extremity to which we were coming. Vast areas of timber had been 
removed and the ground rendered unproducti\-e to the Common- 
wealth. Of all this he was an eye-wilness. It is therefore not 
strange that he became so positive in his views. 

The limes were ripe for this new movement, Thegeneral Gorem- 
ment, though its measures were but halfhearted, had given an im> 
petus to the Stales. Especially were the Western ones concerned 
in forestry. Their mechanical and agricultural industries clearly 
must languish but for the timber; and the water which the wood- 
lands retained. In most instances it was quite clear that there was 
not enough for immediate wants ; and the question natiu^ly arose 
as to the future. 

It is doubtful whether any of the Eastern Sutes has been more 
active in bringing about the forestry revival than Pennsylvania. 
Certainly none had larger interests at stake. The census statistics 
for 1S80 showed that in point of lumber production it stood second ; 
and common observation also revealed the fact that this did not 
suffice for her own wants, because she im/ortfd more than she 



337 



exfiorteil. Her output for tliat year reached enormous proportion", 
and aggregated 1,733,844,000 feet, board measure. The total 
valueof all her forest products, for the same period, was 522, 45 7,359, 
and the wages paid amounied to $2,918,459. 

In the year i886, some public-spirited ladies in Philadelphia 
took active measures for the formation of the Pennsylvania Forestry 
Association. There was but litile general interest in the neiv 
organization, and as it ofTered little else than a prolonged struggle 
with public opinion lis active workers were few. They were, how- 
ever, thoroughly loyal. In spite of neglect, and often of ridicule, 
the work went quietly on. A modest little journal under title of 
Foresl Leaves fi3A published, with occasional illustrations. It should 
here be noted that but for the zealous volitnieer services of Mr, 
John Birkenbine, as editor, this missionary sheet could not have 
been continued. Through the liberality of a few members, it was 
largely circulated, almost regardless of the recipient's relation to 
the subscription list. Though it was quite clear that the intelli- 
gence of the community was cryslallizing in regard to the forestry 
idea, the fact had not impressed itself upon the Pennsylvania I^egis- 
lature even as laie as the session of 1 889, for a bill " to establish a 
forest commission and to define its powers and duties and for the 
preservation of forest and limber lands " was buried beneath the 
negative recommendation of the Committee on Agriculture of the 
lower House ; notwithstanding the fact that the services of ihe 
commission involved no other ex[>ense than the actual outlay of the 
members when on duty. It is worlN while to record these facts be- 
cause tiicy illustrate how very near one may be to victory of a prin- 
ciple (as that of 1893), when in the very face of defeat. 

Certain concessions had already been made by out Legislature; 
lor example, that of 1879 authorized a remission of lanes for tree 
planting by the roadside, and it protected the same when planted. 
It also enacted a law against those who "wantonly and willfully 
kindle any fire on the land of another;" if that fire results in any 
damage. 

The session of 1885 enacted that sales of land made forarrearages 
of taxes were to be deemed valid, whether said lands were seated 
or unsenicd at lime of sale. The session of 1887 amended this, 
so as to allow the owner two years in which to redeem his lands. 
It was also enacted in 1885 that lands were not to be sold and sales 

PBOC. AURn. PHiLoe, soc. xxxii, 143. 2 q. pkintkd mai 33, 18B4. 



were not to be valid, if at time of assessment there was suRicimt 
personal property oa said lands to pay taxes. These sales mostly 
related to poor limber land. 

In 1SS7, an act was passed for eocouragemeni of forest culture 
and provided penalties for ibe injury and desiruclion of forests. 
This wa.% amended in session of 1891, and now stands thus on tlic 
Stsiute Eocik: 

As Act 

Foe the enfourageineBl al brat culDiTe, and pioriding peoollits foi the injury and 
desnaction of fbrau. 

Section i. Bs it nutttif, etc.. That in ccmiidention of the public beneSl tn 
be derived from the ptantiag and culiivatioD of fomt or timber ttces, the owner 
Of owners of any land in thii Cotomonweaith plinled with forest or timber 
trees in nnmber not less Ihaa twelve hundred to the acre, iiall, oa making due 
proof thereof, be enlilled la leceiTC aaiiiully from ihe comTni^ioncri of Ihcii 
respective couDliex, daring the period that the aid trees are mainUTned ic sound 
co«)(Ution upon the said land, the roUowing sums of mooey : 

Fm a period of ten ycaf^ after Ihe land has been so ptanled. a snm e^aal to 
lUDcty per cenlim of nil the taaes aaniially assessed and paid upon the said lani), 
ot so mnch of the said ninely per cenlam at shall not exceed the sum of fbrly five 
cenls per acre; 

For a iciiinil period of Icn jcars, a ■^um e^jual 10 fi^iity per cenlum of the said 
taxes, or so much of the said eighty per centum m shall not exceed the tau ot 
forty cents per sere ; 

For a tbiid and final period of (en years a sum equal to fifty per centnm of the 
said taxes, or so much of the said lifty per cenlum ai shall not exceed the Hin of 

Prsvided, Thai it shall be lawful for the owner or owners of Ihe said land, after 
the same lias been so planted for a( least ten years, lu thin out and rednce the 
numl>er of trees growing thereon to not less Ihan six hundred 10 the acre, so loDg 
as no poilionof the said lands shall be absolutely cleared of the taJd trees; 

And provided also. That ihe benefits of this act shall not be extended lo 
nurserymen or others growing trees for sale foi rulure planting. 

Sec. J. The owner or owners of forest or timber land in this Commonwealth, 
which has been so cleared of merchantable timber, who shall, withinone year alter 
the said land has been so cleared, have given notice lo the commissioners of their 
refpective counties that the said land is lo be mainlained in limber, and who 
shall maintain upon Ihe said land young forest or limber trees in sound condition. 
In number at least twelve hundred to the acre, shall, on making due proof tbettof, 
be entitled to receive annually from the commissioners of their respective connties 
the sums of money menlionid in Ihe first section of Ihis act : IVovided, That the 
fir;t period of ten years shall be counted from Ihe lime that the said land has been 
cleared of merchantable timber, and that, after the said first period of ten yean. 



339 



Pibe nmnbb' af trees upon [he said isnd may be reduced as in the 9ud first section 
is piDvideil. 

Sec 3. Any person or persons who ihall wilirull; or careUuly cut bark from 
or oiherwiie cut, burn or iniure any Iree, plant, shrub or sprout planieil, growing 
or b«tng on any land in this Commonwealth, without the consent of ihe owner or 
ovneti thetcoT fitst had ami ollainefl, or who without «uch consent, shall kindle, 
«r ciuse to be kindled, a fire on any Toresi or linil<er Und in this Commonweal Ih, 
or who shall carry into or over any forest or timber land any lighted candle, lamp 
or torch, or other fire, wilhoul having the same secured in a lantern or other 
cloMd TcucI, or who shall discharge or set otf fireworks of any kind on said land 
or among the trees thereon, or who shall will fully or carelessly buro or lire upon his 
ir their own land, or that of others, any tree, brush, stubble or other combustible 
material whereby fire shall be communicated to the leaves, brush or timber upon 
any forest or timber lands belonging to other parties, shall be subject to a penalty 
not exceeding one hundred dollars for each offense committed, with costs of ^uit ; 
I^'evidtd, That if the defendant or defendants neglect or refuse to pay at once 
the penalty imposed and costs, or shall not enter sufficient bail for tlie paymentof 

lame within ten days, he or they shall be eomroilled to the common jail of 
Mil] county for a period of not less than one day for each dollar of the penalty im- 
pM«d ; And provided, When the penalty imposed is above five dollars, the 
defendiint or defendants may enter into a reco^irance, with good security, to 
•luwcr said complaint on a charge of misdemeanor, before the Court of Quarter 
Session* of the peace of the county in whicli the offense is committed, which 

t, on conviction of the defendant or defendants of the offense so charged, and 
failure to pay the penalty laiposed by this Act, with costs, shall commit said de- 
fendant or defendants to the common jnil of the county lot a period of not less 
than one day for each dollar of penally imp[>sed. 

Sec. 4. Any justice of the peace or alderman, upon information or complaint 
nude before him by the aOidavil of one or more persons of the violation of this 
•Ctt by any person or jjersons. shall issue his warrant, 10 any constable or police 

rr, to cau^e such person or persons to be arrested and brought liefore the said 
Justice of ihe peace or alderman, who shall hear and determine the gnilt or inno- 
cence of the person or persons so charged, who, if convicted of Ihe said offense, 
ahall be sentenced to pay the penalty aforesaid. 

Sec. S- The commissioners of each county sliall, within one month after the 
passage of this act, cause the same to be published, one or more limes, in one 
new^iapcr of general circulation in iheir respective counties. 

It shotild be said that the Legislattire of 1S89, though it killrd in 
Committee the bill for the act to establish a Forest Commission, 
did have the grace to remunerate those who had drawn the bill for 
the lime and labor bestowed upon the work. The Legislature of 
1S91 actually went so far as to pay the expenses of the delegatesap- 
poinied by Governor Beaver to the meeting of the American 
Forestry Congress which held its session in Philadelphia. In the 




As laie as iSgi the farmer was obliged by the fence taw of 1700 
to fence out his neighbor's caille from his fields. Thus each iDiii- 
vidual stood in a condition of armed neutrality with bis coni- 
miinit)'. The special bearing of the fact, however, lies in this, thil 
to maintain this fence law, which was a relic of barbarism, we ««£ 
wasting, in the Slaie of Pennsylvania enough of valuable timber to 
have made a five-rail fence around the globe thirteen times. In 
other words, there were standing in our State in the year iSgsBbout 
325,000 miles of fences, Nothing more wasteful than this in reli- 
lion to our timber resource is known to have existed since the 
pioneer period, when the settler was driven to roll his logs into pile) 
and burn them. It is hardly creditable to the law-making intelli- 
gence of the State that a law so fal^ in principle, as this, wu al- 
lowed to stand unrepealed upon our statute books for one huadnd 
and ninety- two years. 

Forest fires are allowed to rage during the drier period of Mtk 
year, until competent authority has placed the average annual iu» 
of forest properly in the State at the enormous sum of between l*' 
and three millions of dollars. In fact, under certain condilioiD, 
frequently existing, no insurance company will assume nsksoniudi 
|>roi'i;rty. Worst of all, the jiuhlic mind accepts, too often, ihii 
stale of affairs as inevitable. 

In the spring of 1893, there existed in Pennsylvania but oneuti- 
ficialty planted forest, which was conducted on business principl« 
ai;d with a prospect of financial return for the capital invested. 

The forestry movement indicates a reform in other directions tbu 
appears on the surface. It is a recognition of ihc broad fact tint 
we as a young people have been wasteful in the use of all our ^^ 
sources; but that now we are coming under the inexorable Itwsd 
economy which govern older nations. The altered conditit«M "i" 
probably be none the more pleasant because enforced. 

To-day we celebrate an anniversary of our Society, and it wonl'i 
appear to be a fitting occasion for a statement of facts concerniip 
the forest regime which is i>assing away before a new and belter one- 
Especially is this so when it is remembered how conspicuous a pjrt 
the Society has taken in bringing the change about. 



? 



^ 



313 



Dust from the Krakaioa Eruption of i88j. 
By Joseph Wharton^ Philadelphia. 

The splendid roseate glows which in the winter of 1883-4 were 
visible in the western sky after sunset and in the eastern sky 
before sunrise, gave rise to many conjectures, but apparently to 
almost no experiments. A fpw persons believed those glows to be 
sunlight reflected from the under surface of a stratum of fine solid 
particles suspended at a great height in the atmosphere ; some 
thought with me that those particles might be volcanic dust which 
had floated to us from the eruption at Krakatoa, but, as no one 
offered any proof of this, I attempted on the morning of January 
20, 1884, to demonstrate it. Six miles northward from the centre 
of Philadelphia, where I reside, a light and fine snow was then 
gently falling in an almost calm atmosphere, presumably from a 
high altitude. Of that snow, while it was yet falling, I collected 
about a gallon by skimming it carefully with my hands from a con- 
siderable surface in a field a hundred yards to windward of my 
house and a quarter-mile from the nearest windward building. 

This very clean new-fallen snow I melted under cover in the 
porcelain bowl it was gathered in, and was at first unable to detect 
any sediment; after maintaining for several minutes a gentle 
rotatory movement of the bowl in order to bring into its deepest 
part any solid matter which might be present, I poured off most of 
the water and evaporated the remainder. A minute quantity of 
fine dust was then discerned by the tiny vitreous reflections which 
it gave in the sunlight. My practice in chemical analysis, and 
therefore in weighing small quantities, affords some justification for 
the estimate that the total weight of this dust was less than one- 
hundredth of a grain. 

Under the microscope, where it was immediately placed, this 
dust showed the characteristics of volcanic glass ; it consisted in part 
of irregular, flattish, blobby fragments, mostly transparent and 
showing no trace of crystalline structure, in part of transparent fila 
ments more or less contorted, sometimes attached together m wisps, 
and mostly sprinkled with minute glass particles. The filaments of 
glass had about the same diameter as single filaments of silk placed 
on the microscope slide for comparison with them. 



311 



Having microscopically examined the c 
ignited it upon ptaliiium to destroy any orgaj 
be present, and thereafter found the filameij 
the amorphous accretions of glass quite uncfad 

No pyroxene, augite, or magnetite, such s 
observed in volcanic dust, was present j 
3t first mingled with the glass, those hea 
dropped during the long voyage of more tk 
s^wce and more than four months of lime. 

The capacity of fine volcanic glass to llojl i 
ble distances being a well'established phenonii 
claims no greater novelty or interest than >vlj,i 
actual finding of such glass at so great di-uu 
its ejection. 

In this case two separate ejections sttm ti. 
several evenings I observed a second and t. 
original and stronger glow had eniirt-ly ijjs 
stratum of finer particles doubtless refiecttd t 
greater altitude after the sun had set at the ti 
principal dust stratum. 

Early in February, 1S84, the ship/. S. . 
Philadelphia from Manila by the Strait of Sun| 
12, I visLtid that ship, and read on her log-t 
Octubtr 27, 1883, ill soutli lalilude 7° 57' and 
54' (about five hundred miles W. S, W. from 
countered a vast field of floating pumice, through i 
until 7 A.M., October 29. So abundai 
ship's speed was reduced from nine knots when she bM 
knots at 6 f.M., October 28 ; several hours after ihatfl 
gradually increased, as the pumice became less den 
knots to eight, and finally, when she cleared it, to bei 
knots. No volcanic a^h had (alien upon the ship, s 
late upon the scene. 

Some of this puraice I look directly from the hands i 
and steward, who had collected it from the sea and b 
their private lockers. It can scarcely be doubled tl 
was ejected from Krakatoa. 

Now, on placing under the microscope small ( 
pumice and filaments picked out from its cavities, I 
such transparent flattiih scraps and ragged accrelions^ 



345 

among tlie dust found in the snow-fall of January 20, while the fila- 
ments, though less varied and interesting than those then collected, 
were quite similar in character, even to the tiny glass particles 
sprinkled upon them. 

A minor point of resemblance was that the yellow color of one 
little vesicular mass in the du&t caught January 30 was fairly matched 
by a slight streak of similar color in ihe pumice. 

In March, 1884, I collected dust from the steel works at South 
Bethlehem, Pa,, and also dost from a blast furnace there, in order 
to compare them with the dust found in the snow and with the fila- 
ments and crumbs of pumice from the ship_/. E. Rid^eway. 

After separating from these dusts the large proportion which was 
attracted by the magnet, the remnant showed in each case many 
\itreous |>articlcs ; that from the iron furnace largely spheroidal or 
globular, with a few filaments; that from the steel works partly 
minute rounded particles, but containing many filaments of great 
tenuity. Neither contained such clear vitreous plates and aggrega- 
tions as abounded in the snow-dust, while the filaments in both 
cases were of dark color, and smooth, straight form, distinctly dif- 
ferent from the colorless and frequently contorted filaments of the 
sno*-dust. 

It is difficult to resist the conclusions (i) that the vitreous dust 
found in the snow-fall of January ao, 1SS4, was not derived from 
iron or steel furnaces, (i) that it wasof similar origin to the floating 
pumice found by the ship J. E. Ridgemay, (3) that it was ejected 
by the huge volcanic explosions of Krakatoa. 




Den Forsclurn. 
Von Dr. Hermann RoHell* {Baden bei Wien'). 
Welch' frischhinwogende Bewegung hast 
Du aufgeslort, die Alks rings ctfassi, 
Du Wort Darwin' i, das langst lag auf den Zungen, 
Doch auszusprechen Keinem war gelungen ; 
Dass sich — nach Luftart, Nahrung, andeim Leben — 
Die Organismen " anzupassen " streben ; 
Dass " Aenderungen " sich dadurch gestalten. 
Die durch " Vererbung " fest sich forterhalten ; 

r Feme Ke»!<lmet lur slorrelchcn. am 21 1>!> LVl. ^fal Vm 
Ut it«r Amerieiin Pbltooi.li leal Socfet? 1q PhUnrteli.hln, 

piiiLOs. 80C. sxiii, H3. 3 n 



316 

Dass jene Arten dauern dann dcr Wescn, 
Die feci im " Kampf ucn's Dasein " aus sich Icmd ; 
Dass mil der " Zuchtwahl " so am Ziei wir waren. 
Die " Artenbildung " einfach zu erklaren. — ■ 

Uiid spaSend folgt das Aug' der Wlssenschafl 
Dem Wirken der iin Stoff gelegnen Kraft, 
Dem Uranfang der W?seo, deren Stoff 
Aus gliili'ndcm Duiist des Weltalk einslens irof. 
Durch dcss(.'n Schlummcr siets die Krafie wallleii, 
Die schaflend vor Aeonen Weltcn balUen, — 
Dem Zwange folgend, der in ihnen lag, 
Und ats " Bewegung" ewig wirken mag. — 
Der Eine siehl im Geist — organisch' Leben 
Aus unorganischem sich malig heben, 
Und sielit aus kraftbelebten Sioffd Gewalten 
Die Zelle " autogonisch " sich geslalten. 
Dcr And're siehi — well ewig ihm das Lcben — 
Organ'sclien Sioff seit je im Weliraum schweben, 
Zum " Urschleim " ihn sich bilden fruh auf Erdeii, 
D'raus erste Wesen " plasraagooisch " werden. 

Und wie's auch sei, — es that's doch ewig nur 

Aus unbewusstem Drange die Natur; 

Und, ob es malig oder rasth geschah, — 

War nur die Form einmal der ZelU da. 

So konnten alle Wesen sich gestalien 

Durch jene " artenbildenden " Gewalten ; — 

Die VVissenschafl geht siegreich aus dem Streit, 

Weist forschend nach, dass hier in aller Zeit 

Die VVesenreihe eine Ketle ist, 

An der wohl manches Glied noch wird vermisst, 

Das ausgestorben langst und so verschwunden — 

Wenn nichl vielleicht, bis jetzt nur nicht gefundeni- 

Und von der Zelle bis zum Menschen zeigt 

Kein Sprung sich iht; und bildend abgezwcjgt 

Erscheint die neue Form nur von deralten 

In der Natur unendlichem Gestalten. 



> 



317 



Vom'Affen kann der Mensch zwar nimmer stammen, 
Doch einen Urahn hatten wir zusammen, 
Aus dem zwei Formen, die sich strebend fanden, 
Durch jene Artenbildung einst entstanden. 

Und weiter geht die riist'ge Wissenschaft — 
Natur befreiend aus des Dunkels Haft — 
Und sagt : die Bildung neuer Arten werde 
Nur dann besteKtty wenn fern, auf neuem Herde 
Des Bildens, sich die neue Abart findet, 
Wenn die Vermischung mit der alten schwindet. 
Die Wanderung^ti dieser Wandlung Grund — 
Migration " benennt's des Forschers Mund. 



It 



Und weiter noch fiihrt fort des Wissens Pfad, 

Es schallt : Ihr seid der Wahrheit nur genaht ; — 

Die "Zuchtwahr* nicht und " Wand'rung** nicht alUin 

Wirkt artenbildend, — beide mogen's sein ! 

So wird denn mehr und mehr die " Schopfung** klar, 
Das Weltgehcimniss leuchtend offenbar ; 
Und in das dammernde Gewirr des Lebens 
Der Forscher halt die Fackel nicht vergebens. 

Die Angstgemiither doch und Finsterlinge, 

Die rufen ** Weh '* nur iiber diese Dinge ; 

Sie schreien "Frevel ist's !*' in alle Welt, 

Dass es der Menschheit in die Ohren gellt. 

Sie schnauben : ** Hort nur ! — nicht von Gott erschaffen 

Erklaren sie den Menschen, den vom Affen 

Sie stammen lassen ; und des Menschen Geist, 

Der sich von Gott gegeben doch erweist, 

Den nennen bie ein * Resultat ' vermessen — 

O hort ! — von * Compensations-Processen !' 

Da endet der Begriff von Bos und Gut, 

Von Recht und Tugend ! Allen Lebensmuth 

Verliert der Mensch da, dem die tolle Zeit 

Den Glauben raubt an die Unsterblichkeit 1 



3i8 

Im ' Kimpf urn's Dasein ' wird der Vorllieil nur 

Die Menscliheil leiten ; wie der 7X/>r-Natur 
Wird sinnliches Gcniessen nur allein 
. Das Ziel gewissenloser VVesen sein 1 
Die Erde, die der Weg zuni Himmel ist, 
Sie wird ein ekler Sumpf zu dieser Frist ; 
Und stall, dass Seligkeil der Menschheit winVt, 
Verzweifelnd sie in Birbarei versinkt !" — 

So jimmem sie. Und in des Morgens Fiimmen 

Da rufeii noch die besten von den Slimmen ; 

" Versahniing — an dem Abgrund, der uns droht, — 

Von Wissen und von Glauben tbut uns noth '" 

Und zurutt manch' Verfechter uns des Ahen— 

Der SchuU Philoioph — " doch Mass lu halten, 

Das ew'ge UnbedingU ' Golt ' zu tiennen, 

Das vom beiiingl Bciteh'nden sei zu trennen ;" — 

Indess doch unbedingt ist alies Sein 

Dem IVesen nach, — die Form bedingt allein, 

Die ohne vorbedachtcn Zweck enlsieht. 

Alls innereni Gesetz bervor nur geht, 

Da5 von der strengen Regel ab nur weicbt,! 

Wird feit dadurch ein Adher Ziel erreicht. — 

Ihr Forscber ! mulliig fort nur auf der Bahn, 
Die lichtvoll fiihrt aus altem Trug und Wahn. 
Uiid wie sie larmen auch und wie sie toben. 
Die selbstisch Grund und Sinn des Seins verschoben, 
Die einen " vorbedachlen Zweck " veilangen, 
Weil ihrer Hensehaft Fesseln daran hangen. 
Die einen Zweck, der ausser uns ist, setzen 
Und so (Qr's " Diesseils " zur Entiagung hetzeo, 
Die demuthsvoll den Glauben da begehren. 
Wo wir des Lichis de; Wissens noch entbehren, 
Das wir doch leuchtend hell hervor seh'n blitzen 
Aus der Verhiitlung schon weitoffnen Rilzen. 

Nur fori, ihr Forscher ! lichtet alles Dunkel ! ■ 
Macht frei der ;ra:4^/(«Vstrahlendes Gefunkel I 



> 



J 



349 

Enthiillt die hehre, leuchtende Gestalt, 

Die lange lag in finsterer Gewalt ! 

Verkiindet aller Dinge Sinn und Grund 

Und gebt der Welt zugleich die Mahnung kund : 

Dass Keiner seine Wiirde je vergisst, 

Weil er ja Glied der Menschheitskette ist, 

Und weil als solches Jedes seine Pfticht 

Und auch sein Recht hat ; da flieht Tugend nicht, 

Und nimmermehr wird jener Schreckruf wahr, 

Dass alles Edle, Hohe in Gefahr ; — 

Und wahre Sittlichkeit hebt dann die Brust 

Und bringt ihr Lebensfreude, Lebenslust, 

Und macht — indem sie fiir den Sturm der Welt 

Den Menschen fest auf eig^ne Fiisse stellt, — 

Dass er dem armen kurzen Erdentag 

Ein wenig doch des Gllicks entringen mag, 

Und dass wir wirken froh, durch That und Wort, 

Und eung leben in der Menschheit fort ! 



Phyiogeny of an Acquired Characteristic, 
By Alpheus Hyatt, 

Preface. 

This memoir was first given as a short address before the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, at the celebration of the one 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of that illus- 
trious body. A short preliminary abstract was subsequently pub- 
lished in their Proceedings and in the American Naturalist for 
October, 1893, with one diagrammatic plate. The statements 
made in these two preliminary papers before all the facts were 
brought together and correlated were true, in the main, but 
necessarily defective and have been put into more correct shape in 
the following pages. 

Introduction. 

The nature of the evidence afforded by fossil shells is even at the 
present time very little understood. They have been so often spoken 



1 

1 

4 



F slightingly, as a sort of jacket, an unimportant part, etc.,' 
all conclusions arrived at by their study alone are considered as \ 
peculiarly liable to error. , 

A shell, to begin with, ranks as a primary, essential part arising ' 
in an early stage of development from the shell gland common to 
the embryos of a!! forms of Mollusca. Subsequently, by its moiie 
of growth it becomes a model of the external form, and at the 
same time a mould of the outlines of the internal soft parts to an 
extent which has not been fully appreciated. The shell is ofteo, 
also, a permanent record of the series of changes which the forto 
has undergone, from the time it first begat] to enclose the embryo 
until the death of the soft parls, since it retains the young shell and 
all the later stages of growth. Among Nautiloids and Ammonoids, 
it also contains the calcareous tube or so-called siphunclc, which 
exhibits remarkable and significant changes of structure and posi- | 
tion following upon the development of the animal. This siphuocle 
connects the septa or horizontal partitions, which with their 
sutures vary with the age of the animal constituting a third record 
of changes and structural modifications. 

All these parts, the shell proper, the siphuncle, the septa and Ihc 
sutures are in correlation with each other and together make an ind(» 
to ihc life history of the individual, which is unequaled in some 
respects among other existing or extinct animals. 

A single shell, either from a living or fossil form, may present 
accurately the general history of the development of the young, 
the stages of the adult and old age. The results of heredity and of 
the action of endemic or traumatic diseases may also be detected, 
if one knows how to study and compare the remarkable and dis- 
tinct series of meipmorphoses displayed by this external or protec- 
tive skeleton with those of congeneric forms. This can be done 
even when the young is not visible externally by breaking down or 
dissecting a well-preserved fossil and thus following the history of 
the shell backwards through all of its stages to the embryo. 

The researches of Beecher, Schuchert and Clarke among Brachio- 
poda have demonstrated that the shell and the internal brachial 
armature of these forms possesses similar life histories to those here 
described for the external and internal skeletons of the Cephalo- 
poda. Jackson has demonstrated similar phenomena among Pele- 
cypoda and Beecher among corals. 

The vertebrate skeleton has long been considered a standard. 



and the evidence afforded by its fossil remains is very important 
and convincing'. The series made in the case of the horses found 
by Maish and Cope and those described by Gaudry are universally 
quoted as the strongest proofs of evolution. This evidence is 
considered complete, becanse naturalists understand and have 
thoroughly studied the skeleton, and because it is internal and has 
been assumed to be more invariable than the shell. All of these 
arguments have their due weight, but there are no examples 
of greater invariability than exist between the shells of the Nauti- 
lus now existing and those of Barrandeoceras (Nautilus) of the 
Cambrian, or the Triassic and Silurian Orthoceras, or of the 
Prodissoconch stage in the young of Pelecypoda as demonstrated 
by Jackson, or of the Protegulum among Brachiopoda as shown by 
Beechcr. The Prodissoconch and Protegulum are embryonic 
shells that have persisted from the earliest horizons of geologic 
lime and are siill to be found in living shells attached to their 
apices. 

The conclusions arrived at by the study of the vertebrate 
skeleton are reliable, but they are neither tnore conclusive nor 
important in theoretical meaning than any other series of equally 
well -understood hard parts in any other branch of the animal 
kingdom found as fossils when traced out in the same thorough , 
and careful manner. 

How unreasonable it would seem to a student of fossil 
Mammalia, if he were requested to do what it would be appropriate 
lo require from a student of the fossil Cephalopoda, vi/., to 
describe from the investigation ofa single perfect fossil skeleton of 
an adult, not only the characteristics of the skeleton at the 
stage of growth at which the animal died, but the dcveiop- 
menial stages of this same skeleton, and in case it were the 
rcrnains of an old, outgrown animal, also, the retrograde metamor- 
phoses through which it had passed during its last stages of decline. 
It might require a life time to make out the stages of a single 
species of mammal satisfactorily from the isolated specimens which 
would be found and the attempt would be hopeless for all the 
youngest slages of growth, while the bones were still cartilaginous. 
This kind of evidence, however, is readily obtainable among 
fbsKil Ccpbalopods with relation to the shell and other hard pans 
u among living animals, and it can be obtained in good coi- 
tions everywhere, whether "in situ" or in museums. Thus it 



4 



is possible to study the relations of these fossil forms very minulcly- 
and with a certainty of possessing a. due to their true relations, 
which is rarely obtainable even among existing animals. For among 
these we have only the embryos and young of conicmporaneoaa 
forms and necessarily lose all relations of succession in time, uolcs 
the investigation embraces a prolonged series of experiments or is 
more or less historical, and eveu then the facts cannot have a very 
wide chronological range. 

The class of Cephalopoda has two subcla^es, Tetrabranchiata 
and Dibranchiala. These were established by Richard Owen as 
orders — a purely technical difference, which does not change 
in any way the value of the structural distinctions as given by this 
eminent naturalist. The Tetrabranchiata are shell-covered ; and 
they are represented by the modern Nautilus, the only existing 
genus. The Dibranchiata are dt-scendants of the former, but. 
enclosed the shell, and resorbed it in many fonns, so that they 
appear as naked animals. The cuttlefishes, squid, devil-fishes, 
are existing types. In studying these types, the author has 
been led to adopt a new method of characterizing the divisions, 
and besides the old structural distinctions, which are still available, 
to apply the correlations of habit and structure to the elucidatioa 
of some of the ordinal characters. 

The classification adopted is a* !oUows: 
Class Cephalopoda. 
Subclass I, Tetrabranchiata. 
Order, Nautiloidea. 
" Ammonoidea. 
Subclass II, Dibranchiata. 
Order, Belemnoidea. 
" Sepioidea. 

These four orders converge to one type by intermediate forms, by 
embryology and development of the shells and internal hard parts, 
by their morphology and by (he [Ktssession of a similar embryonic 
shell, the protoconch, or the cicatrix which is a remnant of the 
aperture of this stage on (he apex of the true shell or conch. 

The class is composed of exclusively aquatic and marine animals, 
and consequently they breathe with gills. The structures of the 
orders mentioned coincide with the distinct habitats they respec- 
tively occupy. 



I 



353 



The animal of the Nautilus has a large mantle or fleshy sac 
enclosing the internal organs, which can be opened around the 
margin, or closed, at the will of the animal. Admitting the water 
around the margin ihey fill their mantle cavity with fluid, and then 
rnnstricting the margin and compressing the mantle-sac, force it 
out with violence through a fleshy pipe, which is exclusively used 
for that purpose, and always situated on the ventral side. The reac- 
tion of the stream is sufficiently powerful to drive the body of the 
animal with varying degrees of swiftness backwards. The fleshy 
pipe is therefore an ambulatory pipe or hyponomt ; and it is advan- 
tageous to replace the old and confusing terms by this name. 

The Oibranchiata change the external shell, which they inherit 
from the Nautiloids, into an internal organ, and by suitable modifi- 
cations df shape and also taking advantage of the powerful hydrau- 
lic apparatus, which they also inherit, and increasing its efficiency, 
become exclusively swimmers. 

The hyponome of the Nautilus causes a corresponding depres- 
sion or sinus to occur in the aperture of the shell on the same side, 
and its effect is also to be seen in the strioeofgrowth on this side; so 
that we know, from these indications in any fossil, what was the 
comparative size of the pipe, and whether the animal was more or 
less powerful as a swimmer. 

Other indications, such as the openness or contracted form of 
the various apertures of different genera, exhibit with equal clear- 
ness what they could do in the way of crawling. The wide-open 
apertures indicate powerful arms, capable of carrying and easily 
balancing the large spire of the shell above ; the narrow contracted 
aperture shows that the arms were small, and that the animal 
could not so efliciently balance or carry the shell in an upright 
position, and was therefore, according to the amount and style of 
the contraction, more or less inefficient as a crawler. 

In studying the different types of the Tetrab ranch lata, we find 
that there are two orders as first defined by Prof Louis Agassis — 
the Nautiloidea and the Ammonoidea — and, further, that these divi- 
sions coincide with differences in the outlines of the ambulatory 
sJDUses which indicate distinctions of habit general in the normal 
forms of each order. 

The extinct Nautiloidea had large ambulatory sinuses, and were 
evidently capable, like the modern Nautilus, of rising to the sur- 

raoc. AMBB. rniLOs. soc sxui. 143. % h. prixtrd uaf S5, 1894. 



face, and swimming wilh a jerky motion ; though iheir Open apcT- 
a rule, show their norreial condition to have been rcpcant, 
or bottom-trawling. The exceptional shells, which depart from 
the typical form in the sinus and apertures, exhibit their peculiari- 
ties in the adults, but not, as a rule, in the young, except in cases 




where direct inheritance has occasioned the exception and these 
are, in fact, the most conclusive proofs of the power of the habitat 
to produce permanent changes in the apertures 

The orthoceratitic shells of this order are straight cones with 
internal septa dividing them into air chambers connected by a 
lube passing through all the air chambers and opening into the 
body of the animal itself, which occupied a large terminal chamber. 



355 

wrhich however was a small part only of the whole length of the 
cone. This is the simplest form: and others are, the bent or 
sircuate, c)rrtoceratitic ; the loosely coiled, but with whorls not in 
contact, gyroceratitic ; the closely coiled, with whorls in contact, 
nautilian ; and the still more closely coiled or involute shells, the 
involute nautilian, in which the outer whorls may simply overlap 
the inner, or entirely conceal them by their excessive growth, as in 
N^autilus pompilius. 

The Ammonoidea in the earlier forms, the Goniatitinas of the Silu- 
rian,* had apertures with well-marked ambulatory sinuses sufficient to 
show that they must have had considerable powers of rising or leap- 
ing in the water, if not swimming, like the Nautilus. In the later 
forms of the same suborder and in the Ceratitinae, Ammonitinae and 
Lytoceratinae the ambulatory sinus is absent; and in its place a 
projecting crest or rostrum was developed indicating reduction in 
size and disuse of the hyponome. This and the generally open 
ap>ertures enable us to see that they were more exclusively bottom- 
crawlers than the Nautiloidea. 

The most interesting of the facts in this order lies among the 
exceptional shells, some of which must have been sedentary, and 
could neither have crawled nor moved about with any ease ; but none 
of these, so far as we know, seems to have exhibited a type of aper- 
ture which indicated transition to an exclusively swimming habit. 
These shells appear in our subsequent remarks among phylogerontic 
and pathologic types. 

The Belemnoidea of the Jura had a solid cylindrical body, called 
the guard, attached to the cone like internal shell, and partly 
enclosing it. Aulacoceras of the Trias, as described by Branco, is 
a transitional form with an imparfect guard, which frequently con- 
tains fragments of other shells and foreign matter. This demon- 
strates that this guard could only have been built by some external 
flap or inclosing sac, independent of the true mantle. This false 
mantle must have inclosed both the shell and the guard, and must 
have been at the same time open, so as to admit the foreign mate- 
rials which Branco found built into the substance of the guard. 
One of the straight shells of the Silurian Nautiloidea, Orthocera- 
tites truncatus, regularly breaks off the cone of its shell, and then 
mends the mutilated apex with a plug. This plug, we are able to 

• See Plate U. 



say, is the precise liomologue, in position and in stnictore, of flie 
guard of the Belemnite. 

Barrande endeavored to show this plug to have been secreted by 
external organs, as he supposed — two arms stretching back froW 
the aperture like those of Argonauta, and reaching beyond th* 
broken apex. The dorsal fold of Nautilus is, however, a sectelin| 
organ stretching back over the shell ; and, as the probable homo'' 
logue of the piug-secreting organ of the Orthoceratites and th^" 
guard -building organ of the Belemnoidca, il enables us al once t(T 
explain how the Eelemnoidea arose from the Orthoceratites, and 
why Aulacoceras had an imperfect mantle. This fold, which was 
far larger among the ancient Orthoceratites, would have been 
necessarily ofwn on the ventral side, then more bftt not completely 
closed in Aulacoceras, and finally completely closed in the later 
Belemnoidea, and able to construct a guard as perfect as that which 
Ihey carry. 

The solid guard of these animals, a compact cylindrical body 
such as they were known to possess, could have been only a heary 
burden to a swimming animal. The Belemnoidea, therefore, were 
not purely natatory ; but for these and other reasons, which we 
cannot here discuis, they were evidently ground-swimmers, prob- 
ably boring into the mud for shelter, or as a means of concealing 
themselves while lying in wait for their prey. 

The old view, that the guard could have been in any sense a 
" guard " against collisions with rocks, etc., in their wild leaps 
backwards, is inadmissible for many reasons. The most obvious 
are its position as an internal organ, its solid structure, and its 
weight. I think it more reasonable to suppose that it might 
have increased the liability to injury from collisions. In tracing 
the Belemnoidea to the Orthoceratites 1 have simply continued 
the labors and carried out more fully the sagacious inferences of 
Quenstedt and Von Ihering. 

The modern Sepioidea are known to be almost exclusively swim- 
mers; and the more ancient, normal, flattened forms, and their 
descendants, the cuttle fishes, have very light, flattened, internal 
shells, in which the stria: of growth are remarkable for their for- 
ward inflection on the dorsal aspect, due to the immense compara- 
tive length of this side of the aperture. 

The enclosure and suppression of the shell was predicted, with a 
sagacity which commands our highest admiration, by Lankester, 



3S7 



I Studies of the embryo of Loligo ; and these facts carry out his 
lustons, substituting, however, the hood for the two mantle- 
which were imagined by him as the organs which inclosed 
ihcU and formed the shcll-sac. 

03t paleontologists have considered the Sepioidea and Belera- 
ea as more closely allied ; but they appear to us as two orders, 
Linly as distinct as, and perhaps even more widely divergent 
, the Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea. 
mong these two orders we recognize many exceptional forms — 




*S the Spirula among Belemnoidea, and among Sepioidea the 
"Otis ; and we ihink they all prove our position, that the 
at so closely accords with the structural changes of the type 
ts purely physical agency must be regarded as the efficient 



and direct cause of the correlated changes of structure whidilis- 
tiiiguisii the different orders and suborders, and often of the 
exceptional genera and species. 

We will mention but one of these exceptional cases, in some 
respects the most pertinent — the existing Argonauta, or japci 
nautilus {Fig. a, p. 35 7). Here a thin shell secrete<l by the Tiuntlc, 
b)- the edge of the mantle, and by the two pairs of long ilnral 
arms, encloses completely the animal of the female alone, ihc nulc 
being naked. As a sexual organ for the protection of the eggs ; « 
an adolescent and adult s'ructure, originating at a late stage in the 
life of the indivitiual, and not in the she)] gland of ilic embryo j ami 
in its microscopical structure — it is not a tme shell, or similar 10 loy 
true shell among Cephalopoda. Still, in form and position, an4 
as built in part by the mantle, it is analogous to a true shell, and 
has in part also the functions of a true external shell, and onglit 
therefore to support or refute the hypothesis maintained above. It 
belongs to a swimming animal, and should therefore have tlw 
hyponomic sinus in the aperture and strife of growth as in Nauti- 
loidea; and these it certainly has. Compare the side view of 
Nautilus umiiiiea/us (jt. 354, Fig- 1), with the Argonauts and it "ill 
be seen that the lines of growth agree in both and that both pos- 
sess the hyponomic sinus on the outer side. One can appeid 10 
this example as a most convincing cxceplion to prove the rule tlia' 
the shell is a true index of the most remarkable adaptive struclucKF 
and, among the fossils, can give us exact information of important 
similarities or differences in structure and habits. 

The ffar/s of the Orthoceratite to adapt itself fully to tbt 
requirements of a mixed habitat of swimming and crawling gave 
rise to the Nautiloidea; the efforts of the same type to become 
completely a littoral crawler evolved the Ammonoidea. The suc- 
cessive forms of the Belemnoidea arose in the same way. But here 
the ground-swimming habitat and complete fitness for that was the 
obJL'tt. Tlie Sepioidea, on the other hand, represent the highest 
aims as well as the highest attainments of the Cephalopods in their 
evolution into surface-swimming and rapacious forms. We cannol 
seriously imagine these changes to have resulted from intelligent 
effort ; but we can with Lamarck and Cope picture them as d(»e 10 
elTurls on the part of the aninia! to take up new quarters in its en- 
vironment and thus acquire habits and structures suitable to the 



:> 



359 

changed physical requirements of its surroundings and this position 
is better supported by facts than any other hypothesis. 

Confining the discussion to the Tetrabranchiata, which are the 
most favorable for the present purposes, the next problem present- 
ing itself is whether the two orders, Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea, 
have had a common origin, or whether they bear internal evidence 
of having sprung from different ancestors. 

The embryo of all Ammonoidea, as shown by the author in his 
Embryology of the Fossil Cephalopods of the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology^ and since confirmed by the more extensive researches 
of Dr. Branco, is the little bag-like shell first discovered by Sae- 
mann. This is attached to the apex of the secondary shell. The 
embryonic bag has been called the protoconch by Owen ; and the 
secondary or true shell, the concK 

There is no protoconch in most Nautiloidea, as first shown by 
Saemann, then by Barrande, and subsequently by the author and 
Branco ; but where it ought to have been attached on the apex of 
the conch, there is a scar, first demonstrated by Barrande. The view 
brought forward by the author, that this scar indicated the former 
existence of a protoconch in the Nautiloidea, has been opposed by 
Barrande, Branco, and several authors, on the ground that the cica- 
trix demonstrated the existence of a distinct embryonic form. 
Therefore, according to Barrande, the Nautiloidea were not similar 
to the Ammonoidea in their earliest stages of growth, and must 
have been equally distinct in origin. 

I have found the protoconch in several forms of Orthoceratites, 
the figures being reproduced here. Figs. 3-7, and, further, it can 
probably be found on the apex of all of the so-called perfect shells, 
which have no scar or cicatrix. These, when described by De- 
Koni nek, were supposed by him, in his *'Calcaire carbon i fere " 
(Ann, du mus, ray. de Belgique)^ to be fatal to this conclusion. 
Having no scar, they could not possibly, according to DcKoninck, 
have had a protoconch. When the so-called perfect apex is broken 
off, the observer will probably find that this apex was the shriveled 
remains of a protoconch which concealed the cicatrix underneath, 
as in Fig. 4. 

There is therefore no essential difference between the embryos of 
the Ammonoidea and those of the Nautiloidea. There are some of 
minor importance which we cannot discuss here. These, however, 
do not interfere with the facts of general agreement ; and there is 



great 'probability that ihe shell- cove red forms of all kinds whld 
have the proioconch — namely, ihe ancient and modem Gastrfl 
poda, Tentaculiies, and the anci«nt Pteropoda, and all Oic ladici 




Fie- 3.— JUVMt aribeBpeKSJ'thrraMih U QrW-a 

W«B «hcd lU tlK ODUIll m 

Ilg, *.— AspMl of the apei. »Aer ihe pntoronch hH hwn ■roldenlal]]' la 
Inrliig Uw outer ib«l1. and upoftos Uie deatilx. ft c. •• brlbrt. 

Figs. S-T.— Apex wid pmtocoDCli of OrU. (ifinM UmM. IHm Ute ftoot. ■ 
a, pn4ocoach ; b, shell of apex. 

Fip. a. 3.-AnD(heili>dlTidDa], nld to be of the n 

tiefon. TheaBtborhiHBlKk in ^r-m'a'MB. avcd tte tDtoaf Ibf «wvr ttwllon 
(k« pTMiNoneh lUeU. thowtne the contlnniijr of Uk thrn tnrt ikita fan !■). whI 
coopMbig the crlAeDceUwtllmiM have l«ec ihe ilullwhlrk fwflitd Ihe *«• 
liiTBk Uid f»BM DO* ban! been a mne ploc as ati i li il bT BhmbIc (%■>. rf.. 
tLtfQ. (er«n(t.)>aMIU.|Latl^ 





361 



forms of Cephalopoda — had a common origin, probably in some 
chamberless and septaless forni similar to the protoconch. 

Clarke has recently shown that a straight, Orthoceras-like shell 
may have a complete egg-shaped protoconch like that of Bacirites.* 
His form certainly has the characters of an Orthoceras, but the 
protoconch is large and like that of the Ammonoidea. The shell 
may be transitional from Orthoceras to Bactrites, but is probably 
not a typical form of Orthoceras. 

The young of the simplest and earliest of Ammonoidea, the Nau- 
tilinidee, have in varieties of two species, as shown by Barrande, a 
straight apex, like the adult shell of such forms as Bactrites t and 
that described by Clarke. I have already claimed that this fact was 
sufficient to prove the high probability of a common origin from a 
straight shell like Orthoceras for both of the orders. Mimo<eras 
eompressum, sp. Beyrich (Figs. i-6, 20, PI. ii), is a shell which 
differs from all other Ammonoidea in an essential and highly impor- 
tant character. The septa have no inner lobe. The V-shaped 
annular lobe, which occurs in all the Ammonoidea except the Nau- 
titinidx, is also absent in this species. What is more to the point, 
some species have the sutures of a true nautiloid, since they have 

• "The PiDtoCOnCh of Orthoceras," ^m. Seal., ill. Aug., 1893. See also Figs. 28, 29, 






«f1gs. 30,3I,P1. 11). 



■Pror. Hall. IQ bil Palamlologll "J Xnc 
I'MTt, d«*prltKil a yoang specimen of 
iipvroarai (Orthoperul erolalum. ap. Hall. 
wblch h« mtweriiienilT loaned me for flir. 
ther Mad:r- Upon developing Ihe speci- 
men. I fOand (be bCBUilfull]- prererved 
■pel •howii In Figs. 10-12. TULs shows 
the shriveled protoconch with striaElona 
pftflvlug on to Its surface from the conch. 
vbkh am made somewbat more promi- 
nent In the flgurea Ihao in nalme, In 
order to demonstrals this codoccHod. 
The anaaeplonlc subslago Is smoolh Hnd 
dtttlDctly marked off trrtm the succeed- 
InC, probablf melaneplonlc aubaiage, 
wblch ihowE both longltudliial ridges and 
traiuTcnebandt uf growth. The melane- 
plonlc subatage Is marked off below by a 
Indicating the aperture of this subilage. The paraneplonlc 

changes In the form of the cone and In the character of the ridg^esand henda of growtb 
The absence of a hypoitomlc alnusln the youDg,of atialght as well as of oaiiillUn shell) 
>bow< thai they were not active awlmmera In these earlier neplonic aulKlages, and tha 
tbe byponome was acquired or at any rate laise and funcllonalli- active oulj at a com 
parstlvely late age of tba onlagenj'. 

FBOC. AMER. PHILOa. BOC. XXSII. 143. 3 T. PBINTED UAT 3.1, 1894. 




FiQ. 10, Fig. 11. 

Flos, 10-12, Bfyboceius chotalum. 
prominent band of growtb. probabtr 
.t"ge below this 



^ 



362 

dorsal saddles in place of dorsal lobes, as in the sutures of their 
nearest allies among the Nautilini and all of the remaining AmDio- 
noidea. Mimoceras ambigena Barr., of the Silurian (Figs. 7, 8, 
PI. ii), is a close ally of this Devonian species, and with Mimoceras 
(Gon.) lituum (sp. Barr.) Hyatt (Figs. 40-42, PI. viii), are the only 
ammonoids which are not involute nautilian in form. The whorls 
are in contact ; but there is no impressed zone, and no sutural lobes 
on the dorsum, as in true nautilian shells. On the contrary, they 
are purely gyroceran forms, with rounded dorsum and sutural sad- 
dles on this side in place of lobes. All of the Nautilinidae also have 
the septa concave, as in the Nautiloidea, in place of the invariably 
convex character of the septa in later Ammonoidea, as shown in 
PI. X. As doubts may disturb the mind as to whether M, compres- 
sum is an ammonoid, we recommend a comparison of this shell 
with the young of an undoubted species of Goniatitinae, Agonia- 
tites fecundus of Barrande, which is a miniature copy made by her- 
edity (Figs. 9-1 1, PI. ii). 

Bactrites is a perfectly straight form, similar to the members of 
the Goniatitinae in all important characteristics, especially the siph- 
uncle and septa, and it also has, like the young shell described by 
Clarke and all the coiled Ammonoidea, a comparatively large proto- 
conch, as demonstrated by Branco, whose figure has been repro- 
duced on PI. 2 of this paper. This same genus includes straight 
cones like Bactrites (^Orthoceras) pleurotomus Bar. {Syst. si/., PI. 
296 ), which are undeniably transitions to true Orthoceras in their 
striai of growth and i)osition of siphuncle. There is, therefore, 
convincing evidence in the structures of these Silurian shells that 
the Ammonoidea, with their distinct embryos, arose from the 
orthoceran stock, and passed through a series of forms, in times, 
perhai)s, preceding the Silurian, which were j)arallel to those char- 
acteristic of a number of genetic series among Nautiloidea, viz., 
straight, arcuate, gyroceran, and nautilian. 

In Scirncr ( Vol. iii, No. 52, February, 1884, p. 127), an article 
written by the author closed with the following words: **The study 
of the tctrabranchs teaches us that, when we first meet with relia- 
ble records of their existence, they are already a highly organized 
and very varied type, with many genera, and that there was a pro- 
tozoic [)eriod ; and the tctrabranchs, like their successors, certainly 
must have had ancestors which i)receded and generated them in this 
period, but of which we are at present necessarily ignorant. What- 



363 

! future may have in store for us we cannot now predict ; but 
nt the search for the actual ancestral form, though necessary, 
theless not hopeful. We can, however, rely upon the facts 
ryology, and predict without fear of failure that, when our 
Ige makes this prototypical form known, it will have a de- 
isemblance in structure and in aspect to the earlier stages of 
1 as observed in the fossil cephalopods. " 
le time this was written I had in my possession two fossils 
had collected myself in the lowest Calciferous of Newfound- 




[ was aware that they presented peculiar and apparently sep- 
[luncles, but in the field had supposed this to be due to an 
t that not infrequently happens, viz., the intrusion of Oriho- 
s of small size into the open upper parts of the large siphun- 
.he Endoceras. When an opporinnily finally arose, through 
S. Minot, Secretary of the Tliompson Science Fund, to 
e and publish these forms, I found that this was not the 
It that their siphuncles were truly septate and completely 




closed to within s certain distance from the living chamber by a 
series of partitions occurring at regular intervals. These Torms I 
shall describe under the name of Diphragmoceras in the Preceed- 
ingt ^ Hu Bottom Society of Natural History, and I shall endeavor 
to show that this genus is one of the distal ancestors of the Nautil- I 
oidea. This condtsion is based largely upon comparison with the 
laical, metanepionic subslage of development in (he shell of the 
modem Nantiliis. The first septum of the shells has appended to ' 
it a closed csecnm oi bag, the metanepionic representative of the 
siphunde, and the second septum is prolonged aplcally into a closed ■. 
tnbe, the end of which fits into this bag and usually lines it witi 
second or internal layer. In some cases (Fig. i j, p. 363), probably , 
through the displacement of the second septum, this closed termi- 
nation is carried forward and is then clearly seen to be a closed ^ 
tube extendiag into the sipliuncle. The bottom of this tube, i 
fact, fonns a septnm in the siphuncle, and the resemblance of this 
early stage to the adull structures of Diphragmoceras becomes per- 
fectly clear. Diphragmoceras had a closed tubular prolongation of 
the base of the mantle like that of the metanepionic septa of Nauti- 
lus and also more remotely similar to that which occurs in Endo- 
ceratidse. But it does not diminish in size towards the ap^, hang- 
ing like a cone in the middle of the siphuncle ; nor does it, as in 
that genus, also fill the siphuncle below its own extremity with a 
continuous mass of calcareous matter having a cone in cone struct- 
ure, nor has it any endosiphuncle. The sheath fits the siphuncle 
closely and rises step by step with the body, its end forming septa 
across the siphuncle at the resting stages of this process correspond- 
ing in number to those of the shell, but not corresponding in posi- 
tion, each septum being situated just in the interval between two 
septa, or opposite each air chamber of the conch. Thus the siphun- 
cle becomes divided into air chambers like those of the surround- 
ing shell, but these partitions are not pierced by any endosiphuncle, 
as are the endocones formed by the sheath in the Endoceratid% and 
the solid deposits and peculiar rosettes of the Actinoceratidae.* 

Dr. Charles E. Beecher has been fortunately able to lay hands 
upon the primitive radical of all of the Brachiopoda through the 
study of the early stages of the shell and has shown that the common 
embryonic shell ax protegulum of recent and fossil Brachiopoda is 
represented by one of the earliest occurring forms, Paterina, Dr. 

• ■'Genera of FiMsUCephilopodi," iVw. »«(. Sac S-A. m^ry. iili, USI, p. 271 



365 



R. T. Jackson has accomplished ihe same result for the Pelecypoda 
bjr following the same mode of analysis, and shown that Nucula was 
the common form to which all bivalve shells can be traced. Among 
corals, as shown by Beecher, there are satisfactory indications that 
there is a common ancestral form of at least a large proportion of 
that class, and the labors of Barrande, Mathews, Walcott and 
Beecher are leading to similar conclusions for the Trilobiles. The 
theory of monogenesis, or origin of similar forms from one form, 
is in other words now rapidly passing from the condition of a rea- 
sonable inference from the facts cf development and evolution, in 
which it has stood since the time of Von Baer, to that of a demon- 
strated law of general application. 

The individual coiled shell of every nautiloid may be said to 
pass through the slag;es of the protoconch and point of the apex. 
when it is nearly straight ;• then it becomes slightly curved or cyr- 
toceran, and then through a more completely curved or gyroceran 
stage, in which the first volution of the spiral is completed. After 
this it continues tlie spiral, commonly revolving in the same plane 
and becomes truly nautilian, the whorls on the outside touching the 
exterior of the inner ones, and spreading so rapidly by growth as 
to begin to envelop them, and in extreme cases, as in Nautilus 
fompilius, completely covers them up. 

The natural inference from these facts would be, that there was a 
similar succession of forms in past times — the straight in the most 
remote, the arcuate and the gyroceran in succeeding periods, and 
Ihe oauiilian only in comparatively mCKiern times. This would be 
a perfectly clear and legitimate mental conception. The structural 
relations of the adult shells appeared also to demand the same solu- 
tion, as shown by the researches of Quenstedt, Bronn and Barrande, 
and later of Gaudry. Barrande's researches, however, demonstrated 
tlial this idea could not be maintained, and that there were no such 
serial relations in time, but that the whole series of forms from the 
straight to the nautilian were present in the earliest period, and 
occurred side by side in each Paleozoic formation. 
This great author's conclusions have had a curious effect upon 

•till to be noted In Ibis cotm action thai the ea-rllest neplnolc aubatagea do do! hiva 
iqiul cjrculiu bauda of gniwUi, even Id true Orthocenu. lad &ra uevur qulie trmmetri- 
Wl Ob Ille dunum mni) Tenter. iD oilier wordi, llie rleaeriptive term, atnlghl. la onlf 
ipplleable Ui a geoeral waj. Ttae faULigest itagea of Itie eoacb bailn« dllDriiatlaieil 
*ralcr and donmm and ■ compTeoed eUtplltal ouUlne wblcb In similar (alhaloT Ibe 
iHOimDIpbragmocens. See Klsi. 10-12, p. 361. 



paleontologists. It lias been liastily assumed by Mine, Bamnd 
himself leading in this respect, that the mental conception »?^^»^ 
more than could be realized in nature ; and that the impcrfwiio -^^^ 
of the recorded succession was an obvious tcfutation of the docttin — M 
of evolution, and all pursuit of a solution unworthy of scriii^^M^ 
attention. I 

Statistically, the logical picture coincides with the observed »uc-^=3j 
cession in time. The straight cones predominate in the Silunic^i^^ 
and earlier periods; while the loosely coiled arc much leas numer — i 
ous, and the close coiled and involute, though prewnt, are alw ' I 
rare. The close coiled, or nautilian shells, gain in numbers in ib^^M 
Carboniferous, and the involute — meaning by this those llui en — ^ 
velop more or less the inner and younger whorls — are much mor-^^sj 
numerous than in the Silurian ; while, in the later times ni ()i^^^ 
Jur.T, all disappear except the involute. 

But suppose we reverse the course of nature and follow back !lu-^e 
diminishing number of nauiilian and gyroceran shell*. We ihe ^rw 
see, upon arriving at the Silurian, that tlie vanishing point of ihtfe ^? 
shells, although not traceable on account of the lost recontt c^f 
Protozoic lime, could not have been far distant, while the inaea-S- 
ing number and varied forms of the straight cones indictiH k>r 
them a more remote focus in time and consequently a moir ancicrtf 
origin. Thus we are able to see, that autcccdent to the Siiuiim. 
in the Prolozoic, there must have been a time when the stnighf ^ 
cones or their immediate ancestors predominated, to the txclmOB , 
of the coiled and perhaps even of the arcuate types. 

The involute shells of the e.irliest geological times were, ihfW- 
fore, jirobably evolved from the straight cones in regular succe35ii'" 
and we may, perhaps, ho]>e to eventually get the evidence of th'* 
succession in the fossils themselves. The exact counterpart of oat 
logical picture, as Barrande has truly stated, does not, howewn 
exist in the known geological records of later periods. Jadgedbj 
the cotamon classification, by the prevalent ideas about the affini"" 
of adult structures, and by the modes of occurrence of fossils in ll* 
rocks, the forms seem to be without law or order in their succession, 
and that eminent author's objections to the theory of cvoliilio' 
have never been fairly met and refuted by any modern writer. 

liut let us imagine, during the Paleozoic, a different condition 
affairs from what is now the general rule. Let us suppose EIkI 
thing possible as the quick evolution of forms and stiuctme, ■ 



tr 

/ 



lh«t in these ancient periods, near their points of origin, animals 
found the earth comparatively unoccupied, and were not only able, 
but in fact forced, to migrate in every direction into different habi- 
tats, and to make perpetual efforts to readjust their inherited struc- 
tures to the new requirements demanded by these comparatively 
unoccupied fields. Food and opportunity would have acted, in 
such localities, as stimulants to new efforts for the attainment of 
more perfect adaptation and for changes of structure useful to that 
end. We can neither imagine the effort to change of habitat and 
consequently change of habits, without their cause the primary 
physical stimulant of change in the environment, nor the changes 
of structure, except as results of efforts on the [lart of the organ- 
ism to meet the physical re.quiremenCs of the surroundings. That 
this process should end in the production of structures suited to the 
environment is inevitable. IVith these factors at work, both without 
and within the organism, the evolution of their structures obey a 
physical law which acts amid a thousand disturbing forces perhaps, 
but nevertheless must act with predominating force in one mean path 
or tiireetion, the resultant determined by the environment and the 
inherited structures of the organism. 

One can compare the changes taking place during the whole of 
PaleoEoic time with those known to have occurred in certain iso- 
lated cases in more recent limss; such, for example, as that of 
Steinheim, where a single species, finding itself in an unoccupied 
field, proceeded with unexampled rapidity to fill it by the evolution 
of new series and many species, all differing from each other, but 
all referable, by intermediate varieties, to the original form — in this 
example, a single species, the well-known Planorbis eequiumbiliea- 
tus." 

The rapid evolution of the entire family of the Arietidie can also 
be used to illustrate this point. This family originates from one 
ancestral species and yet the process is so rapid that eleven distinct 
Kries and seven genera arise, culminate and disappear within the 
limits of a single age of geologic history, the Lower Lias of Europe, 
South America, and North America.! 

There arc a number of other well-known cases, which could be 
cited, illustrating the quick evolution of species in locations which 

•"OenulaorTcnlnrj'SpeclBauf PlnnorblsaieielDhelin," by ALpheiu HriU, Uemotn 
M Yar Annlr. BrM. Soe. fTal. Hint. 
I ■' Ornnli of Uic Arlcilrlni," bjr A. tlfalt, amlUison. Ointrlb. No. ITS, Mem. Uua. 



I 



wcK obviously free when they first entered them. If we idmil 
such possibilities, and then find similar plienomena in the Palauoic 
epoch, we shall no longer need our first picture, bm can constnici 
a far more natural one. 

The Nautiloidea will not then present themselves as 8 simpit 
(Jhain of being, but as they really were — several distinct sioda oi 
grand series, arising from a common stoclt or radical, and each of 
these grand series divisible into many parallel lines of genetically 
connected forms. In ihe Lower Silurian, some of these do not 
have close-coiled forms at all ; some of them have : but all. eicevi 
the most primitive series, which are composed wholly of straigtil or 
arcuate forms, have some close-coiled species. These wc can ofttn 
trace directly with the greatest exactness, both by iheir derelop- 
nient and by the gradations of the adult forms, to corresponding 
species among the straight shells. 

The series we have described above, from the straight Bactrilc* 
to Goniatiies, compares closely with any single genetic series gfllx 
Nautiloidea, and shows that this last arose very suddenly in "if 
Prolozoic, and evolved true oautilian shells in the Calciferom ^ 
Quebec groups on the earliest fosstliferous level known positively to 
contain the remains of Cephalopoda, 

The genera of Ammonoidea evolved in the Silurian and Devooi*" 
are ^trurturally much more distinct from each other than anygrou[s 
of the same value (('. <r., genera) in the succeeding formations, U"! 
thus, in different but equally plain characters, teach us that ibty 
also had a quicker evolution within those periods than in the Uiw 
formations. Either this was the case, or else the Ammonoidea *« 
created in full possession of an organization only attained by 
similar parallel series of congeneric, close-coiled nautiloids, af'" 
passingthroughall the intermediate transformations above desaibed. 
These comparisons bring out other curious results. ThusaUhoog^i 
both are orders and taxonomically equal, we cannot compare iHe 
whole of the Ammonoidea with the whole of the Nautiloidea, but 
only with a more or less perfect single series of that order. 

The radicals of the Nautiloidea, Diphragmoccras, Endoceras. 
Orthoceras and Cyrtoceras, evolve through time as an oTpsuc 
trunk giving off an indefinite number of small branches in ?»!»• 
zoic time, each branch complete in itself and composed of suc- 
cessive species becoming more arcuate, coiled and closer coiled «» 
finally involute. In the Trias the trunk comes to an end, bataun*'' 



) 



369 

number of branches composed entirely of close-coiled forms con- 
tinue the existence of the order. 

The Ammonoids have similar straight radicals, but these are few 
in number, dying out in the Devonian, leaving in that period a 
number of branches of closely coiled and involute forms, the 
Goniatitinae. These immediately manifest a capacity for expansion 
a.nd become the radicals of other involute and more modified invo- 
lute series which expand in the Trias and Jura, becoming less 
numerous and degenerate in the Cretaceous and cease to exist with 
that period or soon afterwards. The history of the Ammonoidea so 
far as the succession of different forms is concerned is as a whole 
like that of a single series of the Nautiloidea which can be traced 
back to a primary straight radical and which has a complete history 
of modifications, but which necessarily occupies much less space 
chronologically, evolving and disappearing within perhaps the limits 
of a single epoch of geologic time. 

The trunk of the Nautiloidea is in other words a huge cone-like 
trunk, clothed with branches but topped only by a few straggling 
persistent survivors shooting up through time and reaching the 
present surface with the tip of a single twig. The trunk of the Am- 
monoidea is only a slender short branch, springing from the Nauti- 
loid trunk, but spreading out and splitting up into many smaller 
branches. Like a climbing vine of huge proportions it ascends 
through geologic history, resting upon the level of each age or epoch 
as upon a horizontal trellisand spreading into great masses of brandies 
at each of these resting places. It shows throughout its evolution 
less power to resist the action of the surroundings both in the num- 
ber and high specialization of the forms produced with every change 
in geologic history, but also in the more rapid and earlier disap- 
p)earance of each type, and finally in the total disappearance of the 
entire order. 

This comparison fully accords with the true picture of the genetic 
relations. The remarkably sudden appearance and fully developed 
structures of these earlier ammonoids finely illustrates the fan-like 
character of the evolution of forms from centres of distribution, and 
the quickness with which they must have spread and filled up the 
unoccupied habitats. 

The contemplation of the wonderful phenomena presented by 
these series has finally led the author to the conclusion that the 

FBOC. AMBR. PHIL08. 800. XXXII. 143. 2 U. PRINTED MAY 31, 1894. 



370 




pbcoomau of evoladoo la Ac Paleofnic *cr dtsdacs mta timed 
Urn periods, htrlag taken ptacc witb a ispidilf pialirted oolir tal 
tauf tlnm id nBoccnpwd firHt. like StetiAewL 

The bjpoiheui of Wagaer, tint aa Buocciipied field i 
far the evolntioa of new Iorbe, pits nmcBKlj m iinportaitce, il 
it is practicaUe lo apply >t to the fnp fa n atjoa of te moqihic pb»— ^ 
□omena that have been observed. Every mbnfia MMtmUoacc, 
by his own tpecial smdi«s, tbu this ii a rrawbk explamiJctt of 
the rapid dcvelopmeot of types in new fisf^atiou and of j 
den appeaianc< of w many of the different types of b 
the Paleozoic. 

Newbcny'i theory or cycles of sedtmentadoo shows thatl 
den appeaiaace of types is inexplicable, excepT upoo the s 
that their ancestors retired with the sea between each prHod of diti 
pont, and again retnming alter long intemls of absence madetl 
appeannce for (he fint lime in a giren littoral b-jna bearin^J 
cbaoged characteristics and different stractures acquired by AsT 
migTElioas of their owo stock in unknown seas. 

With this explanation and that of Wagner the lacts that have 
been observed fully coincide, and amply explain the pheaomcna, 
both of Hidden appeaiance in the Grst deposits of rormaltons, and 
subsequent quick development in the necessarilr unocctqiied 
habitats. The researches of Earrande, Alexatvder Agassii, Bigsbr, 
Gaudry and many others, show us (hat this must have been especially 
true of the Paleozoic as compared with subsequeat periods. 

In order to make a logical and generalized picture of correspond- 
ence between all the changes in the life of a nautilian close-coiled 
shell and the life of its own group accord exactly with the facts, care 
must be taken to limit it to groups quickly evolved, and these ex- 
clusively Paleozoic. Among Nautiloidca there arc no series trace- 
able directly to arcuate forms after the expiration of the Carboni* 
ferous. This is the common story, and we can see that the series 
must have risen very rapidly during the Paleozoic, branching out 
on every side from the common ascending trunk of the straight and 
arcuate forms. The same is tnie of the Ammonoidea in the 
Silurian, but only one short series, the Nautilinide, arises from the 
common trunk of straight cones. The close-coiled shells of this 
one family became the stock form for the whole of the Ammonoidea. 

The Nautiloidea of the Mesozoic are all nautilian forms, and 
their genetic series do not present the rapid changes of form 



371 



, observed in the Paleozoic ; lliey are all close coiled and have, as 
observed by M. Barrande, small umbilical perforations. This same 
stalement applies also to the Ammonoidea ; when near their point 
of origin in the Silurian their forms are very quickly evolved, but 
are much less quickly evolved after this period. The smaller gen- 
etic groups in the Paleozoic are distinguished by differences between 
Ihe sutures, which are decided indications of structural distinctions. 
Thus the groups of Clymeninnse and Goniatitinse differ widely in 
their sutures and position of siphuncle, and smaller groups have also 
decided structural differences. In later times the families and, in 
fact, the whole of the Ammonitinre are more alike. There are 
many genetic series in the Jura which can be distinguished by the 
minor details of the ornaments and outlines of the sutures, the dif- 
ferences boing less structurally than in the Paleozoic. In other 
words, the field of variation is slruclurally decidedly narrower in 
the Mesozoic than in Paleozoic, whetlier we consider the Nautiloidea 
or Ammonoidea. 

1 have observed the same phenomena rejjeated in each period 
and in the mode of appearance of the genera and families in 
lesser divisions of geologic time. Groups originate suddenly and 
spread out with great rapidity and often, as in the Arietidte of the 
Lower Lias, are traceable to an origin in one well-defined species 
which occurs in close proximity to the whole group in the lowest 
bed of the same formation. These facts and the acknowledged 
sudden appearance of the greater part of all the distinct tyjws of 
Invertebrala and Vertebrata in the Paleozoic speak strongly for the 
quicker evolution of forms in that time and indicate a general law 
of evolution. This has, in former publications, been formulated 
as follows : lyfes are evolved more qiikkly and there are greater 

. siruttural Hifferencei between genetic groups of the same stock while 
still near the point ef origin than appear subsequently. The varia- 
tions or differences take place quickly in fundamental structural 
characteristic, and ei'cn Ihe embryos may become different when in 
ihe earliest period of evolution, but subsequently only more superficial 
Structures become subject to great variations. 

This law applies only to the epacme or rise and acme, not to the 
(laracme or decline of the same genetic groups or stocks, These 
last will be shown further on to reverse this law of progressive evo- 
lution. 
The degtaded UDCoiled forms of the Nautiloidea and A en 



dea, wherever they occur, whether in the Silurian or in the Cna- 
ceous, invariably have coiled young, showing that they wcR iht 
offspring of coiled or iiautilian shells, that is, of progressive fortiu 
which have themselves been evolved from a series of siraigUt ifcn- 
ale and gyroceran predecessors. Their uncoiling is a truljf i«ro- 
gressive character, and this tendency is inherited in suctosiTc 
forms in several series, and thus the whole structure i< finally 
affected, the whorl reduced in size, and [he complication of tin: 
sutures and shells at all stages of growth is degraded until, in the 
development of the individual, only the close-coileil young renuiii 
to testify to their exalted ancestry. In other words, the forms te^lf 
inherit degraded characteristics at such an early stage llial it affcca 
their whole Hfe except the earlier stages.* 

If we examine any of the progressive scries we find thatchuK- 
teristic modifications or variations tend to appear first in the I»IM 
stages of growth and, as a rule, in adults, then in successive forn» 
of the same genetic series they tend to appear at earlier stages "' 
the ontogony and finally often disappear altogether or beeoO** 
embryonic, and this is the case also with the degraded character*^ I 
tics. This is clearly shown in the illustrations given on Pis, ii, i**"-! 
iv, especially in the history of the development of the snm^ 
among AmmonitinEe. The simpler sutures of the Nautilinidat ■ 
the Silurian and Devonian have undivided vcniral lobes and bro^ 
lateral lobes. The more specialized forms of the same suborder *" 
the Devonian liave the ventral lobes divided, prominent saddles a-*^ 
also introduced, and the lateral sutures become more sinuoi*-* 
These characters, especially the division, of the ventral lobes, ocr*-^^ 
in these forms (as in Fig. 17, ,PI. 2) in an early neanic substag^^' 
having replaced the hereditary undivided ventral of the adults ^^ 
the Naulilinida; and forced this characteristic back until it *■" 
repeated only in the earlier or paranepionic sutures. In the Ar^^^ 
monitinse of the Trias and Jura this process is carried still farthe^'^^ 
The repetition of the undivided ventral of the Nautilinida isco^^^f^ 
fined to the earlier septa, which show sinuous lateral outlines (as -^ 
Figs. 2, 3, PI. 4] and these septa become immediately convex, l^^^^ 






among NauUloldea In Uie U 



hlmllnr uncoil [ng or Ibp gemiilic ur senile sli 

^l•et■llS! 111 tlio ]ilnti>a, nombl)- Eiir;;el'iHiilrg tclluggi (PI. Iv. Fig. 1). Among A. 

si'e joiing lit lyi'ir, rliiiitri (I'l, 111, Figs. 11, 12), Cvioe, rtaileri. sner B«iT«nilB (PL U. ■ 

10|, A'lei^oc. ,->illm-iciiK, after Burrande (PI. U, Fig. 11), and BacnUtes, alter Bro«n - 

iU, FlR. 13,>. 



373 



first one alone being concave, the divided ventral is introduced 
earlier in the ontogony and, finally, the division of the outlines by 
digitations occurs in the earliest neanic substage, replacing the sim- 
pler sinnons outlines of the preceding suborders. 

In the evolution of a series heredity therefore acts according to a 
definite law of replacement. The ancfslral characters are brought 
into contact with new adaptive characteristics, which are being con- 
tinually introduced into the adult and adolescent stages of ontogeny, 
ami these eventually replace the former which are crowded back to 
make room for them into earlier stages than those at which they first 
appeared, and in many cases the latter are resorbed and disappear 
during this process. 

It is a fact, as shown by the writer and especially by Barrande 
and Dr. Branco, that the embryonic shell has varied comparatively 
little throughout time in the Ammonoidea, Nautiloidea, Belem- 
noidea and Sepioidea. But these statements do not apply to the 
earliest times in evolution of these types, when they branched off 
from the common stock. The embryos of the Ammonoidea and 
Nautiloidea become quite diflerenl from each other, the embryos of 
the Belemnoids remained like those of the Ammonoids, almost 
exactly similar to those of the Nautilinidre as shown by Chalmas 
and Branco, and finally in the Sepioidea, the protocoiich or em- 
"bryonic shells changed more completely and soon disappeared. 
.Attention has been already called to this remarkable fact in the 
;tory of the evolution of these forms, that the separation of the 
*>rdere look place rapidly, and in the embryos as well as in the 
adults near the origin of the orders, and that ibe comparative 
invariability of the embryo was confined to the subsequent history 
of these types after separation. Tlier« is also considerable ground 
for the conclusion that the young, not the earliest stages of shell, 
re more variable among the degraded types than among progres- 
ive forms. The facts already slated with regard to the young of 
Xaculites and some crioceran forms sliow this. 

This paper cannot be devoted to the discussion of the apparent 
reasons for these changes, but we have been able to explain (he 
;e in which they lake place. The mode in each case is the ear- 
Utr or accelerated development of ancestral characters, which as we 
have said follow the same law, whether progressive and tending to 
preserve the characters of the type, or retrogressive and tending to 
destroy the charaeters of the type. 




Aitention isgiven tothcacceieralion ofdevclopmciU because it trill 
be used in this paper and also because in looking at the young in tht 
usual haphazard way, naturalists often do not find the strong marks 
of affinity which the ordinary modes of studying lead them W 
anticipate. The law of acceleration explains the disaplKatanctof 
important characteristics which ofttfn occur even in short and com- 
paratively small series. It acts frequently within a small gtoopiili! 
the Arietidfe, so that the later larval and adolescent stages ut 
unlike the same stages in very neariy rclaled species in tlw sum 
family. Unless investigators are willing to take a small well-chu- 
acteri zed group and follow out all its transformatiorts Ihcytinn« 
hope even to understand the remarkable phenomena which an 
shown more or less in the history of every complete genetic setio- 

Embryologists generally consider it essential to associate il' 
forms having similar embryos, and to place widely apart in cla»ita- 
tion all forms having different embryos. Asa matter of experitnce 
that is correct, but it does not apply to the earliest timet io t!<' 
evolution of types and the surest guides of affinity are MmtliiHl 
the adult gradalionsof forms. Theseshow that the Nautiloi<ie»iiii 
Ammonoidea with comparatively distinct embryos arc ncverllirit* 
more closely related than the Belemnoidca and Ammonotdeiirhicli 
have precisely similar embryos, and Sepioidea and BcIcmnonlM 
which have very distinct embryos must also be affiliated. 

The cnibr) OS of all these must have been precisely similar a! 
their origin, but they afterward became varied in the diffeW 
orders, and we cannot lay down any hard and fast rule bywhid" 
the embryo becomes an invariable criterion of affinity. We think 
there is ample reason in the structures of these shells themselveslo 
account for the embryonic differences, and that it is possible to 
reconcile them with the affinities indicated by the gradations 
obsLTvcd between the adults. These reasons which we haveoolf 
space to allude to here consist in tracing the gradations of Mi 
structures and in a series of correlations which are plainly appawt 
between the adult structures, and the habits of the animals, andtl" 
power which habits in conjunction with effort have to change the 
adult structures, and then by the action of the law of accelentioii 
in heredity to change even the embryos, either quickly, when th 
habits aru widely changed, or more slowly when they vary bat 
slightly with the progress of time. 

Evolution is apparently a mechanical process in which llie aitiM 



376 

of the habitat is the working agent of all the major changes ; first 
taking effect as a rule upon the adult stages, and then through 
heredity upon the earlier stages in successive generations. Thus 
in the open fields of the periods of their origin they expanded into 
their different habitats, varying to accomplish this purpose with 
great rapidity, but once in their appropriate habitat, inducements 
to change or open fields became rarer and we get as a result com- 
parative invariability. As time rolled on and the earth became 
more crowded, the variability was reduced to less and less import- 
ant structural changes, except in the retrogressive types. These 
exceptions are our best proofs of the action of the habitat. The 
changes in these retrograde forms are again remarkable for 
the rapidity in which they take place, and some of these types, at 
least, can be shown to have occupied free fields where they met 
with new conditions, and to have changed their habits and struc- 
tures rapidly to accord with these new conditions. 

In 1843 Auguste Quenstedt began researches which ought long 
ago to have led to this solution. He demonstrated by repeated ex- 
amples, that among diseased types the most extensive changes of 
form and structure might take place in a single species, and within 
the narrowest limits of time and surface distribution. Quenstedt 
was thus the first to show that in diseased forms the shell had the 
inherent habit of reversing the process of growth and evolution, and 
of becoming more and more uncoiled by successive retrograde 
steps. Von Buch and Quenstedt, master and disciple, and the 
author independently of either of these predecessors, in three suc- 
cessive researches, have arrived at the identical conclusion, that 
these uncoiled shells are truly distorted, or, as we may more 
accurately express it, pathological forms. Tliey are not, however, 
rare or exceptional, as one might at first suppose, but occur in num- 
bers and in every grade, from those that differ but little from the 
normal forms, to those that differ greatly; from those that are ex- 
ceedingly confined in distribution, to those which lived through 
greater lengths of time.' But in all cases they exhibit degradation, 
and are expiring types. The author has repeatedly traced series of 
them, and studied their young, partly in Quenstedt*s own collec- 
tion. In all cases they show us that great changes of form and 
structure may take place suddenly ; and this lesson could have been 
learned from Quenstedt 's work and example as well forty years since 
as now. 



\ 



376 

When we attempt to understand these pathologic uncoiled series 
and forms, which show by their close-coiled young that they were 
descended from close-coiled shells, we find ourselves without com- 
parisons or standards in the early life of the individual. The laws 
of geratology — that the old age of the individual shows degradation 
in the same direction as, and with similar changes to those which 
take place in successive species or groups of any affiliated series of 
uncoiled and degraded forms — here come into use, and serve to ex- 
plain the phenomena. This correspondence is shown in the uncoil- 
ing of the whorls, loss of size, the succession in which the orna- 
ments and parts are resorbed or lost, the approximations of the 
septa, and position of the siphuncle. It is quite true, as first stated 
by Quenstedt and also by D'Orbigny, that every shell, when out- 
grown, shows its approaching death in the closer approximation of 
the last sutures, the smoothness of the shell, the decrease in size, 
etc.; but, in order to realize that these transformations mean the 
same thing as those which take place in any series of truly retro- 
gressive forms, we have to return to the types in which unfavorable 
surroundings have produced distortions or effects akin to what 
physicians would term pathological. 

This frequently happens in small series of Nautiloidea ; and, if 
we confine ourselves to these, we can make very accurate com- 
parisons : or, on theothcr hand, in the case of the Animonoidea, 
we may trace the death of an entire order, and show that it takes 
place in accordance with the laws of geratology. Such series, 
among the Xautiloidea, are abundant in the earlier formations ; but 
they have not the general significance of the similar forms among 
the Animonoidea, and can be neglected in tliis article. There are 
no known cases of degraded series of uncoiled forms among the 
ammonoids of the earlier or Paleozoic periods ; they may have oc- 
curred, but they must have been excessively rare. 

In the Trias and early Jura, patliologic uncoiled forms are rare 
among ammonoids, but in the Middle and Upper Jura they increase 
largely ; and finally, in the Upper Cretaceous they outnumber the 
normal involute shells, and the whole order ceases to exist. Neu- 
mayer has shown, that a siniihir degradation occurs in all of the 
normal ammonoids of the Cretaceous, and that their sutures are less 
complicated than those of their immediate ancestors in the Jura. 
This ])roves conclusively, that the degeneration was general, and 
affectetl all lorms of Animonoidea at this time ; since the uncoiled 



377 

are not confined to special localities, as in the Jura, but are 
foux^d in all faunas so far as known. 

TTlie facts show that some general physical cause acted simulta- 
neously, or nearly so, over the whole of the known area of the 
"world during the Cretaceous period, and produced precisely similar 
effects upK)n the whole type as had here and there been noticeable 
only within limited localities and upon single species or small num- 
l>ers of species during the previous periods. This general cause, 
•whatever it may have been, affected the type so as to cause the suc- 
cessive generations of the larger part of the shells to become dis- 
torted, smaller and more cylindrical in their whorls, smoother and to 
lose their impressed zones and their complicated foliated sutures. 
In extreme cases they became again, with the exception of the 
earliest stages which are usually broken off and lost, perfectly straight 
cones, like the orthoceratitic radicals. So much alike are they, that 
It IS quite common for those who are not students of this group to 
mistake the degraded Baculites for the radical Orthoceras. This 
decrease in size, increasing smoothness, and uncoiling, is precisely 
parallel with the similar transformations taking place during old age 
in the normal involute shells of the Jura, which, when old enough, 
also depart from the spiral, or tend to straighten out, and always 
lose their ornaments, decrease in size, and so on. 

T'he universal action of the surroundings, as we now know them, 

IS certainly not exclusively favorable to the continuance of life, and 

^^y t>e wholly more or less unfavorable. It certainly perpetually 

excites the animal to new and more powerful exertions, and, like 

P^^F^etual friction, wears out its structures by the efforts which it 

obliges it to make for the support of the structures in doing work. 

At first this leads to development, the supply being greater than the 

Qernand ; but sooner or later, and with unvarying certainty, the de- 

roand exceeds the powers of supply, and old age sets in, either pre- 

'^aturely, or at the termination of the usual developmental periods. 

Ane remarkable and at present unique example of the Ammonoidea 

Piac<2-3 us in a position where we can see the same process taking 

P^c^ in the whole of a large group, with attendant plienomena 

^roii^^j- in every respect to those which we have observed in indi- 

^^1 shells of the same order. 
. ^ ^vimbers of species and genera, and in the complication of the 
^^*^«i.l structures and the production of the external ornaments on 

^*^OC3. AHEB. PHILOS. BOC. XXXII. 143. 2 V. PRINTED MAY 31, 1894. 



the shells, the order reaches what appears to be the acme of cvolcai 
tioii in the Jura; then retrogression begins, and, atcadil/ gaininigM 
finally affects all forms of the type, and it becomes extinct. Sitallc:^ 
series of the Ammoiioidea and Nauliloidea go through the same prcria 
cess within their more restricted time-limits, and in the same wi)^g 
but can be compared with the individual much more accurately an^^ 
closely. It is evident, then, tiiat the comparison of the life of »^^ 
individual with that of its immediate series or group reaches a lii^^ 
degree of exactitude, and that the observed phenomena of the li tig- 
of an individual should enable us to explain, in some measure, the I 
equivalent phenomena of the life of the group; and we are unavoid- 
ably led to entertain the e.\|>ecUtion that it does explain it. 

The evidence is very strong that there is a limit to the progra* 
sive complications which may take place in any type, beyond 
which it can only proceed by reversing the process, and retrogral- 
ing. At the same time, however, the evidence is equally itrong 
that there are such things as types which remain comparUiwlT 
simple, or do not progress to the same degree as others of Ibei' 
own group. Among Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea these >at tiM i 
radical or generator types. No case has yet been found of a ItigWl' 
complicated, specialized type, with a long line of descendants to«s- 
ble to it as the radical, except the progre^ive : and ail oar exampla 
of r;idiials are taken from lower, simpler forms; .ind these mM 
types are longer-lived, more persistent and less changeable in ticoe 
than their descendants. 

We find the radicals of the Nautiloidea living throughout tli' 
Paleozoic, and per[>etuaily evolving new types in all directions; 
then this process ceases, and the primary radicals themselves die 
oni. Hut they leave shells, which are in that stage of progression 
wliich I have called the n.autilian. These, the more direct descend- 
ants of the radicals, become secondary radicals and generate series 
having more invohile shells. These, in turn, as secondary radicals, 
exhibit a ^Teater chronological distribution than their descendant 
invoUite forms. The same story may be told of the Ammonoidfa, 
b\u substituting at once the close-coiled shell (the secondary radicals) 
for the primary radicals of the Nautiloidea, even as far back as it* 
Di-vonian. 

This is the essential clement of difference between the lifeoht* 
whole order and that of the individual. One can accurately com- 
pare the rise and fall of tlie individual and its cycle of transfonna- 



n 



^ 



379 

tions with that of any of the single series or branches of the same 
stock which become highly specialized and then degenerate ; but, 
*»hen an attempt to go farther is made, similar difficulties arise to 
-chose encountered in tracing the progress of types and orders. The 
»-^dical and persistent types are still present, and teach us that, as 
M ong as they exist sufficiently unchanged, new types are a possibility. 
J^ have traced a number of these in the two orders, and have 
^^und that they change and became more comphcated, and that 
^;»robably a purely persistent or entirely unprogressive type does not 
^— 'xist among the fossil Cephalopoda. 

Tlie most celebrated example of unchanging jjersistency has been, 
^S.nd is now supposed to be, the modern Nautilus. The similarities 
•rr^^ 'his shell to some of the Silurian coiled forms — which have 
K3;-^used Barrande and others to suppose that it might be transferred 
K«=) the same fauna without creating confusion — belong to the cate- 
^^«)ry known to the naturalist as representative. It is similar in 
tf~«C3rin, and even in structure, in the adults, but has young with en- 
«:sTeiy distinct earlier stages of development, and belongs to dis- 
*.STict genetic series. The young of the txhXing Nautilus pompilius, 
^>iDwii on PI. i, can be easily compared with those of their supposed 
K»«atcst congeneric shells, Barrandeoceras of (he Silurian given on 
1*1. V. Figs. 6-10. 

Comparative invariability or persistency is common to all 
""adicals ; and they force us to recognize the fact that the orders 
Could have produced new series, as long as they were present, 
if it had not been for the direct unfavorable action of the physical 
changes which took place, so far as we now know, over the 
^fholc earth. Thus, in making comparisons between the life of 
the Individual and the life of the group, one cannot say that the 
causes which produced old age and those which produced retrogres- 
sive t)'pes were identical: it can only be said that they produced 
similar effects in changing the structures of the individual and of 
the progressive tyjies, and were therefore unfavorable to the farther 
development and complication of these types. In their effects they 
were certainly similar; but in themselves they might have been, 
and probably were, quite different, agreeing only in belonging to that 
class of causes usually described as pathological, or those whose 
Datorc can be generally summed up as essenliatly unfavorable to the 
ITOgress, and even to the existence, of the organism- 
In order to understand the meaning of these evidently degraded 



structures, we must turn back to the first remarks upon the orcJ-^^* 
The apertures and forms of the retrogressive shells all show t J'*^ 
they were exceptional, that they had neither well -developed ar 
for crawling nor powerful hyponomes for swimming; that, in ot 
words, they could not have carried their spires in any of the or 
nary ways. Their habits, therefore, must have been more or 1 
sedentary ; and like the sedentary Gastropoda, Fissurella, Patel 
etc, as compared with the locomotive forms, they presented degc 
eration of the form and structure of their more complicated anc 
tors. Their habits did not require the progressive grades of stni- 
ture, and they dispensed with or lost them ; and in many cases t 
took place very rapidly. This retrogression was in itself unfav 
able to a prolonged existence ; and the phylogerontic nature oft 
changes tells the same story, and one can attribute their extincti 
to the unfavorable nature of their new habitats, and also call the 
pathologic types without fear of misrepresenting their true relatio 
to other forms. 





II. Principles of Bioplastology. 

Relying upon the results of such researches as are descri 
above and especially upon those of Cope, Ryder and Packard, 
have in a former publication used the name Bioplastology to desi 
nate that branch of research which deals especially with the chai 
actcristics of development and decline in the life of an individu 
and endeavored to show that correlations exist between these an 
the life history of the group to which the individual belongs. I 
order to classify this branch of research properly it is necessary t 
^cpiiratc it from otlicr allied moilcs of stiulyini; orij^anic |)iienoincii-i. 

Arxor.oiiv or Bai ii.MOLOGV.t 



Mr. I)!i< ktiKiii an<l IkuIut, both well known for thoir oriLrinaiai: 
!ii-triuii\c rr-(Mr( hes on l\iieozot")U)L:v in lOniiland, have rcccntlv 
111 ,1 ioint pip'T nndrr the title of ''The Terms of Auxology,"' 
( I ii ici-^:-*! t!ic iioinenclaiure eni|»K)_ve(l in my papers to tlesii^nate t;' 
-ml,''^ . «r L;r(.\vth ami de( line in the individual. Thev have a^-^r 

li. it!,.' l.n- _';\.m i <\ ;i-'|'-:- <»f tip' !',ft< tlia' ^roiii to chjir:ioi'*ri/-.' ;iu' -l-ftfr- - 

1.- ,!M li-- ..t •■ - .;• .ii .in I I li''ir ici.it hhi- t<» r>ii)|.l;i--t' >I()i;y in a paper enti!l«.'l. "■ n:<>:-".f:^ 

1 ,. ,.:y .III 1 111. i;. ' i:.- 1 I'.i.i'irli.- of r.i>l'i^ic Iii->t.Mivh." I'.'tc. IUt<. s,--. Si*. lli'\.w~ 

j.i. I I ;ji ;;; i ;i :.!;■ t pr. l;i;lin;U\ at'-tr,l«'t Ul'pi'arrl '\\\Zo>'. Ah-.' i-fcr. N<»<, 4.V'.4jr.!*' — 

' .[1 . /' . / ./ ' /',''. .<" .. I'lii'..!., 1lm«.. l^71. aii'l Ori'/ii! of f/tr Fit*!-', j,. viii.t'to. 

' / ■'. .1 •: , \'-. I""', li"'. l^'.'J. 




r- r 



ir..'. 



,1 > ' 



[<0 



A»- 



/ 



381 



X>roposed in view of the correlations which have been shown to 
«ist between the transformations that occur in the stages of dcvel- 
«ipmeiit and decline in ihe individual and those that characterize 
ihe evolution of the group to which it may belong, to designate the 
iiudy of these correlations by the new term "Anxoiogy," This 
:emi is open to the objection that it is derived from «t'?i;, meaning 
iimply progressive growth np to and including the adult stages, and, 
ilthough in common with others I have fell that it has claims lo be 
retained, there are good reasons why it should be restricted in 
application, if adopted, to researches upon growth. I have placed 
ilternative terms at the head of this abstract, because one or the 
ather is likely soon to be adopted and I hardly feel cotnpetent to 
irrive at a decision myself without further study of the facts. 

Cope in his " Method of Creation of Organic Forms," used the 

term Bathmism from BaB/ius, meaning a step or threshold, to 

-designate growth force, and it is therefore questionable whether 

he term Bathmology should not be substituted for Auxology in 

>rder to give uniformity to the nomenclature. 

Dr. C. S. Minot, who has given the first demonstration of the 
'undamental law of growth, has shown that the common notions 
"writh regard to the action of this force in organisms are erroneous. 
His plotted curves of the actual additions in bulk to the body by 
growth during equal intervals of lime in guinea pigs show that 
Yhesc increments are in steadily decreasing ratio to the increase of 
"vreight of the animal from a very early age. He was so much 
impressed by these facts that he characterized the whole life of the 
iDdividual as a process of senescence or growing old. 

This law is applicable also to the growth of the body as measured 
"by the ratio of the increase of the shell in all its diameters and by the 
distance apart of the septawithrelation to the ratio of increase of the 
transverse diameters of the volution. The great rapidity of the 
growth starling from the apex of the conch is obvious and can be 
observed in all the figures of the young given in this paper which 
spread out suddenly in the building of this part of the skeleton. 
The septa mark successive arrests in this process of construction, 
and it can be readily seen that the first septa are wider apart in 
proportion to the diameters of the vulution in the nepionic (larval) 
stage than in the early pari of the neanic (adolescent) stage and 
that more uniformity in the distance apart occurs in the ephebic 
(adult) stages until the last of the gerontic (senile) stage is reached. 



Then the septa alter in this respect and finally in extreme j 

rontic substage the approach of exlinctiou is heralded by the dc»s« 
approximation of several septa, as iias already been statei! abov^^ - 
The greater number of these that show this change indicate th»i t B"^* 
species possess great vital power and has a prolonged old a ^^g ^ 
changing slowly, and the small number show that aenib'ly is a mtw ^■'"e 
rapid process. In die higher, more specialieed Nautiloids 3mr-».<i 
Ammonoids there are usually only two or three approximate sef> *-ai 
in old age ; in Endoceras, a radical type, there may be as many sts 
twenty-two which show degeneration in the rate of growth. Thc-K'^ 
are other phenomena of a similar ciiaracter which might be notic^^«i 
in this connection, but must be deferred to future publications. 

Nalnralisls have as a rule understood the differences between i Ytc 
organic molecular increase that takes place within cclU which is 1 1»^ 
simplest form of growth, and that which follows this and builds «-«r* 
the tissues of the body by the division of cells. Both of these pr<=>- 
cesses, although distinct from each other, result in additions Ui th^ 
bulk of the whole body of the organism and come properly unil^'' 
the head of growth. But while both are thus constructive so lar ^»^ 
the body is concerned, only one can be considered constructive o*" 
anabolic while the other is essentially destructive or cataboHc so fj*-*" 
as the cell itself is concerned. 

The function of nutrition aud the nature of the organic stmctiir^ 
are the two es-^ential fartors of growth, and this term, /. if., grew! Ti, 
also obviously applies to themorphology of metabolism, coosistinf of 
intracellular increase, or anabolism, and cellular development, or 
catabolisra, and the phenomena resulting from the altenuting 
action of these in ontogeny. This at once shows that growth is nor 
simply progressive addition to the bulk of the body, s 
tiplication of cells by fission is in itself catabolic or development^/ 
so far as the cells are concerned. Further than this the ultitaaif 
results of catabolism are of the nature of reductions as is shown ^J 
Minot's law,* and also by Maupas' observation t on the old age "' 
the agamic cycle in Infusoria and the results of late researches on 
amitosis in cellular fission. These and the actual rednclion of tt« 
biKly taking place in extreme senility show that the term giowtli 



I'll. 



nii.1 iii'ji 



mion,"J-0Eir 



lii. So. I 



(, .\ug.. IWO. 

rhorfhw tixpr'nmoiiUilu aiir la iiiul tiplication dea IiiAtaorci olUi^," JtL A M 
>1 ■jia.. Sr. -i, vf, pil 1115-LT7, tl ilnil., vll, pp. 11^^17. 



covers decrease in bulk due to development and use as well as in- 

When one passes beyond this and attempts to deal with the char- 
Kcteristics of ontogeny or phylogeny he at once finds himself in the 
presence of other forces, such as heredity and other processes, 
namely, the acquisition of new characters and the renewal of the 
powers of growth in nuclear substances by means of conjugation. 

The manifestation of growth energy, in brief, arises from two 
factors, or, at any rate, is always found associated with twii, a living 
organism and assimilation of nutritive matter, and is an obvious 
result of their union. 

Genesiolocv, 

The term heredity has been used in two senses, one expressing 
the results of the action of an unknown force which guides the 
genesis of one organism from another and a second in which it 
implies the force itself Clearness of statement demands that some 
Other term than heredity should be used, and I have consequently 
proposed to designate the study of the phenomena by the term 
Gcnesiology, from ri/eati, meaning that which is derived froa\ 
"birth or descent, this force itself as genetic force, and the principle 
of heredity thus becomes genism. 

The continuity of the same .element in the agamic division of 
unicellular bodies, as in Protozoa, makes it comparatively easy to 
explain the transmission of likeness, but this is growth of the onto- 
genie cycle. Maupas shows this clearly and continually speaks of 
the growth, full-grown virility, and senility of his generations of 
Dnicellular, agamic protozoans. In fact they are obviously in a 
disunited form the equivalent of the colony of protozoans, and 
secondarily, although more remotely, the equivalent of the single 
metaxoan, or individual, which is essentially a cycle of agamic cells 
reproducing by fission. 

While this likeness of agamic daughter cells to the original agamic 
mother cell which has disappeared in them may be considered a 
manifestation of heredity, it is also a form of growth and readily 
separable from the more complicated relations ^pf.organism pro- 
duced by conjugation of two forms. When the transmission of 
likeness is complicated with the effects of conjugation the difRcul- 
ticH increase until finally, in the bodies of the Melazoa, they culmi- 
nate Id a problem of surpassing difficulty. Heredity is as plainly 



written in the life history of the Protoioan and in the growth 



oi 



cells, in the tissues in the budtliiig of the Mcla/oa and parthcJ"***" 
genesis as in these more complicated forms, but the phcaomeni * 
transmission occurring after conjugation can be separated frO* 
growth and considered upon entirely distinct lines. 

The theories offered show this. Thus the corpuscular thcori^== ^' 
whether gemniules or biojihors or pangenes are assumed, assert L 9 ^ 
need of minute bodies for the irausmissioD of characters, while ^czi^^fi 
the other hand the dynamic theories, maintained principally "^z:^:^ 
American authors, are more in accord with physical phenomena ^»n 
assuming that there is a transmission of molecular energy, and fioi-^^^ 
of these views support Hering's theory of what may Ik called mi^ -^x:- 
megenesis, namely, that heredity is a form of unconscious orgies ^^ 
memory, and this, from ray point of view, is the only satisfactc* ^ 1 
one yet brought fprward. 

Heredity is obviously manifested, for the most part, in the dev^l^ "3- 
opmental results of growth and appears chiefly in the cytoplasir^ ^^ 
stnictures which Dr. Minot so clearly places before us as consianC "^^ J 
increasing with age while the comparative size oftiie nucleus whi-^^:=" ■ 
represents the power of growth force decreases. Whether this *■ — -^ 
granted or not, it can hardly be denied thai, in describing the A ^^^' 
velopment of organisms along ontogenetic and their evolution alo'-»- -^ f 
phylogenetic lines we are dealing with cycles of progression i» ■» * 
retrogression which are quite distinct from the growth of the bo*:^^^- >' 
as determined by the laws that govern its increase and reduction :^ " 
bulk, and that one cannot describe the study of both series of pt^^^^ 
nomena under the same general term withfnil danger of coufuiic^ -mr-i. 

Genism, in brief, is the transmission of likeness from one onC -^c^- 
genie cycle to another of the same species. It appears to be A- '™-^* 
to the same factors as the perpetuation and rejuvenescence of tL ■ ■■' 
cycles themselves, namely the union of two distinct forms of C ^^^ 
^ame species or kind. 

Ctetology.* , . _ 

Weisiiiaiin and bis supporters deny that ctctetic or acqtlflT' 
characieis are inheritable, but it is safe to make the assertion itt^^ 
this will not be maintained by the students of Bioplastolog?'- 
Withiii the limits of my own experience in tracing the geocXf't 
relations of varieties and species of fossils CephalopotJs and OtlKf 

Ar^ril- MuiclliliiK iiciiulreil. 



> 




groups through geologic time, although I have tried to :inal)'£e the 
1>ehavior of all kinds of characteristics, I have failed to find any 
such distinctions. If Weismann's theory is true, it ought to be 
I>racticable to isolate in each type some cla« or classes of modifica- 
tions that would be distinguished bj the fact that they were not 
inherited. 

It is practicable to isolate inherited characters from new variations 

^vhich have not becoreie fixed in any phylum. It is also practicable 

Ko point out characters which are transient in various ways appear- 

Sng in individuals but not in varieties, in species but not in genera, 

Eind soon. When one has by this system of exclusion arrived at 

tthe end of the list, he finds that there is no class of characteristics 

^rhich may be described as non-inheritable. The new variations of 

KUiy one horizon which can be isolated from inherited ones are not 

listiiiguishable in any way from others which occurred previously, 

n time these new variations in their turn become incorporated 

riih the younger stages of descendants. The transient characters 

if the loon also do not differ in any way from others that are 

ahcrited in allied species, genera, etc. For example, the position 

if the sipiiuncle is very variable in some species of Nautiloidea, in 

ithers of the same order it is invariable within a certain range, and 

Anally, in other species and genera it is invariable. In the Ammon- 

oidca, derived from the same common stock as the Nautiloidea, this 

<3rgan attains a fixed structure and is invariably ventral from the 

X>evonian to the end of the Cretaceous, although in number of 

forms and genera the ammonoids faj exceed the nautiloids. All 

characteristics, even those observable in some groups only in old 

age, are found in the a<iiilts of other groups, and finally in the 

young of the descendants of these, according to the law of tachy- 

genesis. Everything is inherited or is inheritable, so far as can be 

judged by the behavior of characteristics. Cope has ably sustained 

this opinion in all his writings and has called it the theory of 

••diplogcncsis" In allusion to the essentially double nature of the 

characteristics first ctetic and then genie. 

It is probable that what has been called effort is the principal 
internal agent of organic changes as first stated by Lamarck, and 
subsequently rediscovered and first maintained by Cope and subse- 
quently by others in this country. The modern school of dynam- 
ical evolution, or the Neolamarclcian school, which has adopted this 

PROO. AKRR. FBILOa. BOC. XXXU. 143. 3 W. PStNTED JVSK 5, 11^04. 



theory as a working hypothesis, regards effort as an inlemal encrg 
cajiable of responding to external Stimuli. They include und 
this name both the purely mechanical or involuntary, as wi;ll a» 
voluntary reactions of organisms, whether these are simply plasrk'aij 
or cellular, or occur in the more highly difTcrentiateil form of nc 



The word "effort" has mental connections with conscioM 
deavor, and when we enlarge the definition so as to include pn 
mechanical organic reactions, this obliges every one to make i 
effort to rid himself of old habits of associating It witli |isyi:l» 
phenomena. It not only imperfectly explains wliat is meai 
does not of itself fully convey the idea of a force cajiahlc i 
ing the parts of the body into new forms, and cannot be ui 
for the characteristics which originate through its action. 

No apology is therefore needed for the use of Entcrgogenwiii fa 
the popular term effort derived from Irnit, meaning within, m ■ 
!p)-o'/, meaning work or energy. This terra does not inictfcte«i 
tlie name given to the general theory by Prof. Coi^e — kinelopeofiss 
in allusion to its dynamical character as a theory of gcnciis — tmi a 
suDplementary to this more general title. It is also i]uite t)ia 
from his neurism or nerve force, and phrenism or thiiughl if 
although both of these, if we rightly understand him, are een»i 
forms of entergogenism. 

Dr. Johii .\. Ryder * has discussed in one of his profound esM.^— — ^ 
the relations of the statical and dynamical phenomena of develof^^^^' 
ment andevolution, using (he terms ergogeny and ergogenetic f(^=^' 
all thi: modifications produced by organic energy, and he considf^^^' 
kinelogcncsis and statogenesis as divisions of the first namecIlJ- 
These instructive si>L-ciilations and observations were writlfn ^^^ " 
show that the changes of form produced by motion, and thoae ra'>c — -'' 
ifications or conditions which may be properly considered as die ^^o 
the condiiious of equilibrium, are often reached, as is claimed I — ^J' 



V of kinetogenesis and are consi" 



Ryder, as the result of Cope' 

ured bv him as statogenelic. These are interesting in connect'*^'" 
with tlie above, and support the remarks made elsewhere withie''^'^' 
ence to liiu use of terms like "avolution," and are subsiantiil'y ' 
a^Tfi'meni with the gi.-neral views taken in this paper; although t»*" 
ing up a side uf the nieclianics of evolution not specifically '*'* 
cuised here. 



ic El-uUlIiOll," PnW. All 



r. i*i'io*, Sot, HiUi., n*'-*^ 



The part entergogenic energy or entergogenism has played in the 
production of normal reactions, hypertrophy, etc., is well known, 
and the fact that an organism cannot move or respond to external 
stimuli without its aid needs no illustration. It seems equally plain 
chat modifications of structure and form follow as the results of 
such repeated actions developing into habits, and this process aeces- 
Earily ends in the permitnent establislimeiit or fixing of these modi- 
^cations In varieties and species. 

This theory accounts satisfactorily for the so-called mysterious 
suitability of organic structures for the work they have to do. 
3uch a force, capable of producing changes of structure and sensi- 
Cive to the impiuging action of external physical conditions, must 
work in directions determined by these two factors, i. €., the struc- 
r tires already existent in the organisns and the external forces them- 
t«lves. It is obvious that these actions and reactions must, as has 
taeen already stated above, produce iiabits and changes of structure 
which are direct responses to the environment. 

If one uses the Darwinian phraseology, one can say that the 
t^ariatious thus produced are natural selections, and I have called 
: liein in other publications /AyjiVn/ selections, although it is likely 
;Siat the use of the word selection in any way may convey an erro- 
"^eous idea of ray meaning. Selection implies the choice of some 
— Iiaracters or tendencies out of a number of others, and in the 
rKiinds of most naturalists it also implies the survival of the fittest 
z:]iosen by the working of the struggle for existence in two direc- 
tions, in one direction between contending organisms, and in the 
Other between the same organisms and their surroundings, 
^^.ccording to the opinions maintained in this paper, however, the 
OFganistn has no such power of choosing, in the evolution of its 
cturact eristics. It is driven along certain paths and the influence 
^f the struggle for existence and survival of the fittest is, if it has 
a-ny influence at all, a perturbing force which has to be accounted 
for but does not seriously affect characteristics until after they origi- 
nate. Characteristics, therefore, are not evolved fortuitously and 
in indelinite numbers for the animal to select out those that are 
favorable and perpetuate only those, but according to the definite 
law of i-ariaiion of Lamarck and Cope. 

The dynamical school does not reject the Darwinian doctrine, but 
U uses this hypothesis in its proper applications as a secondary law 
explAiuUory of certain phenomena of survival and perpetuation of 



characteristics after they have originated through the action ef tKis 
law. 

According to ray owo view of the facts, often published (be- 
where, its use is unnecessary for the explanation of the quick evolu- 
tion of series in the early periods of their evolution near ihe or^i* 
of types, also for the elucidation of the pathologic phenomcni in 
Ihe quick evolution of phylogerontic forms and series. 

It can also not be applied to the explanation of expert taenia* 
results, as is admitted by all experimenters and most Darwinian- 
in cases where modifications have been produced by the ailificiil 
application of physical agencies, of which there are now w manj^ 
on record in both the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 

It is plainly, as Dr. A. S. Packard has pointed out. a dootiw^' 
derived from the study of the results of evolution and cannoi b^ 
applied lo the more general and fundamental phenomena of iheori — 
gin of types, the building up of series or the origin of characier— 
tstics. My own experience leads substantially to the satne opinion » 
and J find its use unnecessary except for the expianalion of Ihepc— 
petuation of some characteristics that occur during the acme of ib^ 
evolution of species. The perpetuation of many chaiacteriilicrS 
which are fundamental to the organism and species is neccssnlT' 
provided for by agencies which originated them and by heredity ■* 
soon a-i they become fixed in the organism. I think there is gO'*** 
ground for the statement that in many cases these are plainly not 
advantageous. 

Weismann and his supporters are necessarily Darwinians, f*** 
one denies that ctetic characters arise through the action of *"* 
surroundings. If these are perpetuated through heredity, evoluti^ 
is an undeniable corollary and it must follow the path defined *-*? 
the dynamical school. If, however, ctetic characteristics may ori^* 
nate at the bidding of the surroundings and persist in the suc*^^^^ 
sive members of the same genetic series only while the surround* *•* 
art- comparatively unchanged, or in other words sufficiently alit^ 
continue to force their reappearance, then it must be admitted *- 
the law of the survival of the fittest through the action of thest^ *" 
gle for e.xisience is probably a fundamental law of evolutio*^^ 
organism. 

In other words, the battle of the two contending theories is 
fought in the domains of ctetology and it is hoped that this 
may be a definite contribution to the Neoiamarckian side of the 






iroversy. I cannot give Turther space here to theoretical discus- 
sions of this sort and am obliged to refer any persons interested 
to my other works, especially "The Genesis of the Arietids " and 
the " Bioplastology, the related Branches of Research,"* in which I 
have more fully given my own views. 

The exclusive Darwinians are, according lo the views of the 
Neolamarckians, as much out of the true path in one direction as 
arc the empiricists in Che other in appealing exclusively, as they 
often do, to the action of the surroundings in accounting for 
observed modifications. 

Il is certainly not a very acute analysis of the facts which attrib- 
utes to external causes exclusive power in producing modiRcaCionE 
in many cases as has been largely done by experimental zoologists. 
For example, Brauer and the author have both pointed out this de- 
fect in ihe accepted explanations of the famous Schmankewitsch 
experiments upon Artemia, and the same may be said of the ex- 
planations of all experimenters who do not take into account the 
internal reactions of the organisms themselves. 

The physical forces of the surroundings must act through medium 
of cntergogenic movements, and this is shown clearly in the nature 
of moditications produced which are extra growths, substitutions of 
characteristics due to changes of functions, etc., or partial or abso- 
lute obliteration of these due to (he failure of genetic force to re- 
peat characteristics in Ihepresence of opposinginfluences and super- 
imposed characteristics as in accelerated development. 

Ctetology should also, however, include the study of the action 
of physical forces when they either aciuallydo produce direct effects 
-upon organisms or may be awumed to act in this way. Changes in 
light, food, heat and moisture may ca.use modifications that cannot 
Ik included under the head of cntergogenic reactions without dan- 
ger or confusion. 

Maupas gives exceedingly instructive examples of this class, and 
,quotes other authorities who have investigated these effects in Pro- 



£eddard gives a number of examples of such modiGcations in 
'^-'i Animal Colerathn, and Semper has also discussed the same sub- 
* more extensively in his NatSrlichtn ExisUnsbedingunsen der 



CbnfrfbuUau, Ho. 73. uid P 



The use of the term entergogeneas makes it practicable to in- 
dicate the essential distinction existing between the inoilificaiiOM 
produced through the mediation of internal forces and those aniing 
as the direct results of the action of external forces by cnewi of 
the term ectergogenesis and eciergogenic. 

These explanatory remarks serve to show that Ctetology i» J 
branch of research which needs to be isolated from researches npon 
growth and Genesiology, since it i:3 devoted lo the study of ih( ori- 
gin of acquired characteristics, and therefore necessarily considm 
all of the internal reactions of the organisms in response to the ac- 
tion of physical forces, as well as the more obscure rcactionioC 
structures which are produced solely by (or supposed to tw firwlinsd 
by) the direct physical or chemical action of external ph^tiral 
forces. 

BlOPLASTOLOGV. 

The separation of Auxology or Bathmology, Genesiology i»d^*J 
Cit-tology show also that the study of the corrclatious of oiitogea 3 
and phylogcny to be distinct from either of these, and this biancB 
of research can be designated by the term Biopla«lobgy ftM 
m-f, life, and flXaaroi, meaning molded or formed." 

To sum up in a few words the rather ambitious aims of this cc 
paratively new recruit in the army of investigation, it aspire t < 
show that the phenomena of individual life are parallel with thoS'^ 
of it- own phyhmi and that both follow the same law of mor|'li*^" 

tub p a» b pItisUc bare iilruar])- becD used by Besle andottaenloclbtlL'*'' 
n limibclurm "BluplH8[ol<)gj-"hunol been used, nor bit**"* 

ro -d U liceii geucrally Hdopted. If they were, Bloplismolojj*"'' 

aludclitoufaucb phenomena, BOd Iherg 1b already In UK Fl»*" 
eBinc laL'Bulng, and HEsIology for ibe dnrrlptlve ildeof Ihetln'^'' 

u -ed n cxfra fclcnlifio Ulerature by Fl»ke nith ibe Baine manli* •* 

d kel liiiH named the laiv of embrjonlc and anceatnl coinlct'*'** 

b hon.'b««rrinKObieclloulo belli ofibese. Bloseueili 15^^ 

Ueorv of Ibe orlnln or genesis of life from life In contradlslnctl^^ 

pi Dtonetius Buneralion ur Hbiogeneali «nd haa a »ell-eslabli»***V^ 

ra ta. Therefore, while [lie law of correUllon of Ihe ttigf *^ 

d usL the cvohilluti uf the phylum may, if one cbooua. be nill^^,^ 

eactiiraicloconalderilftlaw of correlation In Blopl«suJ<*^ 

lUiiECtioila or regular ie|ielUiauof ancestral chanden «**j5^^ 

rt at llio dlwovcrer. Louis Agamli. saw and described. 1 



theory, 
L>nM.'. a<M.-i 



•I lielleviiig 






;U»» 



i of organisms. It la AgaislI' t^ 



391 



genesis, that not only can one indicate the past history of groups 
from the study of the young, and obviously the present or existing 
progression or retrogression of the type by means of the adult char- 
acters of any one organism, but that it is also possible to prophecy 
what is to happen in the future history of the type from the study 
of the corresponding paraplastic phenomena in the development of 
the individual. 

Whether these claims are well founded or not the nomenclature 
to be employed is a matter of importance and should be accurate, 
appropriate and convenient for those who are interested in this 
work. 

Ontogeny. Table I. 



CONDITH »N:«. STA< iES. 


STAGES. 


srBSTAGES 


SrBKTAQES. 


/ Embryonic. 


1. Embryonic, 


. Several.* 


No popular names. 


( I^arvul 




/Ananeplonic. 




\ or 


2. Xepionic. 


i Metanepionic. 




Anaplasis. ' Young. 




i-Paranepionic. 




/Immature 




r Ananeanic. 
^ Metaneanic. 




1 °' 


3. Neanlc. 




' Adolescent. 




(Paraneanic. 




r Mature 
Metaplasis. -j or 

t Adult. 




/ Anephebic. 




4n Ephebic. 


-< Metephebic. 






^ Parephebic. 




/ Senile 
Paraplasis. - or 




/ Anagerontlc. 


• 


Ty, Gerontlc. 


< Metagerontic. 




t Old. 




vParagerontic. 





Recent researches have, in my opinion, clearly demonstrated that 
all the stages of development like the embryonic will have to be sub- 
divided in studying many groups. These subdivisions are also rela- 
tively important and their differences are often well defined. 

The ovum and the extreme degraded substage of the senile period 
represent the widest departures structurally and physiologically 
from the adult, one being at the commencement and the other the 
termination of ontogenesis. Departing from the ephebic stage 
in either direction towards these extremes one finds the same law. 
Coniiguous substages of development^ when considered in sequence, 
differ less from each other and from the adult the nearer they are to the 
ephebic stage, and they differ , on the other hand, more from the adult 
and from each other in structure and form the nearer they are to the 

•These stages were en nine ni ted and more or less de8cril>ed under the names of Prot- 
embryo, Mesembryo, Metembrj'o, Neoembryo, Typcmbryo in my iMi|>er on " Values in 
Classification," etc., and to these Jackson added Phylembryo in his PhyJ'Xjaiy nj the PtU- 
cyinnUi, p. 2S9. 



tiVD extremet of the ontogeny. Tbis is an evideni coroliarj frirai 
the phenomena of the ontogenetic cycle and need noi bciWi 
upon here. 

The terminology of the different departments of research »Wch 
come properly imder tlie head of bioplasiology ia; recogoiud M 
present only in the case of embryology, but it is obvious to the 
student of epembryonic development that similar lenns for [he 
study of other stages and periods will in course of limit be nentcd. 
and in fact the old terms— nealogy, ephcbology, and gcratology— 
are cited in that sense in the Century Dieihnaty, and may introduct 
some confusion. It is not now necessary to discuss this quftlion, 
but only to draw attention to the facts. 1 therefore pass on lo tht 
consideration of the term epembryonic. 

Among fossil nautiloids it is rarely practicable, on account of 
the frequent destruction of the proloconch, to find nn embtyonic 
stage. My last work on Carboniferous cephalopods contains desoip- 
tions of the entire ontogeny of a number of species, wilh iht 
exception of the embryonic stages. In such cases the fact Ilutlbe 
embryology is wholly omilteci can be poinicd out by the use of ihc 
term " epembr>-onic stages," and this has already been found im- 
ful above. It only remains to add that the same prefix is alM utcl'al 
in designating the exclusion of other stages — ihtis one cao s^ 
also of tlie "cpincpionic" or "epineanir" stages in (his sairn' 
way without danger of confusion with any other term.* 

It is often possible to employ a more specific and characteristic 
designation tlian (.-])embryonic. Tims among shell-bearing Ibntis 
one can distinguish between the embryonic shell and the true shell; 
for exaniiile, the protcgulum and legulum of Brachiopoda as defined 
by liccchcr, the prudlssoconch and the dissoconch of Peiecypoda as 
defined by Jackson, the periconch and conch of Scaphojx>da, the 
ptotoconch and <on<;li of Cephalopoda. In ali of these forms it is 
practicable to speak of tegular, dissoconchial, or conchial stagesot 
periods, meaning tliercby all of the epembryonic stages of these 
types. 

Haeekcl, in his Morphologie der Organismen, sketched the ph«i- 
ology of ontogeny and phylogeny and gave the general correlations 
of the two series of phenomena, together with an appropriate 



393 

nomenclature which has been here adopted, with some necessary 
changes. 

The dynamical relations of three great phases of evolution in the 
phylum were designated by Haeckel * as the epacme^ including the 
rise of the type from its origin, the acme, meaning the period of its 
greatest expansion in members and forms, and the -paracme, or de- 
cline towards extinction, and these phenomena were correlated with 
the similar physiological phenomena of the ontogeny, and these 
appear in the table of phyletic terms given below. 

Previous to this, in the same volume (p. 76), Haeckel gives his 
classification of the development of the individual under three 
headings: "Anaplasis oder Aufbildung (evolutio),'* meaning 
thereby to include the physiological phenomena of all of the stages 
developed in the four earlier stages of the individual. This is cer- 
tainly a useful term for the entire series of transformations from the 
fertilization of the ovum until the progressive stages are all passed 
through. It does not express nor can it be used for cases of retro- 
gression in which degenerative characters are introduced at such an 
early age that progression is limited to the embryonic, or to that 
stage and a part or the whole of the nepionic stage. There are 
also some examples among parasites in which progression seems to 
have been reduced so much that one can say it is practically elim- 
inated from all stages succeeding some of the earliest embryonic. 
For such forms as these the i)roper term would be Paraplasis, from 
i:apa TzXdfftrwy meaning to change the form for the worse, to deform. 
Thus the stages of such forms could be collectively spoken of as 
paraplastic with relation to the ontogeny of others of their own type 
or allied types, whereas they could not be described as anaplastic. 

The explanatory word **evolutio " is here used by Haeckel in a 
confined and erroneous sense. Evolution really means continuity 
in time invariably accompanied by change, but whether the modi- 
fication be progressive or retrogressive, or a combination of pro- 
gression and retrogression, is immaterial. It is obviously better not 
to use these terms for ontogenic phenomena. There are sufficient 
terms in ** development,*' ** differentiation of characteristics," 
**rise," and one has always a slight mental reservation in employ- 
ing this word for the growth and development of an individual or 
isolated zoon. 

• Jlorphologie der Organl^iien, Vol. ii, pp. 320-3G6. 

FBOC. AMBR. PHIL08. SOC. XXXII. 143. 2 X. PRINTED JUNE 5, 1894. 



"MctaplasisoderUrabildung (transvolmio)" is used byihesKM 
L-minent authority for the adult period in a general sense, and ii 
appeaiB to the writer to have useful function as a descriptive term 
especially, since it is uniform with anapla^is and paraplasis. Thm 
one cau describe the nietapla,stic phenomena or characteristics of 
the ephebic stage in any form as meiaplasis, and also f.\icak of the 
general meaning of metaplasia without referring to thai nige of 
ontogeny in any special form. The tise of " transvotutio" i» 
obviously objectionable, since it introduces confusion and cotiEHs 
with the proper definition of "evolutio" or evolution as giw 
above. 

" Cataplasis oder RQckbildung (involutio)," used by Haecke! lot 
ihe senile stage, is open to the objection that there is no cortesponil- 
iiig Greek word, and also that xarajiXdiram, the only Greek verb to 
which this term can be referred, means to spread over or plastcf. 
Paraplasis, derived from -apa i:XAitato, meaning to change the foirt* 
for the worse or deform, is an obviously preferable dcsignitioa- 
Thus the [laraplasis or paraplastic phenomena of all the period>e»B 
development or only 6f the paragerontic substagc in untogcuy 11113^ 
be sjjoken of and correctly described under this term. 

The use of "involutio" as a descriptive term is objeciionablcJ 
not only on the grounds given above, but because " involulioii " 
and " volution " are both in common use as descriptive terms fo«" 
the i)cculiarities of the whorls of Gasteropoda and Cephalopod*- 
Any modification of evolution is objectionable because it is misleaci - 
iiig. For example, the word " avolution," supposed to mea-*^ 
tilings lliat do not evolve or have not been evolved, represents a-*^ 
unnatural condition. One can, of course, conceive of matterin ^ 
state of more or less stable equilibrium, but there are other words 
than "avolution" in habitual use to express this conception. ** 
is also to be regretted that it has been applied by several eminen' 
writers to ontoj,'eny, and is jirobahly fairly established in this appl*" 
cation. The growth and development of the tissues is in a genff** 
way i-volution, as much so as that of a colony of Protozoa. But »• 
is alsi> obvious that the jiroduct of the development by division c>' 
a single autotemnon, which forms a cycle, or when held togethers*' 
as til form a colony, and the product of the division of an ovumi" 
Mciaxoa held together more compactly so as to build up an indiviil- 
iial or /oiin, arc not the same as the product of the evolution of*" 
aiui-^tur inlo a phylum through successive independent forms "^ 



■■•"■^ 



oniogenic cycles. One cannot accurately speak of the " growth " 
of a phylum, nor ougln the word " development" to be used for 
the phylum. Developraenl should be restricted to the zoSn or 
individual or its morphic equivak-nt among Protozoa, since it 
expresses more clearly the differences [hat exist between ontogeny 
and phylogeny than their similarities, and for the sz 
advantageous to use evolution for the phylum alone in the s 
whicli it is commonly employed. The necessity of subdividing the 
embryonic stage is admitted, and in all probability this ,really 
includes several stages with their own substages, but the discussion 
of this problem must be left to the future. 

The paragerontic stage is in no sense "atavistic" or " rever- 
sionary," as it is defined by Buckmaii and Bather. Reversions are 
the returns or recurrence of ancestral characteristics in genetically 
connected organisms which have been for a time latent in inter- 
mediate forms. I do not think that we can include in this cat ego'ry 
purely morphic characteristics which habitually recur in the same 
individual as the result of paraplasis, or which occur in the paracme 
of a ty|>e more or less invariably, in the individual thu resem- 
blance of the smooth round shell of the whorl of the paragerontic 
Ammorioid after it has lost the progressive characteristic of the 
«phebic stage cannot be considered as a reversion. It is simplyan- 
.slogy of form, not structural similarity of characteristics. A belter 
ItOOwD and more easily understood case is the resemblance of the 
lower jaw of the infant before it has acquired teeth and that 
«»f [he extremely old human subject in which these parts have been 
lost and the alveoli and upper parts of the bony mandible havedis- 
appearcd through resorption. The forms are alike, but no one 
'wuld venture to consider the infant's cartilaginous jaw and that of 
the old man as similar in structure. 

The.best example of similar phenomena in the phylum known to 
vne is the close resemblance of form between the straight Baculites 
of the Cretaceous or Jura and Onhoceras of the Paleozoic, which 
Ims been described above, and is figured further on. One occurs 
IB the paracme and the other in the early epacme of the group o( 
chambered shells. They are widely distinct in their structural 
duracterisiii's, and these differences are greater in the young than 
at any subsequent stage of their ontogeny, Baculites having a close- 
coiled shell in the nepionic stage, and Orthoceras is straight from 
ihe earliest stage. The return of a similar form in iiaculites in the 



epincpionic ijeriods of development hi obedience to the (mrof fte 
cycle does not carry the structure back with it to a repetition of the 
orthoceran sipbuncic and sutures. 

The struciure of an individual during its dcvelopinecil raigk br 
represented graphically by an irregular spiral of one incomplete 
revolution which describes a curve, continually increasing iu dii- 
tance from the point of departure until the roendian of the cjiliehic 
stage is reached, and then beginning to return, Suchacurvewotild 
always as a spiral rise more or less vertically, and consetiuewlr. 
even if it completed the revolution, mu« terminate in space. It 
might, perhaps, teach nearly lo the same imaginary vertical plans, 
but nevertoanypointapproximaleto that of its departure. Siracciirt 
separates the extremes of life as widely as [lossible, and (low iw 
permit us to regard them as approximate, nor can one rcgttd old 
age, however complete its return in external form, as a revcrtion. 

One of the most noteworthy contributions of bioplast olojy '* 
tliat it gives proper values to this class of analogies and shows ihem 
to lie constantly recurring in the individual and in the iihyium in 
obedience to well-ascertained laws of morphogenesis. 

The different stages have been described by Dr, Bcecher imME 
Brachiopoda, Dr. Jackson among Pelecypoda, and the autlwt 
among Cephalopoda; and Buclcman and Bather and also 131ak«*iil 
England, and WUrtenbcrger in Germany have admitted dicireiisi* 
ence, and the last redescribed them. Wiirtenberger has admirably 
dcscribL'd the phenomena of bioplaslology as they occur among 
Ammonitina;, and correctly interpreted the law of tachygenesisMd 
its action in these forms, but failed to quote either Prof Cope or 
the author. This omission was not so remarkable as the fact that 
Ncumayr and some other investigators, after they had received ihe 
printed records of the work done in the same direction in this 
country, continued to quote Wiirtenberger as the sole discovereff 
these phenomena and of tlie law of tachygenesis. Wiirtenbetgef s 
work was aijparently independent, and it has higher value on 1^"' 
ariount, but it needs rectification from a historical point of view. 

Buckuiaii and Bather propose to use the prefix " phyl" for for"* 
occurring in the phylum which represent in their adult clurac^.tfi 
stages in the evolution of the pliyium corresponding with those. "S 
the development of the ontogeny, and give an instructive tat*"^^ 

• ■■ Ev.ihiUoii nnd chi^sincailoii of Copliiilopo.ln." Pmr. il>,l. Atior:. L»wi.. Vol — ■ 



397 

which Haeckers physiologic terms are placed side by side with 
those proposed for the morphic phenomena. In following out the 
same ideas the following table has been constructed, which differs 
from theirs in the use of nepionic, as stated above, and also in the 
use of phylanaplasis, phylometaplasis and phyloparaplasis as corre- 
spondents of the similar ontogenetic terms : 

Summary, Table II. 

Ontogeny. Phylooeny. 



f Embryonic. / Phylembryonic. -^ 

Anaplasis ^ Nepionic. Phylanaplasis •< Phylonepionic. >£pacme. 

^Neanic. ^Pbyloneanic. J 

Metaplasis < Epbebic. Phylometaplasis j Phylephebic. | Acme. 

Puaplasis JGerontic. Phyloparaplasis | Phylogeroniic. [Paracme. 

Buckman and Bather gave the following appropriate example from 
Beecher's and my own researches : 

"Thus we would say that the Productidae attained their paracme 
in the Permian, when they were represented by the phylogerontic 
Strophalosia and Aulosteges ; that the characters of the neanic and 
ephebic stages of Coroniceras irigonatum are phylocatabatic '* (here 
phylanagerontic). While granting the need of using this distinc- 
tive prefix for the i)eriods of evolution in the phylum one is likely 
to become confused unless he fully understands the use of the word 
" phylum *' as applicable to all grades of genetic series. Thus, in 
ordinary acceptation of the term, a phylum may be the entire class 
or any subdivision of it, even a single genus, provided the forms 
can be shown to be genetically connected. It has been employed 
in this way several times in this text after the names, species, genus, 
family, etc., the ammonoidal phylum or ordinal phylum, phylum of 
the Goniatitinae or subordinal phylum, family phylum, and even a 
phylum of varieties and individuals. 

The Cycle. 

Phylum expresses genetic connection, cycle the totality of the 

piienomena, whether morphic or physiologic, which are exhibited by 

£7ritogeny or phylogeny. Thus, one can describe the cycle of the 

pl3>^I tun in its rise and decline, the epacme, acme and paracme as 

purely dynamical phenomena exhibited by the increase in numbers 

»/" /<>rms, etc., or the cycle of the ontogeny as shown by the in- 



creasing complexity of the development and its dcclioc, theins*. - 
plasis, metaplasis and paraplasis of tlie individual; or Oiiema^ar 
describe the cycle as exhibited by the embryonic, nepionic, neiiiitjr , 
ephebic and gerontic stages, or the cycle of the pliylogeny im exhiL* - 
ited by the corresponding phylost^ges * of evolution designated t» y 
their appropriate prefix " phyl," 

There appears to be real need of two terms under the litidc^C" 
cycle, oiie for ontogeny and the other for phylogeny. It isproposer^i 
to use in this way ontocycle or ontocj'clon for the ontogeny, mw*"^ — 
ing the cycle of the individual, and phylocycle or phylocyclonfie:^*- 
that of the phylum. This will make it practicable to use the teirM-»^ 
monocyclon or monocyclic, polycyclon or polycyclic, etc., lu 4 ^ — 
scribe the number of cycles observed. ThUB the ammonoiilii*"^ 
poiycyclic, the Arietidic are decacyclic, the genus Coroniccrwi) s*-*^ 
incomplete monocyclc. 

It is not necessary to defend these terms before students of bi*:^" 
plastology ; they will he tested, and, if convenient, ailoplccl, T*^^^ *" 
the benefit of others it may be mentioned that the cycle b of ^* 
degrees of development in ontogeny. Thus, Insccla arc apt toiic^ t* 
at the ephebic stage and in many other animals there is a simil-—^-*' 
limitation. On the other hand, there may be the most uncxp<CK^** 
development of the cycle. Thus, Podocoryne starting rromlheh^''^ 
droid stage passes through a permanent colonial stage liiiill up t^3^ 
budding which gives rise liy secondary buds to independent medus^S^- 
The life of an independent medusoid bud ends with a larageroni » *- 
sulistagu in which the veil is destroyed, the bell is jiartiallv r^^" 
sorbed and turned back together with the tentacles, and the pr*:^ "" 
boscis is left naked and projecting. In this condition the old *^^ 
Podocoryne is similar to the hydroid with which the colony bega-"^ - 
This gerontic transformation has been obsen'ed by Dujardin "» "^ 
Cladoncma and Syncoryne, by Hincks in Podocoryne and S)'' ** ' 
c.or_\iic, and by Gosse hi Tnrris.f 

Man is nut completely ontocycUc, but makes a close approach *- 
this in the loss of the hair, teeth and proportions and shape of *- 
body; and certainly in some ]>arls, as in the mandible descfi*-* 
a completed cycle. 

,iicl 1 beg pardon of my ctosslcnl flteode In 
3. Vul. Ir, pp. :;i:-JSl, 1915; Hlncka. Briri. 



399 

What ihe limits of the oniocycle may be has not yet been ascer- 
tained, but so far as the facts are known it would appear to be coin- 
cident with the limits of agamic reproduction, or, in other words, 
with the limits of the growth of one autolemnon or of one ovum 
after cojugation by fission, and includes all agamic generations pro- 
duced by division or by budding. 

The act of self-fission is similar whether it takes place for a cer- 
tain cycle among Protozoa or Melazoa under purely organic condi- 
tions or follows upon the conjugation of t 



the rejuvenation caused by the 
iheir bodies as among Protozoa, c 
tive cells of the Metazoa. Unde: 
obedience to the laws of growth, 
ter cells remain fastened togethe 
or masses of tissue as in Metazt 



of the nuclear eletnents of 

■ ihe more differentiated genera- 
all conditions the cells divide in 

.nd whether the resulting daugh- 

■ forming colonies as in Protozoa 
whether they separate and 



become distinct autotemnons or distinct zoons the i 



I is the 



The product of this autotemnic function in single cells has, as 
shown by the researches of Maupas, a cycle of transformations 
which arc like (hose of an individual among Metazoa, although 
they may reach in some forms over six hundred so-called genera- 
tions and therefore include thousands of distinct protozoans. It is 
obvious to the student of bioplastology in reading Maupas' re- 
searches" that this cycle among Protozoa Ciliata is the equivalent 
of the cycle of the individual among Metazoa. Although he uses 
the word individual for the autotemnon he does not speak of the 
successive forms as generations but as partitions, " bipartitions " 
being his usual term, showing clearly that he recognizes these are 
not generations like those of distinct successive zoiins in Melaioa. 

Maupas' researches show, as in fact he himself states, that there 
is a cycle of partitions produced from one autotemnon after conju- 
gation, when isolated and allowed to propagate by fission without 
the renewed stimulus of conjugation with others of different broods. 
The earlier successive partitions are incapable or at any rate do not 
show any desire to conjugate with their fellows. Each of his cul- 
nues of isolated autotemnons passed through these youthful or 
anaplastic stages, and then a series of metaplastic partitions was 
developed in which the micronuclei became mi 



conjugation with other broods took place whenever it was pennitled 
by the experimenter. 

In the generations immediately succeeding these, degenerative 
changes, both structural and physiological, toolc place in the [urti- 
lions ivhicli were distinctly paraplastic, although the culluies were 
maintained under conditions which precluded the supposition llitl 
tliese changes could have resulted from unfavorable, abnonnil wr- 
roundings. The successive partitions then had gcrrtotic tnin«foma- 
tions, lost their micronuclei, became much reduced in siie »(«1 
unable to conjugate with others with the usual normal results, imi 
finally the external buccal apjiaratus was affected, reduced, oroWir- 
erated, and so on. These changes were termed senile by Haupas, 
who explains the entire phenomena as a cycle comparable with that 
of the individual among Metazoa. 

One is, of course, at this incipient stage of bioplastolog)', con- 
fused by many apparently inexplicable phenomena. When, fcoif- 
ever, one contemplates the confusion of the most eminent aulhon- 
ties with regard to the relations of the autotemnon among Proiwo* 
and Metazoa, shown by the use of the same term for the Mlotem- 
non, the individual, and the zoon, and also the prevalent conAaion 
with relation to the morphology of forms designated as colonies- 
some regarding the whole product of one egg as an individual wJ 
others considering each bud or independent ?,ooid as properly des- 
ignated by that term and defining the colony as an aggregate of 
more or less connected individuals — it is surprising that there 
should not be more ditficulties in the path of this new branch ol 
research. 

Those who try to find the cycle of metamorphoses in their own 
special branches of research will be often disappointed and probably 
deny that it exists at all. Thus, in my own case, I for sometime 
could not find any evidence of its existence among certain cephalo- 
P<k1s, notably those having a primitive organization like Endoceras 
and Orthoceras ; but I have since seen well-marked senile stages in 
these shells. Undoubtedly there is as great distinction beiweeo 
the para|>Iastic and anaplastic periods, and between phyloparapbsis 
and phytanaplasis everywhere, as there is between the correlations 
of the curres[K)nding periods at the extremes of the ontogeny ano 
phylogcny. 

I'araplasis essentially differs from anaplasis, as has been described 
above in treating of relations of analogy between the gerontic and 



401 

the nepionic stages. The earlier characteristics of the ontogeny 
are, as the author has striven to explain in several publications, 
essentially distinct, being in large part in most animals and in some 
cases almost wholly genetic. In considering the simplest manifes- 
tations of the cycle, palingenesis accompanied always by tachygen- 
esis must be taken into account, and also cenogenesis in groups like 
Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, most Echinodermata, many Vermes, 
where a supposed ancient and regular palingenetic record is assumed 
to have been disturbed by ctetic characters acquired by the larvae.* 

The gerontic characters, on the other hand, and all paraplastic, 
as well as their corresponding phyloparaplastic characters belong to 
the category of analogies in so far as they are purely morphic 
resemblances or equivalents. This is clearly shown in the physiology 
of all the parts and organs in the anaplastic and paraplastic periods, 
the former being full of hereditary and perhaps, also, acquired 
power, and the latter more or less weakened and reduced or worn 
out by the exercise of those powers and the constant wear and tear 
of the surroundings. 

Retrogressive reductions in every form, although often indicating 
and accompanying a high degree of specialization, partake more or 
less of the same nature when considered with reference to their 
morphic and accompanying functional attributes, and one cannot 
study such bioplastic phenomena as if they were of the same nature 
and subject to exactly the same laws as progressive genetic and 
ctetic characters. As I have pointed out above, and in several 
other publications, there are all degrees of completeness in the 
evolution of the cycle, and it is dependent upon a variety of causes 
whether occurring in the ontogeny or phylogeny. If it were con- 
stant and invariable and independent of the surroundings in the 

* Such examples are, correctly speaking, not disarrangements of palingenesis, although 
so translated hy Haeckel, if I rightly understand his ideas of a confused record. Ceno- 
genism does occur in such examples in obedience to the same law that governs palin- 
genesis, but it occurs through the introduction of ctetic characters during the larval 
instead of in the neanic or ephebic stages, and the crowding back of these upon the 
nepionic and embr>'onlc stages. The use of terms indicating that nature has confused 
or destroyed its own ontogenic records of the transmission of charact^jrs in certain cases 
assumes (1) that these are exceptional cases, (2) that cenogenesis is not the normal mode 
of transmission in certain types in which it occurs, (3) that both of these modes of trans- 
mission are not affected by tachygenesis, all of these implications being erroneous 
according to the opinions expressed above. One can assume a disturbance or perturba- 
tion, or decided change of mode according to law, but " destruction," " conflision," or 
** iklsiflcation " are subjective terms inapplicable to the objective character of the phe- 
nomena to which ihey are applied, appropriate in metaphysics, perhaps, but entirely 
out of place in natural science. 

PROC. AMBR. FHILOS. SOC. XXXII. 143. 2 T. PRINTED JUKE 6, 1804. 



M^*"* 



generalized nautiloids, Endoslphonoidea, opeued into the proio- 
conch. 

The tubular opening of the apex in Endoceras, Piloeerjs mi! 
Actiuoceraa and other genera having a marked end osiph uncle, ii 
not closed by the cKcum of the siphuiicle as was formerly sui)pOirf- 
It is, on the contrary, directly continuous with the endosiphuncle, 
as was first pointed out by Foord in his Catalopte of Brithh Qphi- 
lopoda. This is an attenuated, central, more or less irregular tube 
or axis formed by the extension of tlie points of successii'c eniio- 
cones or sheaths. It is more or less interrupted by pseticiosepU. 
and is a separate and distinct part occupying the axis of the Urge 
siphuncle. This organ is continuous with some corresponding p»n 
in the embryo which existed in the protoconch. On the other 
hand, the true siphuncle, including the caecum of the (iret air cham- 
ber, is a secondary organ formed by the funnels of the septa, Ttw 
living apical chamber was, as said above, a shallow clip, and \^ 
limit in the living animal was probably as indicated by Heniy 
Brooks in the drawings given on PI. i of this paper. At anjrt*!'. 
his conclusions with regard to the probable situation of the aiintwt 
of this stage seem to me to be sustained by observation. 

The next substage is indicated by the presence of the csecuB Ir 
ing within the apex, and this is formed by the funnel of die W 
septum and in associrilion with the first septum is universal airois? 
Cephalopoda, with the exception of some sepioids, so far as the in- 
ternal structures are concerned. It has been descriptively nw*" 
the crecosiphonula. This may be considered as a part of the meta" 
nepionic substage in nautiloids, but among ammonoids and belei»»~ 
noids it is forced back according to the law of tachygenesis int*^ 
the calcareous apex of the ancestral shell, being consolidated wit ■ 
and disappearing in the aperture of the calcareous protoconcB ' ■ 
The limit of the living chamber which rested upon this first sepi* "* 
has been determined in existing form of Nautilui pompiliui\>'i^^^ 
Brooks and is shown in his drawings on PI. i. 

In a general way it may be also said that the external chatact^^ 
istics of this age are characteristic of the entire order of NiC^^ 
loidca. 

Among Nautiloidea the shell of this substage grows less rapi«— ^ 
in all its diameters and may either remain smooth and apprt^ - 
niately retain the earlier form, becoming, however, morecompru ~ ■" 
or it may become more rapidly altered to a depressed ellipse, C~l> 



Cephatopgdi of tke Museum of Comparative Zoology, "Embryol- 



ogy. 



' Vol. 



indc i 



PI. iii, Fig. I, and i 



mber of figures of Bar- 
of which were 



^y Sterne Silurien, 

drawn and given to Barrande by the author. I first described this 
stibstage among the nauliloids under the descriptive name of the 
"asiphonula," but have since substituted the term, Protosipho- 
nula. Among ammotioids this substage has been forced back into 
ihe embryonic stage and has practically disappeared from the conch, 
probably through the action of tachygenesis. The tendency of 
the embryo to build a solid calcareous protoconch of imbricated 
structure may be attributed to the earlier inheritance of the char- 
acteristics of the calcareous, apical conch of its nauiiloid ancestor. 

This explanation has been supposed by Prof. Biake to show that 
the protoconch of ammonoids was necessarily identical with the 
apex of the shell or early part of the ananepionic substage, prolo- 
siphonula, of namiloids. It would have such a meaning, perhaps, 
if there were a cicatrix on the protoconch of ammonoids and if 
there were not more or less rugose lumps, supposed to be the rem- 
nants of protoconchs, covering up the cicatrices of the apices of 
the conch in some nautiloids as figured above on i>age 360 of the 
Introduction, These fads must be reinvestigated by ihe opponents 
of this view, and it lies with them to prove that the latter are not 
the remnants of shriveled, horny protoconchs, and that the cicatrix 
was not a passageway from the embryo into the shell or at any rate 
an aperture through which the animal of the protosipho nula com- 
municated with the protoconch, before one can consider the facts 
in a different light or admit any other hypothetical explanation. 

It will be seen below that I have altered my view in so far as the 
primary origin and nature of the ciecum is concerned. Barrande 
imagined that my view necessarily implied the passage of the em- 
bryo bodily out of the protoconch into the conch, but this was a 
mistake arising probably from inadequate statements. The young, 
xrhen it had passed by growth out of ihe protoconch, or as the an- 
terior parts of the embryo grew out of the protoconch into this 
position, began to build the shell, and finally at the end of thepro- 
tosiphonula stage rested in the apex, which was then aseptate and 
was the first living chamber. Tlie structure of the apex in Endo- 
ccras, Piloceras and Actinoceras indicates large and direct, open, 
, tubular connection between the protoconch and the animal when 
this first chamber through which the endosiphuncle in the 



406 

larity with which the law of tachygenesis works in producing tbc' 
replacement of hereditary characters in every series of forms, aodl. 
do not trustor know how to use this law. 

The paranepionic subslage is consecjuently among Nautiloids as 
among Ammonoids of longer duration than either of the preceding. 
substages and of more variable limits. The siphunde has acquired 
its ephebic aspect and characters, but it is very often in a different 
position from that which it subsequently assumes, as it is in Nau- 
tilus pompiliiis and other forms figured in this memoir. I have 
hitherto considered that it included the latter part of the cyrtoceran 
volution, but it now seems more natural to limit it to that poiiion 
of the whorl which assumes the gyroceran curve or, in other words, 
turns sharply away from the straighter cone of the preceding sub- 
stages on its return curve towards the apex. This is well shown in 
Mr, Brooks' drawings and also in the other forms of nautilisn 
shells, especially those of Barrandeoctras tyrannum and Sachet 
of the Silurian. At or near the end of the paranepionic substi 
in Nautilus iimbiticalus and pompiliiis there is in almost every shcl 
a more or less sharply defined constriction which marks a perma- 
nent aperture. The limits of both substages are subject to varia- 
tions that will be noticed in the succeeding descriptions, but it 
suffices here to note the fact that the upper limits of the paranepionic 
subslage are in a genera! way definable by the limits of the gyro- 
ceran form in close-coiled nautilian shells. That ts to say, this 
substage, as a general rule, approaches its end and neanic charac- 
teristics begin to appear at or near the completion of the first volu- 
tion, when growth brings the whorl in contact with the apex or 
dorsal side of the conch. Tachygenic forms are often notable 
exceptions to this definition and introduce modifications that have 
to be studied in each separate series. 

The transformations that distinguish the subdivisions of the 
neanic stage are very well marked in some forms and less distinctly 
in others, but I have constantly found the need of defining two 
stages. Ananeanic is a suitable term for the first substage, which is 
usually well marked in nautilian" shells by the first appearance of 

•tn ray Gewnx nf FatU Ccphiilnpoili nanllllan forms have been defined u those havlBg 
the wtiorls in aui^li close caniacl that tlic dontim or the eiiTeloplng oi later fbtmed wborl 
ia modtficd, eitbei Baiuned or bent laH-ardty along the area of contact, aad haa nb^t li 
caUed an" Impressed zone," There arc, hon-ever, some sbells that are difficult loclaraity. 
Tbew hare Ibe rolutioaa In eoulact but do not hare an Impressed lOQe. Uast □( them 
are tratultlonal bctuecn syroeetaii and naallllan forms and may ba placed In either 
catCBory. 



lisn 

hcim 




407 



ic impresseti zone. This is the name I have given to the area on 
le dorsum affected hy the contact of the dorsum of the growing 
'horl with the venter of the already formed whorl of the next inner 
volution. This is either flat, gibbous, or indented in accordance 
with the form of the venter of the whorl it touches or envelopes, 
but it is usually indented more or less deeply. 

There is a notable exception to this rule when in highly tachy- 

E»PDic shells the zone of impression is inherited and the dorsum 
comes furrowed before tlie first whorl bends. This is one of the 
.uost complete demonstrations of the probable inheritance of 
Required characters that I know, and an excellent illustration of 
the law of tachygenesis. It occurs in some groups of nautilian 
■hells of the Carboniferous and also in the Jura, Cretaceous and 
Tertiary, as well as in the existing species of Nautilus early in the 
Depionic substage, as may be seen in the drawings of Henry Brooks 

(PI. 0- 

In tracing out the distinct phyla to which different nautilian forms 
belong, it can be shown that the impressed zone is invariably con- 
feequent upon close coiling, never appearing in ancestral forms in 
the nepionic stage unless through this agency. As a rule, it comes 
in the ontogeny after this stage, usually in the ananeanic substage 
of more generalized and less closely coiled shells, but when one 
iscends in the same genetic series to the more specialized nautilian 
involved shells this purely acquired character becomes, through the 
action of tachygenesis, forced back, appearing as a rule in the 
tiepionic stage before the whorls touch. It is therefore in these 
ilbmis entirely independent of the mechanical cause, the pressure of 
one whorl upon another, which first originated it. One need only 
to add that this configuration of the dorsum is never found in adults 
a( any ancient and normally uncoiled shells, so far as I know, nor 
■o far as they have been figured. I have so far found only one form 
.-Cranoceras of the Devonian— in which there is app.irently a 
(light dorsal impression, which may have arisen independently of 
close coiling, 

There are apparent exceptions to this nile in some of the ex- 
tremely close-coiled forms of nautilian shells of the Calciferous and 
Quebec faunas (some of which are figured in the plates of this 

Kemoir), but in these the first whorl bends so abruptly and enlarges 
ith such extreme rapidity that the inflection of the dorsal side 
before the whorls touch can be attributed to mechanical effects of 



three factors, viz., rapid spreading of the whorl, the abrupt curva- 
ture and contact or close proximity of the paranepionic stage to the 
apical part of the conch. Even, however, if this conclusion be 
doubted and if, in a few forms of extremely speciaiieed nautilian 
shells of these early periods of geologic history, it can be asserted 
that the impressed zone has really become inheritable; the position 
assumed in this paper, that the impressed zone is mechanically gen- 
erated in the later stages of growth and becomes an inheritable 
characteristic only in forms with accelerated devetopmenl, is iMJsi- 
tively strengthened. The whole argument being based upon mor- 
phology, it makes no essential ditference how early the impressed 
zone appears or in what form it appears, provided the shells io 
wliich it is characteristic of the first volution before contact are the I 
descendants of those in which this character is transient and 1 
obviously due to the moulding during growth of one volution ovetl 
the next inner volution. 

My experience, however, in writing this paper has led me to dis- 
tinguish two kinds of impressed zones ; that which occurs on the 
free dorsal sides of the young and that which occurs as the direct i 
result of contact. I propose therefore to call the former the tiort^^ 
furrow and the latter thi; cuniact furrow. 

The anancanic substage among Carboniferous rephalopods is not 
only marked by tiie beginning of the contact furrow but also, as a 
rule, by the introduction of correlative changes in the form of the 
whorl. Thus the tetragonal whorl, with an outline similar to that 
of an inverted trapezoid in section, and consequently an obvious 
repetition of the ephebic whorl of Temnocheilus, and with sutures 
also like those of the adults of that genus, appears at this stage in 
Carboniferous cephalopods of several different genera, showing their 
immediate descent from Devonian Temnocheili. 

The first appearance of the dorsal lobe in the sutures is correlated 
with closer coiling and is apt to make its first appearance in primi- 
tive nautilian shells at this stage in the contact furrow. This lobe 
however, occurs also before the whorls touch in a number of forms, 
notably Barrandeoceras of the Silurian, and in one of these, Bar- 
randfoceras Slernhergi, it occurs in the ephebic stage, although 
this is a gyroceran form and no contact furrow is formed. There 
is also another smaller lobe which appears in the centre of this, 
the annular lobe. These are not strictly correlative with the 
impressed zone, since a dorsal lobe appears in some cyrtoceian 



\ 

I- 
e 

'J 




shells which do not have an impressed zone at any stage in Bar- 
randeoceras while the dorsum is still convex, and in Nauti- 
lus aratus it and the annular lobe is found beginning in the third 
septum, and similar observations have been made on a few other 
species in the descriptive part of this memoir. The characteris- 
Itcs of the ananeanic subslage of N. pempilius show how distinct 
this subslage is in existing nautilus from the preceding and suc- 
ceeding substages. The longitudinal ridges disappear during this 
substage, and the broad transverse bands of growth become in con- 
sequence for a time more prominent. The uniform brown of the 
paranepionic may begin to be striped on the sides in ihe latter part 
of the same substage, but this is ol^en delayed until the ananeanic 
substage and always become more deiinite at this time. 

In the metaneanic subslage the shell becomes smooth, the brown 
striping extends on to the venter, and the markings become more 
distinct and more widely separated. The whorl which, during the 
preceding substage, had lost the sub(rigonal outline of the para- 
nepionic and become kidney-shaped in oudine, with a deep im- 
pressed zone, now acquires a deepwr impressed zone and slightly 
flattened sides and venter, thus forming lateral zones, as in NauiUui 
itm6ilieatus,s.nA repeating at this stage the form of whorl character- 
istics of that species. During the paraneanic substage the deposits 
of porcellanus matter in the umbilical zone begin but do not 
become a very marked characteristic. 

In the ephcbic stage these deposits on either side increase and 
the whorl spreads inwardly closing the umbilici, the whorl in the 
neanlime losing its flattened venter, which again becomes rounded. 
The metephebic substage begins when the umbilical perforations 
become obliterated by the ingrowth of the umbilical zones. 

The parephebic substage is definable externally only by the ces- 
sation of the coloration. This may be due either to the fact that 
senility is not marked by any peculiar structural changes, as hap- 
pens often in other highly involute si^ecies of Nautiloids and even 
in many Ammonoids with smooth shells, or because no very large 
old specimens have been collected. 

These remarks do not represent fairly all the ontogenic changes 
in existing Nautili, which will be treated in another essay, but they 
suffice for the purposes of this paper and serve, with other facts 
cited, to show the applications of the nomenclature used in the 
following pages. 

PROC. AMEK. PHILOS. BOC, XXXII. 143. 2 7.. rBlSTED JUNE 8, 1804. 







--= -!►»»» 



•ZcrZ .-^ZIZCZ-'US 






*■ - ^ 



f I ^' 



^::. leur --e 



:r.-.: }i -- 



J ■ ■ ■ 




'. 



' ' ,' 



(■ ■■ ■ / 



.m 



' • ■/■ 



■»■ / 



# III 



I ■ /■ •■, 



I- 



.f 



' • /'■ '', •' , ', 



r 



i» . 



- • "^ i.'~i:_iis vers ^ss^^nn 

: -■. ir; i= -:e:;issar.- n 11 oche: 
: itii-ic-.i i^i^'-i ini.i Is neces — 
:'. .C-V-, !::»: riie ■subii:v:5ion ot^ 
" :■ ": '.'.^. 7i:e;i« s ':::iivenienc 




. • 1 . 



• -a -—1 • ■ . 



* » 






I ■ ^ . « . ^ . .« 



;■'.- :.-ie 



' ' ■•■• ■■' '■ ■■ ■•»■•■" ji' ■' ••■■. ■ ■"'■.;. *..•: ictijn of ^le lav\- of 
■ • '■ . i' ■■■ 

' '■ I r,- ;,, -.li, I i I, .. .i;,Tf-ir'- '';!.:»■;(. •.ini'' with tlie onen- 

'"' •' '" ■ "'■''. ' I'liinl.- ,- II III t!i': i'li^nrc^ ()[ Afimocfrijs Liim- 

' •''• ' ■"' I'l II. "I till . ji i|i!T, iind al->() in Sandberger's 

'• " •' I' ' "' < i-Mii iiiiiii I- on lii'- s.iinc plate. This is very 
'' '"' ' •' "" ■'• 'I' ■! "I til.- i|i-\ III Mk" conch in Xautiloidea. 
'" "' '• "' ' ' •'" I" ' i "I III I 'Mil. I. .iiK h must have been at least 
•' ' < h..iii .1.1, I,, .1,1. J , 111,- ',» .11 on t lie outer surface of tlie 



411 



apex, and at least as long ventro-doraally as the same. In oilier 
words, the aperture of the protoconch in Nautiloidea was narrow 
and elongated vertically, while that of the Ainmonoidea in all hav- 
ing cylindrical, straight or loosely coiled young shells, was an open 
tulic, as happens in Clarke's Orlhoceran form, in Bactrites and in a 
number of Goniatitina; as shown in the figures. 

1 In most groups of Goniatitins and the other suborders of Am- 
monoidea which, asa rule, have invariably closely-coiled first whorls, 
the effect of contact is to produce immediately a deep, contact fur- 
row and an almost entire obliteration of the umbilical perforation 
between the neck of the protoconch and the nepionic volution. 
Two funnel-shaped ofienings are left on either side, as shown in fig- 
ures on PI. ii, and these represent the more complete perforation 
present in all Nautiloidea and in the earliest forms of Goniatilince 
among .\mmonoidea. ' The probable position of the aperture of 
the protoconch has been indicated in Embryology of Fossil Cephalo- 
fodi, p. no, and in PI. iv. Fig. i, and this information, gathered 
from sections, agrees well with the figure given by Dr. Brown of the 
supposed aperture of Baculites which is reproduced in outline, Fig. 

17, PI. ii.* 

The growth of this form out of the protoconch, as in Bactrites, 
must have been quite different from that of the true Nautiloidea. 
Nevertheless it is obvious that as the animal grew outside of the 
limits of the protoconchial aperture, it began to build the shell of 
the apex of the conch and the first living chamber. This was the 
ananepionic substage and it in part more or less resembled in some 
of its essential characteristics and for a short time, the aseptate, 
apical living chamber of the Nautiloid, but this resemblance must 
have been transient and much accelerated. 

After or during the building of this external skeletal tube it 
tecame practicable for the animal to lift itself, or, more properly 
speaking, to progress by growth out of the protoconch, and the 
next step can be seen in Branco's Fig. 10, PI. iii, and the details in 
my Fig. 7, PI. iii, both of which, and others also given, show that 
the bottom of the ca:cum occupied the aperture of the protoconch 
and is formed, as in Natitiloids, of the closed funnel of the first 
septum. It is therefore inherited earlier, according to the law of 
tachygenesis, since the first septum and the ciEcum occupy the same 
position with relation to the protoconch as the scar or cicatrix in 

>K..\ea,l.aei. PAii., 1W2. Fl. U, Hgi. jond 10.11. 



412 



the apex of the shell in Nautiloidea. This and the fact that the 
protoconcb is calcareous are in favor of the opinion that the charac- 
teristics of the ananepionic substage of the ancestral nautiloids ap- 
peared in combination with the protoconchial stage in ammoooids. 
Thus the first septum and cjecum in this order is the floor of the 
first living chamber of the apex of the conch and is one substage 
earlier in this order than in nautiloids, and should be called aoaoe- 
pionic. 

The figures, so far as the shell is concerned, also seem to demon- 
strate that the ctecum at tliis substage probably represents some em- 
bryonic structure. This is Zittel's explanation of the origin of the 
siphuncle, it being as stated by him obviously traceable to the 
CKcum, and this in turn being probably formed out of a part of the 
body or the shrunken mantle of the embryo, since it lies in the 
Ammonoidea directly in the aperture of the protoconch. 

While, however, this organ fills the diameter of the apex in the 
median plane, it is narrower laterally, and one feels that this sup- 
position is open to certain objections that will be discussed more 
fully in a paper now in preparation on the Endoceratidae. j It may 
be mentioned here, however, that in these ancient forms of the 
Nautiloidea the opening from the siphuncle into the protoconchial 
shell is closed in a different way from what it is in the normal 
Nautiloidea, and in the protosiphonula the endosiphuncle communi- 
cated with the protoconchial shell, passing through the bottom of 
the caecum and apex. Tlie elements of the walls of the siphuncle 
surrounding the endosiphuncle in these forms are, however, similar 
to what they are in the Nautiloids of less primitive organization, 
and it becomes probable that the csecum was formed in the meta- 
nepionic substage in Nautiloidea as a secondary epembryonic organ, 
and that this has been crowded out of the metanepionic into the 
ananepionic in Ammonoids. In other words, like some other char- 
acters it was acquired in the epembryonic stages of Diphragmo- 
ceras and like these has been inherited earlier in descendants. 

One naturally, if disposed to adopt the theories of genesiology 
as a working hypothesis, looks for the largest representation of an- 
cestral characters in the earliest and most generalized forms. Thus 
the Goniatitinie of the Silurian, which belong in all except the 
terminal members of series like Pinnacites and Celceras to this 
category, one ought to find the transitions to Bactrites, or, failing 
these, indications in the young of the less specialized forms of the 




413 

Silurian of their immediate derivation from Nautiloid ancestors. 
This is precisely what actually occurred and in the Nautiloidea such 
evidence is easily obtained as has already been stated above in the 
pages of the Introduction and other publications. 

It also follows, if the theories advanced by the author are true, 
that the Nautilinidae among Goniatitinae, as ancestors of the Am- 
monoidea, and especially the genus Mimoceras as the centre of 
derivation, should also show more prolonged retention of nautiloid 
characters in their ontogeny than is usual in their supposed descend- 
ants. The researches of Sandberger, Barrande, Branco and the 
author show this to be a fact. The figures of PI. ii copied from 
Barrande and Branco exhibit this in Mimoceras compressufHy am- 
bigena and the whole of the Nautilinidae of the Silurian, and the 
essential distinctive characteristic of this family is the nautiloid 
form of the septa and lateral sutures. The shells of this genus also 
do not possess a contact furrow, as noted above, and have no an- 
nular lobes on the dorsum. 

The first suture of Mimoceras compressum, Figs. 3, 4, PL ii, and 
in some other allied species of the Devonian is bent into a slight 
lobe on the venter, which is a purely nautiloid character, and not 
to be confounded with the ammonoidal lobe in the same situation 
in the third suture that follows this. This is shown by the occur- 
rence of similar lobes in the Endoceratidae and some cyrtoceran 
forms of Nautiloidea and in figures of sutures of Nautilus de slang- 
champseanus and clementinus of the Cretaceous, also copied from 
Branco, which have similar first and second sutures. The aselate 
first septum is in M, compressum, followed on the second septum by 
a broad, almost imperceptible saddle, also considered aselate by 
Branco, but which is obviously a transition to the latisellate, or 
broad-saddle type of suture in the more specialized forms. The 
limits of the ananepionic substage in this form, which, as said 
above, is directly transitional to Bactrites, is therefore that part of 
the whorl which is represented by these two septa and the living 
chamber in which the animal rested while constructing the second 
one. 

The characters of these two septa, however, are not repeated in 
the closer-coiled forms of the Nautilinidae and Primordialidae. In 
these the repetition of the outline of the second suture may be 
entirely omitted, the shell passing immediately in the second sep- 
tum to the repetition of the peculiar undivided ventral of the 




Nautilinidae, obliterating the primitive f hancterisilcs of the r 
septum and substimting the more odvaaced charactensiica «f tht J 
Nautilinidffi a^ is plainly demonstrated in Fig. i6, PI. ii, otAnt^ i 
ttstes iGoniatites) iatesrjttatus and in the Primordialid.i: in Gtf^ri' 
terns [Gonial) serratum. Fig. 17 of same plate. In the Arnmoni* 
tina and Lytoceratiuae, and probably in the CeraiitiniC, as in mtpi( 
of the GoniatitiniE, this substage is obviously limited to tlic Gril 
septum and the corresponding living chamber.. The limits of riiii 
living chamber in one form may possibly be indicatcl by the Irani- 
verse imbricated line between the third and fourth sepia in mi 
Fig. I, PI. iv, of Embryohgy of Fossil Cephalopodi. Tins lint 
seems to demonstrate an arrest of growth at this time in ihc rjla- 
reous deposits corresponding to that indicated in Fig. 11 of the 
same ])late which is probably due to a former aperture. 

The metanepionic substage must obviously begin with the adwni 
of the characteristics of the tubular microsiphuncle and tlu: veiinl 
lobe in sutures, whether tiiis occure in the second or liiird sepBin 
or later. 

It is limited in duration to the repetition of the characteriflio 
of the NautiliuidK in certain of the Goniatitinie. Thus thai famtlT 
of the Silurian and Devonian is phylo-metanepionic, or correipowii 
in the phylum in its ephebic characters to the metanepioDic iu1>- 
stage of its descendants. The closely allied family of the Ptinior- 
dialidje, for example, as shown in Fig. 17, PI. ii, has several «pt* 
with this character appearing in the metanepionic substage, ih- 
construction of the divided ventral lobe so characteristic of all 
normal forms of Amnionoidea not taking place until thcshdlis 
nearly or about 3 mm. in diameter in one species, accordingto 
Dranco's figures, and still later in some other species. 

In the Ceratitiu;e of the Trias this substage is in many species, 
as shown by Branco's drawings, prolonged through several sepf 
and there are decided indications that it is subdivisible into 1*" 
parts, one characterized by the purely nautilinian ventral lobesn'^ 
lateral sutures with only one broad lobe, and a second older portion 
having the undivided ventral lobes and lateral sutures of other »3- 
ical forms among Gonialitin.-e, ex. Prolecanites. 

In Trachyeeras Munsteri the eighth suture, according to BtaOM, 
is still undivided or nautilinian, and Tropites, according 10 tl" 
sanit- author's figures, has this substage still more prolonged. ■" 
Megaplijllitcs, Pinnacoceras, etc., all more highly specialized fonW 



416 



of tlie Trias, ii is apparently shorter in duration than in the gener- 
alized and less complex organization of Tirolites if one can judge 
by tht simple characters of the ephebic stage. 

In the Jura and Cretaceous, among the Aramonilina; and Lyto- 
ceraiiii*, typical Atnmonoids with more highly specialized struc- 
tures than any Triassic shells, the primitive characters of this sub- 
stage are, as one can read in Branco's drawings and to a less extent 
in mine, still more limited in extent, being confined as a rule to a 
few sutures or to one, and finally, in many forms they are obliter- 
ated altogether. That is to say, the divided ventral lobe encroaches 
upon and finally obliterates the intermediate stage so that ;he meta- 
nepiooic substage, which begins with the third septum and micro- 
siphon, is wholly changed in the as^jecl of the sutures. In other 
words, the undivided ventral lobe of the Nautilinidie has been re- 
placed in this subsiage by the divided ventral of the Primordialidae 
which appears in the suture of the second septnm. 

This is also, like the preceding, an excellent example of what is 
meant by the law of tachygenesis, the earlier inheritance through 
the crowding back and replacement of distal by proximal genetic 
characteristics. 

Fig. 3, PI. iv, shows the prolonged duration of the nautiliniaii 
characteristics in this substage in second, third and fourth septa of 
Vermiceras (Arietites) spirattssimun of llie Lower Lias, the decided 
change to a divided ventral and two lateral lobes not coming in 
until the seventh suture. 

Fig. 7, Pi. iii, shows the section of Deroceras plankosla of the 
Lower Lias and the delayed approximation of the siphuncle to the 
ventral side. Fig. 7 shows the primitive structure of this organ in 
the earlier substages, and the figures from Branco show the duration 
of characteristics to be in correlation with these primitive charac- 
teristics. 

Fig. 7, PI, iii, shows the structure of the siphuncle in the meta- 
ncpionic substage. The transitional aspect of the second septum 
can be observed in Figs. 6 and 7 of the same plate. This is a 
direct reference, as I shall show in another paper, to the similar 
structure of the ephebic siphuncle, and also the swollen aspect of 
the early stages of the siphuncle in the Endoceratidar, although in 
some species of this family as many as six funnels may take pan in 
the construction of the swollen apical end of this organ. These 
facts are also in direct correlation with the more specialized and 



416 

complicated structure of Ammonoidea. They show ihai these 
forms do not retain the tendency to form a cEcum whh double 
walls as in Nautiloidea, and such an example as thai figured in 
Nautilus pompilius, in which a misplaced second septum necesaril)' 
shows a long tubular ciecum like that of the living chamber of 
Diphragmoceras, probably does not occur. In other words, one of 
the most persistent of the nepionic characteristics of Nautiloidea 
does not exist in the more specialized shells of Ammonoidea » fc 
as known. 

It is obvious from the preceding that the paranepiunic wbstagc 
begins in most forms of this order with the first appearance of rte 
divided ventral lobe, or what I have called the siphonal saddle aad 
it is limited in extent by the duration of the simple entire gooiatilic 
outlines of the sutures whicli accompany all the substages of lie 
nepionic stage in all the suborders of AmmonitinK, except, of 
course, the stock in which they originated, the Goniatitinat. 

In the CeratitinK, Ammonitinie and Lytoceralinae it is gcim- 
ally true that this occurs, and the ananeanic substage begins «it!i 
subdivision of the lobes and saddles into minor lobes and saddles ot 
digitations, and this is often also accompanied by the advent of i 
minute siphonal lobe in the apex of the siphonal saddle. U ii 
noiessentialhere to discuss the limits of the neanic stage and itssiil>- 
stagcs. They vary so much with the condition of development ami 
the position of each species in its own series or genus and of each 
series or genus in its own group, that it is impracticable to define 
them except in very comprehensive terms. 

Thus one may say the limit of the neanic stage is reached when 
the specific characteristics begin to appear jn normal progressire 
forms. But there are exceptions to this in some highly tachygenic 
species, as in Oxynoli'ceras oxynolum, for example, and manyolhes 
in which certain characteristics are carried back to earlier substage. 
Still, as a rule, this definition does good service if the occurrence 
of exceptions are constantly anticipated. 

The limits of the substages can be obtained in some speciesof 
each series, and are quite distinct in the external charactcrislio "f 
the form of the whorl and of the ornamentation. The sutures of 
the ananeanic substage are different from those of the metaneanic 
since they are much simpler and less completely digitated, hot 
there is, as a rule, but slight, if any, differences between the sutmtt 
of the metaneanic and paraneanic or ephebic sutures. TlKse 



417 

substages have been described, although not defined according to the 
nomenclature used in these pages, by WUrtenburger in his essay re- 
ferred to above ; by S. S. Buckman in his extensive and monumental 
work published by the Paleontographical Society in their volume 
for 1891 on the "Ammonites of the Oolite," and by the author in 
the Genesis of the Arietidce, 

The gerontic stage has also been fully described and separated 
into two subdivisions by Mr. Buckman and the author, and is easily 
distinguished from the ephebic by the external characters, and as 
stated above the septa become more or less approximated in the 
paragerontic substage and there is often slight but perceptible de- 
generation in the sutures. 

All of the remarks made above apply well enough in a general 
sense to the progressive series of the Ammonoidea, but although 
we know the younger stages of only a few species of the retrogres- 
sive species, there are indications that they will require modifica- 
tions to be true also for the phylogerontic forms. 

Thus Chorisioceras (of) Henseli, as figured by Branco,* has appar- 
ently a considerable number of sutures having the undivided ven- 
tral lobe. These are less in number than in some progressive forms 
like Tropites subullatus, figured on the same plate, but unluckily 
the immediate ancestors of this species are unknown and exact 
comparisons cannot be made. 

The young of the uncoiled forms of the Ammonoidea show 
however, in all their characters that the early inheritance of 
gerontic tendencies interferes with and delays the development of 
the progressive, more complicated structures of the forms from 
which they must have been derived. This is admirably shown in 
the drawings of Dr. Brown, some of which are reproduced on 
PI. iii. 

Fig. 13 shows a complete young shell which is in the neanic stage 
of growth. Fig. 1 7 is a restored side view of the protoconchial stage 
and ananepionic substage with aperture. Y\g. 16 gives front view of 
the first volution in the paranepionic substage whic^h begins at the 
fourth septum, and Fig. 18 side view at the sixth septum. Fig. i, 
PI. iv, shows the sutures for the same age. 

Figs. 14-16 show the gradual diminution of the area of the con- 
tact furrow and the decrease in lateral diameters of the volution 

• Op. cU., Piileonlogr., xxvi, PI. v. 
PROC. AMER. PHIL08. SOC. XXXII. 143. 3 A. PRINTED JUNE 25, 1894. 



while ihe shell is slill in the nepionic stage and as it approxliH iht 
point of departure from the spiral and the subsequent lossof llu 
contact furrow. Dr. Brown records that the spacing of the sepu 
increases after the deposition of the twelfth septum, and that that 
partitions are more widely separated. This correlates with a mi- 
responding increase in the lateral diameters and together aii- 
(late an increased rate of growth. NL-venheless there is no quicken- 
ing in the processes of development nor any resumption of pro- 
gressive characters. The shell becomes a compressed elli|« in 
section, loses the contact furrow, and the straightened cone lioo 
not acquire the digitate sutures and [lass into the neanic stage of iht 
Atnmonitina: until after it has departed from Ihe spiml.* 

It is clear from this and other examples taken from later sUgaof 
growth that these are tachygenetic forms so far as the early inheni- 
ance of gerontic characters is concerned. Correlating with thu, 
or in consequence of this, the inheritance of progressive characien 
in the sutures is delayed, and these parts change more slowly in 
these phyto para plastic shells than in the phyloroeiaplastic forms of 
the same order. The internal structures and the shell itself abo.a' 
jireviously stated, never attains even in the stage of ephehic dcwi- 
opment characteristics comparable to those of phyiomctajilelii 
species. ■ 

It follows upc-n the preceding remarlts that the characters of ih«»^ 
stages have different duration in different members of the same 
genetic series, being more prolonged in the more primitive iiwl 
shortened up through the action of tachygenesis in the more speciil- 
izcd shells of the same series. It is also obvious that the limiisof 
eiich subslage must be defined differently according to the position 
.if the animal in time and in the evolution of its own special serio. 

There arc theoretically no exceptions to this law in its broadN 
.11 ceptalion, but in its jiractical applications this is not the case. 

Thus the protoconchial stage is so nearly invariable in each order 
that it is characteristic of all Nautiloidea and all Ammonoidea, havioj 
I'cculiar characters in each of these orders, but this comparative in- 
v.iriability is less apjiarent in the characters of the ananepioaic, 
ini.lanc])ionic unil paranepionic substages, and especially in- iht 
neanic stage, which are not as constant. The tendency to chanp: 

■ Eliiviiif ri'i'pivol '■[lei'iiiit.'us i>t these piecloui' (ois\h llirouKh the kindne* d n. 
iiiuiiy III ^u 111 IT all thi- lUHlcnail aud uludy every detail nr the develugimcut. 



419 

along certain lines of modification in accordance with definite gen- 
etic laws becomes, in other words, more apparent in the later than 
in the earlier substages of the oatogeny.* 

In order to give a clear and comprehensible example of the gen- 
eral application of these laws I have quoted below several pages 
from Buckman's interesting and instructive paper on " Some Laws 
of Heredity and their Application to Man.** f 

How THE Transmission of Variation would Affect the Origin 

OF Species. 

*' It is not difficult to understand the origin of species if the sur- 
mises that I have submitted, concerning the transmission of devel- 
opmental variation, are correct. The greater and greater elaboration 
of any particular features in, say, an adult male, as functional mod- 
ification necessitated by environment, are transmitted to the male 
sex alone, and appear earlier and earlier in that sex. The greater 
and greater elaboration of these features results in the course of 
time in the formation of a marked and distinguishing character 
in the male sex; and this character being transmitted in accord- 
ance with the law of earlier inheritance ultimately appears early in 
life in the male. Then the character tends to appear in the female 
sex also, though why it does so is not clear. By such process, how- 
ever, there arise both males and females which possess characters 
(iifferent to those which their ancestors possessed. 

** By the time that this character, influenced by the law of earlier 
inheritance, ap[)ears at an age early enough to be transferred to the 
female, the male has probably either further elaborated this charac- 
ter — which further elaboration is at first transmitted to the males only 
—or he has elaborated something else so much that it seems like a new- 
character which is transmitted in the same way. In course of time 
this further elaboration, or this new character as the case may be, is 
transmitted also to the females; and so it becomes plain how, 
merely by the gradual transmission of developmental variations, 
both sexes of what may be called an incipient species, beginning 
with a slight variation in one sex alone, ^e able to diverge wider 
and wider from the original stock. 

**The same laws of transmission would of course hold good if 

* The application of tbi» law, however, to the genmtic "u^KageH (leiiiaiids a longer dU- 
onttion than can \ie given here, and uin*>t t>e deferred to future publicntionM. 
t Proc OMetwoUl Nalur. Fidd auff, Vol. x, I*t. lii, pp. 2>8-322, IW1-1W2. 




llie developmenlal variation arose in ibe female id respoiw 10 
changes of environment; while if both sexes were expos«dtDllie 
same changes of environment necesailating the satne fimcliiMiil 
modifications to be acquired to bring them into better adapistw 
with their surroundings, it is reasonable to conclude that the r«ult 
would be the production of a greater diiference in a shorter spKB 
of time. 

"Thus it is clear that the gradual accumulation of slight dewl- 
opmental variations iransmiltcd in accordance with ihc la* of6l^ 
lier inheritance woui'J be sufficient to cause the origin of vaiios 
species; and at the same time there can be little doubt tliailhit 
cause l)as also been assisted by both Natural and Sexual Select ion in 
the production of diverse species from one original stof.k. Iim 
inclined to think that developmental variation has been more im- 
portant in the origin of species than has abnormal, or as Dinrin j 
calls it, 'spontaneous,' variation. The transmission of such tli- 
normal variations as supernumerary digits seems la be so muchmon I 
uncertain than the transmission of developmental variation, i>^ \ 
practically speaking the origin of Ammonite species seems lok I 
almost entirely attributable to developmental variation. 

" Specialized structures like the long neck of the giraffe and iht ' 
proboscis of the elephant, to take familiar instances, are. Id mv J 
opinion, developmental variations. They did not arise, in ihcfirft 
place, in certain members of the pregiraffian or preelephaniine 
species as abnormal or 'spontaneous' variations which gave their 
possessors such great superiority over their fellows in the siniggie 
for existence that those possessors survived by the law of Natural 
Selection. These features began imperceptibly — the neck and tlw 
nose grew more in proportion to other features during the lives of 
tiie individuals on account of the habits of the animals, and thej 
may be compared in tJiis respect to the enlarging skull of civilized 
Man. 

" As the features of the adult become in course of time the fe>- 
tiires (jf the adolescent by the law of earlier inheritance, the elon- 
gation of nose and neck would become exaggerated from one 
generation to nnoiher. 1 do not see any reason to suppose, £l an^ 
rale at first, that the girafiian or elephantine ancestors were ihe 
fwored individuals of the community, and that the other members 
died out because they did not possess elongatfcd necks or noi«- 
I do not suppose that all the naembers of the species possessed 



421 

these features in the same degree, but I do imagine that a gradu- 
ally increasing elongation was more or less common to all the mem- 
bers of the pregiraffian or preelephantine species as a result of 
their habits. 

** To take the case of the giraffe alone, for the sake of clearness 
— it is hardly necessary to suppose occasional droughts during 
which those members of the community with the longest necks 
would survive, while others starved because they were not able 
to reach such high branches as their longer-necked fellows. An 
extra inch or so of neck could not make so much difference as this.* 

** I do not say that the giraffe or its ancestors have not had the 
best of it when there was a struggle for existence, and that natural 
selection has not played its part ; the fact of the giraffe's existence 
is proof enough that it was better adapted to its environment than 
some of its competitors ; and the longer the neck grew doubtless 
the greater superiority the animal would possess. 

** As to the short-necked forms which would connect the present 
giraffe with the stock from which it originally came, their dying out 
is not difficult to explain. The law of earlier inheritance allows us 
to imagine a small beginning becoming more accentuated in all 
members of a species as time goes on, and as the shorter-necked 
forms were really the parents of the longer-necked forms, the dis- 
appearance of the former would be due, as the lawyers say of a 
lease, to effluxion of time. 

" Arising from and coexisting with developmental variation there 
seems to be another factor important in differentiating species, and 
this is the time when the offspring is produced. 

"Offspring produced early and offspring produced late in the life 
of a parent shewing considerable developmental changes between 
early and late maturity, or between early maturity and senility, 
would in all probability differ to a certain extent. It is, I think, 
reasonable to suppose that if there were, say, a decline of vigor 
after a certain period of the parent's life, the offspring produced 
after this time would be more likely not only to be somewhat less 
vigorous altogether, but would probably exhibit declining vigor at 
an earlier age than those produced before any decline of vigor 
set in. 

•"The adults would have the best of It in a drought on account of their larger size. 
Therefore if there were a long-necked ' sport ' among the young pregirafles it would 
bare uo chance against the adults unless its neck were of a preternatural length." 



4!>2 

" This seems to be a reasonable deduction from what is otwrvw- 
in ijliylogenetic series of Ammonites, where from the si 
arise one series which continues to progress, another ^ries ftiicta 
retrogrades, ihougb both lived together and were i>re«umal)lv h 
ject to the same environment. 

" More marked still would be the efTects if from any «use 
arose a difference among members of a species as to the time in 
lives when offspring were produced. There is the case in Mi* 
llie professional classes defer marriage till late in life, agriculwra"! 
laborers marry very early, 

"These surmises illustrate what may be supposed to be iccan —^ 
plished in the differentiation of species by the Iransmistion o( dr— ^J 
vclopmental variations in accordance with the law of earlier mhtr- 
iiance. Further consideration will shew that, if some mcmtienof 
a species acquire, on account of environment, habtls ncccssiwtiny 
the increased use of one part, and other menibere acquire other 
habits with different results, and so on, there would, in count oi 
time, arise from one original stock two or more specie* verydiSc- 
ent from each other or to the parent form — simply becauM ihtit 
small initial differences had been constantly increased by iheaciiou 
of the law of earlier inheritance." 

IV. DKscRipriVE Terms * ' 

Hefore atlempting to enter u|ion the desc:rL|>live part of ihiseay 
It is essential lo define, as briefly as possible, the meaning of ilw 
terras which are constantly employed in the descriptions of the 
difft;rent forms. The term " coil " has been applied solely lo i1k 
whole shell, while " whorl " and " volution " have been used Then 
in the singular or when numbered only for a particular whoil or 
volution. Thus the first whorl or first volution is the first completed 
revolution of the shell, and so on. I have also been obliged to use 
volution for parts of a single whorl in describing substages. 

In describing the aperture I have used the terms "crest" for pn- 
jetting parts and "sinus" for inflections of the outline lo dittin- 
guisli them from the saddles and lobes of the sutures. The ventral 
^inIls of the aperture and lines of growth is here called the "hypo- 
nomic sinus," it being due to the large size of the hyponomeot 

•Slici'iBl MU'liMilii I'F Ccii1uilo|nd& «in. [t Is lliougbl, b« gnieftil foi ibi< ctHiui 
(rlliOTclURM'aotreailcn. irilittf It- one nhn gvl«ai> faritnd hu the cuuragv totofutttt 
I'uii tdip knd refer to II lu cauuecllou ulUi tbe deKrlpUoiu whlcb fBllow. 




423 



motor organ usually called " Heshy funnel " in the modern nautilus, 
as has been explained above, 

It is useless to discuss the terms "Ventral" and"dorsaI." There 
can be no debate on their application, unless it is based upon nen- 
anatomical information. The fact is obvious, so far as now known, 
ihac in Nautilus pampilius, and all other Nautiloids, Ihe onier side 
of Ihe whorl is ventral and the inner side is dorsal. Whenever, 
even in straight shells, Orthoceras, etc, the lines of growth can be 
seen, the ventral side is indicated by the " hyponomic sinus," and 
in nautilian or coiled shells it is invariably on the outer side. 

The lerm "depressed" is used for the flattening of the whorls, 
which affects the abdomen and dorsum and acts at right angles to 
Ihe transverse diameter of the coil ; " compressed " for the similar 
effect on the sides, which acts in the plane of the transverse diame- 
lers and at right angles to the plane of coiling. When the sides, 
lateral zone, or faces are inclined inwardly towards the umbilici, the 
term "divergent" is applied, and wlten they incline outwardly 
towards the abdomen the lerm " convergent " has been used. 

The adoption of these terms has been found to give clearer ideas 
of the development and true importance lo the different characters 
of the volutions. The term " sides " is used in a general way, and 
distinguishes the whole of the lateral aspect of the whorl at any 
stage. The " lateral zones " and lateral faces, etc., as will be seen 
in the descriptions, are developed as modifications out of the sides 
of the young and immature whorls. The outer angles occurring on 
either side in the yoitng or in the biangular forms are in the text 
named " lateral angles," being really on the sides of the whorl and 
distinct from the angles arising later in the life of the individual, 
and later in the evolution of the group. The junction of the " lat- 
eral faces" and abdomen are the "abdominal angles," and those 
of the "lateral faces" and inner faces of the mature whorls 
are called the "umbilical shoulders," and the inner surfaces 
are the "umbilical zones." All of these parts are developed in 
succc^ion and in various combinations, from a round or elliptical 
form of whorl, having the vertical or veniro- dorsal diameter longer 
than (he transverse, both in the individual and in the evolution of 
■he group. 

The venter is the area between the outer angles, whether they be 
the "lateral" or "abdominal" angles, on the outer pan of the 
whorl, uid Ihe "dorsum" is [be corresponding |)art on the inner 



part of the same, between the " lateral angles " or the "umbilio] 
shoulders." The " zone of impression," or " impressed tone," U 
Hie area on the dorsum, which is concave, and lies between the 
'■umbilical zones." The impressed zone may apj-ear indcicn- 
denily as a "dorsal furrOw," or, after contact, as a " contact tur- 
row." The "zone of inclusion" or " incladed zone " is the cov- 
ered area corresponding to this on the venier. The term " loan 
of involmion" or ''area of involution" can be used for both of 
these when the whorls are not separated or it is desired to speak of 
the two together. Tlie '■ lines of involution " are the outer bound- 
aries of the " zone of impression " on the dorsum, and the "Ubci 
of inclusion " the corresponding lines on the venter. 

The terms " involved " and "involution " should Itc limited td 
whorls having a " zone of impression " or " impressed zone," thai 
is, to "nautilian" shells. "Coiled" can be applied to all sbelli 
that have the gyroceran curve and even to shells with (he wborb 
in contact. Nevertheless these sometimes have closer affinity with 
nautilian shells of a given series than with the gyroceran shclU of 
ihc same series. 

Whorls with only two surfaces and angles are "digonal ;" three 
surfaces and angles "trigonal;" four surfaces and angles "ictri- 
gonal," and when the abdomen is much broader than any oilier 
side " tr.-ipe^oidal ;" five surfaces and angles " iienicigonal ;" iix 
surfaces and angles " hexagonal ;" seven surfaces aiul angles " hc)- 
tagonal ;" eight surfaces and angles "octagonal ; nine surfaces and 
angles "enneagonal ;" ten surfaces and angles " decagonal." 

The outlines on the Diagram Plate, opposite, page 435, will be 
found to explain these terras more fully. 

Explanation of Diagram Plate. 



Diiigram A. — Section of compressed elliptical whorl with prirai- 
live regions indicated, ananepionic substage of nautilian shells and 
ephebic stage of many primitive orthoceran and cyrloceran forms. 

Diagram B' . — Section of Ciepressed elliptical whorl occurring 
older in the ontogeny or correspondingly later in the phylogeny 

Diag.ram B". — Section of a reniform whorl with a contact fuf- 

ruiv. This may be evolved from B' by the growth and inroluiioa 




425 

of the whorl,* and may be an intermediate stage leading into a 
whorl like that shown in H, or it may acquire lateral angles as in 
C, thus passing into G, or A may pass directly into H. 

Diagram (7. — Section of a digonal whorl with primitive regions 
and lateral angles, 1. g., occurring in the ephebic stage of ortho- 
ceran and cyrtoceran forms and in the young of nautilian forms, 
Edaphoceras. 

Diagram D, — Section of a trigonal whorl with gibbous venter, 
lateral angles, 1. g., and projecting dorsal angle, p. d. g., ex. Tri- 
gonoceras. 

Diagram E, — Section of a trigonal, shield-shaped whorl, with 
concave venter, lateral angles, 1. g., and projecting dorsal angles, 
p. d. g. Either D or E may evolve into a tetragonal whorl by the 
appearance of a lateral zone on the outer part of the sides and the 
rounding off and disappearance of the dorsal angle, ex. Trigono- 
ceras. 

Diagram F, — Section of a tetragonal whorl with gibbous venter 
and dorsum and lateral zones, 1. z. This may be developed from 
B" or from C. 

The morphic distri))ution of these forms is as follows : A, B and 
C may be Orthoceran, Cyrtoceran or Gyroceran, but are more gen- 
erally Orthoceran ; D may be Orthoceran, but is usually Cyrto- 
ceran and Gyroceran ; E and F are almost exclusively Gyroceran. 
All of the remaining outlines belong to Nautilian forms. 

Diagram G. — Section of a tetragonal, trapezoidal whorl with a 
contact furrow nearly as broad as the dorsum, the sides flat and 
well defined. This may be evolved from C or B" in development 
of Nautilian forms. The atdominal angle, a. g., in this form is 
derived from the lateral angle of forms like C. Sides, s., are still 
undivided, ex. Temnocheilus. 

Diagram H. — Section of a hexagonal whorl with lateral zones, 
1. z., developed between the abdominal shoulders or angles, a. g., 
and the umbilical shoulders, u. s., and umbilical zones, u. z., devel- 
oped between the latter and the lines of involution, 1. in. The 
contact furrow remains primitive or undivided. This may be 

• This same diagram can also be used to represent the paragerontic 8ul>stage of the de- 
generation. A reniform whorl may result in the gcrontic stage fh)m such an ephebic 
whorl as is represented in H, J, K, or P. Q shows an intermediate stage between P and a 
reuiform paragerontic whorl. No confusion need result from this double use of tiie same 
outline, since it does not imply Identity of structure, but simply the identity of form at 
the extremes of the outocycle in the individual and of the phylocycle in the group. 

FROC. AMXB. PHIL08. 80C. XXXII. 143. 8 B. PBDIT&D JUNB 25, 1894. 





r ^^^H 




,, t ii:. riP 


^^1 


1 53 m^' I 






J TJ-n * -J -c 


-.1 |l 




^ U-l ^ - ^ 


i! t! 


« 


{j 


fJ li 




f m 1 


H 


n ^ 




> 

i i 


11 1 ^ 

g3 ^1 S g„ 


lii 


S s 


^i 1^ 1 |l 


ip 


1 9 ° 




1 lii ' 



1 




fl 


|1|1' 


It 


■ f 


^.5 


I'l 


31 


?! 


"a "^ 


- ; 1 


1 ^ 


1 q; 

1 « ! 


m'-D 


a d. 


.t'h 




i'S\ 


1 


iliii 


i 
1 

.5 


ij 

si i 



429 



These diagranw and examples (with the exception of A, B and 
C) were taken from Carboniferous forms ptiblishwl in the Fourth 
Annual Report of Ike Gtflogical Survfy of Texas, 1892, but they 
are applicable to all of the Nautiloidea, provided certain distinc- 
tions be made. The ouiline exj^ands by growth from an ananepionic 
stage, in this case having the approximate outline of A, and may 
develop into B and C, with decided lateral angles, but in the ephe- 
bic stage may sometimes return to the form of Edaphoceras, C. 
Species of other groups may pass through B' and, becoming invo- 
lute, take on the outline of B", and then, if the shell progresses 
still more, it may tend towards forms of H. 

It must, however, be noticed that fossils of such species occurring 
in the earliest geologic period have not, as a rule, even approxi- 
nutdy well-defined angles, and these being deficient, the zones are 
not apt to be well differentiated. One can readily see that these 
shells, even though they may be involute from an early stage, have 
not the more highly specialized characteristics of the whorl found 
in some of the Devonian fossils. The latter, in their turn, take 
rank a.s a whole beiow the still more progressive and highly orna- 
mented nautilian shells of the Carboniferous which represent the 
acme of the order. 

The paracme of the order begins in the Trias, and retrogression 
is plainly manifested in the steady decline of the external ornaments 
aod less angulation of the whorl. The universal absence of all of 
the third and fourth orders of modifications of the whorl is one of 
the marked features of this decline, beginning with the Trias and 
becoming universal in the Jura and other subsequent periods. 

The nomenclature of the sutures needs no special description, 
except with reference to the "annular lobe." This is a small 
indentation in the sutures, occurring either in the centre of a dorsal 
saddle or a dorsal lobe. It is jwinteti or V-shaped. In some forms 
it may arise before a dorsal lol>e is formed in the middle of a primi- 
tive but persistent dorsal saddle, or it may arise subsequently in the 
centre of a broad dorsal lobe. Its development has not been fully 
described. It is often accompanied by an internal pointed caecum 
called the "annular cone," and both are probably connected with 
the development of the "annular muscle." 

It has been usual to measure the distance of the siphuncle and 
deacribe its position, with more or less circumlocution, as ventral, 
dorsal, central, etc., but in these descriptions the following terms 




f Prapiodorssn 
f Subdorsan 



int;uracy fan be ob' 

tained, and othcRCsn 

also be employrd '( 

essentially bfbcd on 

the same sysiem. 

Thus, for exampICi 

proxiino-vcnlran ci- 

E*tra«rtw<br>an presses the position ol 

the siphuncle in Wt- 

thoceras and BilhiM- 

whercthiswsM 

lose 10 the iiwll 

that its o 

[>art aliseni ipi in 
])arl iiuLth modified. SiibTt-niran is applicable only to those form; 
in which ihe wall of the sijihuncle is not altered or niwiiW 
through wmtart with the shell, although it may lie quite closely 
;igainsl it. The other terms sufficiently ex])lain themselves, exrti'l 
the use of " extra " and " intra." It is not meant to ronfine ihf« 
terms to the two where it is used in the diagram. It is obvious 
that these prefixes may be employed wherever they are needed. 
Thus one can say " intravenirocentren " for a location between 
cenireii and veniroceniren po:5itioiis. 

It would nol be jirojier, however, to use these prefixes on either 
side of irentren for Ihe reason that the comi>arisons are all niiile 
from the centre towards the dorsum, on the one hand, and towards 
the venter on the other. Thus everything on the dorsal side of this 
[loint is not inside of the centre but dorsad of this point or axis, 
and everjthing on the ventral side is not ontside of the same axis 
liiii ventrad of it, 1 have also used Wilder's term, mesal, for the 
plane of the sijihon, instead of median. 



431 

These terms and others of the new descriptive nomenclature, of 
which only very few will be used in these pages, because I think it 
will be essential to discuss them further before applying them to the 
descriptions of cephalopodan shells, have been gradually introduced 
in consequence of the labors of Wilder and Gage, in this country, 
and are in a fair way of being adopted in Europe through the 
effort of Franz Eilhard Schulze and others.* 

Terms like ventran, ventrad, ventral, dorsan, dorsad, dorsal, cen- 
tren and centran, and so on, strike one at first as awkward and bar- 
barous, but their utility becomes apparent, as in the case of the 
siphuncle cited above, as soon as one begins to use them, and they 
can be made to have an exact meaning which it is not practicable 
to gain otherwise without the repetition in every description of the 
same explanatory text.. 

The shells of Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea are divided by trans- 
verse partitions or septa into what are called *'air chambers,'* and 
the intersections or lines made by the edges of these when they 
strike against the inner surfaces of the shell of the whorl are called 
the sutures. Fig. 15 shows the edges of these septa as they would 
appear in Nautilus umbilicatus (Fig. i, p. 345) if the shell there 
figured had been fossilized, the air chambers filled with infiltrations 
and the outer walls of the last whorl destroyed except in the umbil- 
icus. The outer empty chamber beyond the suture of the last 
septum is the cast of the living chamber. The sinuous edge of 
this is the impression left by the edge of the aperture on the right 
side. This being a cast artificially made, is somewhat more perfect 
than natural casts of the interiors of such forms in the rocks and 
the spreading abutments of the septa against the inner wall are 
broad bands. Usually, in fossils, the upper extremely thin j)arts of 
these bands have disappeared, leaving only a line below correspond- 
ing to the lower parts of the bands in this figure and more nearly 
representing the thickness of the internal part of the calcareous 
septum. 

•See Wilder, Science, li, 18S1 ; Wilder and Gage. Anatotnical Technology, 1882, and other 
papers. Alao Schulze, Biologisches Centralhlatt, xiii, Nos, 1, 2, 1893 ; Hyatt, ibid., Nos. 15. 
16; and again, Schulze, Vcrh. d. Anat. GescUcch., Versam. Guttiugen, 18U3, p. 104; and 
reprint of same, DeuUche Zool. QacU., Gottlngeu, 1893, p. 0. 




V. Descriptions, 

In treating of ilie liistory of the impressed zone it has becoiw 
es5Liilial 10 describe a number of new genera and also new species. 
'I'lie old namcs^Gyot;eras, Lituites, Nautilus, etc. — convey en- 
tirely false ideas of affinity and would serve to confuse the studtM 
of these fossils, since ilie new names ignore these groups. Thusil 
is not at all in contradiction of the nomenclature if I state that the 
clusc-coik'd Tarphx^eras prcmaiurum of the earlier Quebec {aniiu 
is llie last of its phylum and has no descendants in the Uppet 
Silurian or later; but if I call it Nautilus, and say that NamHha 



435 



lines of growth, which are more or less sporadic in shells of ihis 
group. These primitive costs are probably due to the imperfect 
resorption of the more or less expanded borders of the apertures 
occurring in some shells but not in others during the progressive 
Stages of development but common in all shells in the gerontic 
scage. 

The shell is very thick on the venter, somewhat thinner, but still 
thick on the sides and dorsum. 

The type is Tarpkyums premalarum. 

The species of this genus are as follows : * 
Tarphyceras Aiicoini, Hyatt, Newfoundland. 

'* prematurum, Hyatt, Newfoundland. 

" Farnsworlhi {sp. Billings, /arj.), Phillipsburg.t 

" ChamplatHfrne, sp. Whitfield, Fort Cassin. 

" Seeleyit sp. Whitfield, Fort Cassin. 

" extensunii Hyatt, Newfoundland. 

" MacDonatdii n. s., near Lexington, Va. 

This last species has a form and suture like that of Champlain- 
tnse, but the siphuncle is nearer the venter and the young have 
flatter and more divergent sides and broader abdomen in the neanic 
stage. 

Tarphvceras .^ucoini, n. s, 

Loc., Port an Port. 

PI. iv, Figs. 17-aa, 

The ananepionic snbslage seen in the somewhat rough casts is 
given in Figs, ao-21, PI. iv, from the side and front. These figures 

* XauiOv eatei/mut '•! BUIIngi (Pol. Fbit., 1. p. 35S) is probably ktpectceor Itil* genua 
turrlvlnc In Vhe Inter Girnii of ttis Queb«a Ht Tort an C'holi. Tbe small slpliuncle uiiil 
lt« poillloa appears to Indlcale Ihla. but I have no «|>et:lmoitB of Ibli ■peclci and buro 
BM BPCD an J at OlUtrn. 

tTtiEa ipeclei hai two or more verj- iIIiKqcI ipcelcs. The one roforrtil to above hu an 
•Illptleal or oral whorl In the e|iheblc stage, the dotium a little bniailer Ibaa lbs venter. 
TIiMe la a contact Hirrow in the ueaiilc aud epheblc ilagia. The luturci ban Teiiirat 
Mddlei, with probabt; nllghl d>irsBl tobci In the Sine at involution, and a ttvc llrlng 
tbrabir o*er one-hair of a TOlullon In length. Tbe alpbunclc is labreiuran In Hid 
Maactfnie nibstagc. becomluK propioveolnn In the paraneanlc and veiitroreulreti In 
Ibe weteiifaeblc nubtl^e, Tbc diameter of ibe largeit apectmen. Kimewbat compreucd, 
Mnm, br llSmm.; the ettliiialvd lai;g«it diameter of ihli through the frw living 



show [be apcK to be blunt and rounded, but this rotundity may t« 
exaggerated iu this part which had to be in part restored. 

The umbilical perforation is present, but it is very small. The 
ivhorl grows very rapidly in all of its diameters and the bendimjof 
the shell in the paranepionicsubstage is very abrupt, bringing the 
continuation of this substage, the dorsum, in coniacl with ihcdor- 
siiin of the metanepionic and ananepionic parts of the first volo- 



In correlation with this, as in Trocholites, a distinct donal fur- 
row appears as the shell bends in the first part of the paranepioni( 
siibstage. The coiling is so close that the slightest variation iathf 
same direction would obliterate the umbilical perforation. Ttit 
growing nianile while building the shell might have b«n inSu- 
eiiced by the proximity of the metanepionic dorsum and ihejnuJl 
diameter of the curve. The dorsal furrow here, as in Trocho- 
lites, although occurring in the paranepionic substage before ibt 
whorls touch, is perhaps due to the close contiguity of the whorlf 
and the rapid ingrowth of the primitive umbilical zones. Tin* 
process is still apparent in the first part of the second whorl, a sec- 
tion of which is given imwediately above the apex in Fig. s* 
This is the tiist of the ananeanic substage, and the siphnncle shiiti 
from its previously subventran position to propioventran. In iht 
nictaneanic substage, in the latter half of the second volution, the 
elongation of the ventro-dorsal diameters is faster, and the ten- 
dency to develop lateral zones by the flattening of the sides becomes 
marked. The sections of the whorls in the upjier half of Fig. lo 
are slightly distorted by compression, the lower half is in proper pro- 
|iortion. 'I"he aspect of the section is better given in the more 
L-nl.irged Fig. zi,anj the decrease in lateral diameters in proportion 
Id the ventro-dorsal is a marked characteristic and continues in the 
cjiliebic stage. 

In some s(K;cimens this change is not so marked and the Batten- 
iiig of tlie sides develops later. 

In the later stages thesiphuncle is sUghlly nearer the center as ia 
F.J. ,9. 

lig- '7 gives the full-grown ephebic stage, and is very close to 
the original. The section Fig. 19 shows how closely thisspecits 
ro-.i.iiil)lcs Tarphyceras Champlainense, differing only in the greaiM 
rulnudity of the venter and in [he position of the siphuncleaod in 



437 

the possession of very slight folds or nascent costations, which ap- 
p)ear in some casts, as in the side view Fig. 17. 

These specimens occurred in a dolomitic limestone, on a hill to 
the west of the inside beach of Port au Port, in the calciferous of 
Murray and Howley. 

Tarphyceras prematurum, n. s. 
Loc. , Port au Port, Newfoundland. 
PI. iv. Figs. 12-16. 

This species is apt to be confounded with Tarphyceras Aucoini, 
but the whorls increase faster by growth and are much larger at the 
same age. 

Fig. 14 shows in part the nepionic whorl of this species and the 
ananeanic substage. The section of the ananeanic whori above the 
ananepionic apex is restored, and is probably made too angular and 
the abdomen too broad. The other parts of the figure are accurate. 
The side view in Fig. 15 gives the same showing the prominence 
of the early nepionic substages and the first of the paranepionic. 
Fig. 16 shows the paranepionic and earlier substages from the 
front. These figures give satisfactorily the differences between the 
young of this species and Tarphyceras Aucoini, 

The presence of a very narrow umbilical perforation is plainly 
evident in this specimen and this is similar to that of Aucoini. 
The metanepionic dorsum is distinctly separated from the parane- 
pionic dorsum, here shown in outline on the inner edge of the sep- 
tum, by a narrow, smooth space which curves around between them, 
but in consequence of its ventral curvature as it crossed between 
them it cannot be seen in a side view. This perforation or bend is 
larger and wider than in Aucoini^ and the involution or ingrowth 
of the nascent umbilical shoulders is less than in Aucoini, It is 
consequently doubtful whether the abruptness of the curvature and 
the ingrowth of the umbilical shoulders fully accounts for the pres- 
ence of the dorsal furrow in the dorsum of this specimen. The 
condition of the specimen is not wholly satisfactory, otherwise a 
more definite opinion could probably be given. The inner or dor- 
sal surface of the ananepionic and metanepionic substages has been 
more or less eroded and it is not practicable to say, as in Aucoim\ 
that they might have influenced the formation of the outline of the 
opposing dorsum of the paranepionic whorl as it was beat 0^ 
the umbilical perforation. 

The shell in its later stages, as shown in Figs. la U 



bled closely Aucoini, but the abdomen beconi« more prominent 
niid the contact furrow is deeper and broader in consequence 0/ 
this and ihe breadth of the venter. 

The siphDiicle in the paranepionic substage issubveniran, b«<Jni- 
ing propioventran in ihe ananeanic as seen in section above in 
Fig. 14, and ext race ntro vent ran in the septum seen below in Fig. 
1 i. The position alters slightly in the succeeding stages. 

The living chamber is obviously over one-half of a vulation in I 
length and is shown in an iuconipleie fragmentary condition in At 1 
outline on the farther side of Fig. 12; the form in section of the j 
same specimen partly restored is given in Fig. 13, PI. iv. The 
depth of the dorsal lobes in the sutures is shown upon thcventn 
of the exposed whorl in the upper part of the section which issul! 
covered by the dorsal layer and the remnants of the septs. 

Tarphvceras extehsum. 

Loc, Port an Chois, Newfoundland. 

This fossil resembles Tarphyetras Stehyt, but has a shorter living 
chamber and the living chamber and part of septate wliort ate fr« 
in gerontic stage. The contact furrow increases in depth with ibt 
ephebic stage and then decreases with the approach of the geroniic 
stage. The ventro-dorsal diameter slightly decreases, as is iho*ii j 
in Fig. I, PI, vi, in the pnragerontic substage, whi-n the wharl ii 
almost straightened out, and at the same time the impressed zone 
ih found to be wholly lost, as shown in the section. Fig. 2. 

In section 4 the inner whorl represents a section of the 
ephebic stage and the outer whorl is the gerontic stage. Tk 
upjiermost, with siphuncle nearer the venter and reduced impressed 
zone, is the auagerontic, and Fig. 2 is the jjarageronlic sub- 
si.i,l;c. The whorls are apparently smooth. The septa are not very 
C'lnuave. The sutures have ventral saddles, dorsal lobes and slight 
lateral lobes. In the anageronttc substage they are nearly straight 
on the sides and decidedly inclined forwards. 

TAHl'HVCEkAS ChAMI'LAINENSE. 

Naumlus Champlainense, Whitfield, {BuU. Am. Mus., New 
York, Vol. i, Figs. I. 3. PI. 31). 
l,o<-.. Fort Cassin, Lake Champlain. 
1>I. iv, Fijis. 4-11. 
The nepionic stage of this si)ecies, as in others of this group, hu 



439 

a very small umbilical perforation, the bending of ihe paranepionic 
stage taking place with great abruptness. When seen laterally 
(Fig. 4, PI. iv) the umbilicus shows a much larger perforation than 
exists internally. This is due to the curvature of the perforation 
and its decrease in diameter internally. Starting from either side, 
it is an unsymmetrical cone with a pear-shaped base, which de- 
creases internally and bends in a bow-like curve as it crosses 
between the dorsan surfaces of the meta- and paranepionic sub- 
stages. The external orifices are usually owing to the fact that the 
matrix is difficult to clean out, apparently broader than they really 
are. The actual diameter is about i mm., diminishing to .5 mm. 
at the center. In section, however, it may be seen, as in Fig. 9, 
to have a minute perforation between the metanepionic dorsum at 
the center below and the paranepionic dorsum just above this. The 
outline of the section (Fig. 10) probably passed not far from the 
ipex in this specimen, probably through the metanepionic substage, 
udging from the outline of the section (Fig. 9, and the enlarged out- 
ine, Fig. 1 1), which shows transitional characteristics from the 
iorsoventrally elongated oval of the whorl of the ananepionic sub- 
itage common to most Nautiloids and the transverse oval of the 
earlier paranepionic also found at thissubstage in a large number of 
lautilian shells. This outline, Fig. 11, is similar to that of the 
»hells of Nautilus pompilius at the same age. 

The paranepionic substage of Fig. 9 has also an outline simi- 
lar to that of Nautilus pompilius at the same age, being kid- 
ney-shaped, with a broad but well-defined dorsal furrow. The 
presence of this dorsal furrow, although the whorls do not touch, 
app>ears at first to justify the opinion that this is a case in which 
inheritance may be assumed. The paranepionic dorsum is, how- 
ever, very closely approximated to the dorsum of the metane- 
pionic substage, and it seems possible that this proximity modified 
the shape of the secreting edge of the dorsal side of the mantle 
and caused the corresponding impression shown in the shell. At 
any rate, it is not safe to assume that this represents any hereditary 
tendency. The exceedingly quick growth from the apex to the 
paranepionic and the sudden curvature of the early paranepionic 
nrhorls might have produced this also, as pointed out in other 
similar cases. In making another specimen of this species (Fig. 4, 
PI. iv) I was fortunate enough to crack the fossil so as to expose the 
mtire length of the cast of the umbilical perforation. I found this 



to be, as stated above, a bow<shaped, dark, scnooth filling, as shovn 
in Fig, 5 and more enlarged in Figs. 6 and 7. Fig. S is on id*3i 
restoration nf a side view of the nepionic stage, and gives (he loci- 
tion of sections shown in Figs. 6 and 7. By the aid of Fig. j out 
can see that the furrow whicli appears in the dorsum of the 
I>aranepionic subslage is first found just as the whorl makes iht 
sharp turn to form the umbilical perforation. This shows also lh»! 
its origin may be purely mechanical. The hard wall of the doraim 
of Ihe nietanepionic was only about .5 mm. distant from thegrowi 
ing pliable edge of the paranepionic as it made the turn, and tliii 
pliable border may have been built to conform to the shape of the 
interna! metanepionic dorsum. This becomes possible when orw 
takes into consideration the rapid growth of the whorl in itsUier*! 
and ventro-dorsal diameters at this stage. The increase ofiHt , 
former broadening out the volution causes the involution ofihe 
apex on the sides when this is reached, and rapid increase of ihc 
ventro-dorsal diameters forces the building shell to make this sud- 
den turn, owing to the more rapid building out of the ventral iiiit. 

Immediately after passing this point of greatest pressure, as shown 
in Fig. 6, the zone produced by it begins to decrease in depth and 
increase in width, but it does not disappear altogether, because ilie 
growing shell immediately strikes the dorsal side of the mrtine- 
liionic and ananepionic substages and the true contact funo» 
apiiears. This is shown in the truncation of the dorsal corner of 
the outline in Fig. 8 when it strikes the ajjex. The centre of Fig- S 
is approximately the same as Fig. 6. 

A Trocholiies-like outline is assumed in the neanic stage (shown 
in Fig. 5 in seclion of second whorl below center) and in theephc- 
hie stage the whorl is apt to become slightly flattened on the venter. 
The outer whorl of section, Fig. 5, is flattened in this way and 
represents the anephebic condition of the living chamber. 

'I'liis shell is smooth until the ananeanic substage, as in Fig- 4, 
and then becomes costated. These costK are infrequent, lo", 
broad elevations which become less distinct with the incoming of 
the anephebic snbstagc and are very often absent in the later ephe- 
bic substages, Iwginning however again in the gerontic stage,!"'' 
are never so constant or prominent as in the earlier stages. 

The siphuncle of the metanepionic whorl, if the mark in tbe 
centre of the enlarged outline (Fig. 11, PI. iv) really repftKuts 
this organ or its general location, is centren. This, however, is » 



441 

mere spot, so that this must be regarded as doubtful. In the later 
p>aranepionic it is unquestionably propioventran or subventran. In 
the neanic stage it approximates to and attains an extracentroven- 
tran position, which it retains throughout life. The position in the 
gerontic stage was, however, not observed. 

Having had an opportunity for close study of Whitfield's origi- 
nals and also the fine collection of Mr. Walcott (now in U. S. Na- 
tional Museum), from same locality, there is but little doubt that 
the specific name is correct. 

TaRPHYCERAS (?) CONVOLVENS. 

DiscocERAS CONVOLVENS, Angelin et Lindst. i^Fragm, Si/,, xvi. Fig. 
3 ; not PI. X, Fig. 5). 

This form has the sutures and similar position of siphuncle and 
last part of outer whorl free and the lines of growth similar to other 
species of this genus, as figured on PI. xvi of Angelin and Lind- 
strom. The figure in section on PI. x. Fig. 5, is doubted, because 
the whorls appear to be closer coiled and the dorso-ventral diame- 
ters increase faster than in other specimens figured. 

EurystomiUs, 

This genus was first described by Schroder,* who saw that the 
Nautilus Kelloggi of Whitfield was generically distinct from his 
genus Estonioceras. He also included in the same genus Nautilus 
Champlainensis, but this, with Seeleyi and similar discoidal forms, 
are here placed in the genus Tarphyceras. 

The siphuncle is subventran in the nepionic and ananeanic sub- 
stages, becoming extracentroventran in all the later stages of devel- 
opment, or it may remain nearer the venter. The rate of growth 
of the shell is more rapid than in Tarphyceras and there are fewer 
whorls in the same diameter. The ventro-dorsal diameters are 
consequently longer in proportion than in Tarphyceras. The whorl 
may be rounded until a late stage of development, but usually 
acquires a more or less flattened venter and primitive lateral zones 
and ill-defined umbilical zones like those of some species of Tar- 
phyceras. The lateral zones are apt to be more convergent and 
the abdomen narrower. 

• Op, dtt Pai, Abh, Damn d Kaywr, V, p. 28. 
PBGC. AMEB. PHIL08. 80C. ZXZn. \4SL 



The urabilical perforation is large and the impressed igne is i 
contact furrow not generated until the whorls come in contact. 

The contact furrow is deeper and the amouot of involution 
slightly greater in the ephebic stage tlian is usual in Turpliyectji. 
It has been supposed, from tiie large siwciraen described by Whii- 
fictd, that this shell was close coiled and involute throughout iifc 
There is, however, one large specimen (Fig. 4, PI, v) in the Wai- 
cott collection, U. S. National Museum, which has the entire liviflj 
chamber and part of the septate whorl free. The living chimlxi 
is very variable in length. It is shorter than in Tarphyccras in the 
3.du\t of £itrys/i>mi/es Xc//oggi, 3.ad in the aged specimen referrtd 
to above it was very long. The aperture, as figured by Whiificld, 
has lateral crests which are most prominent opposite the ccntttscrf 
the lateral zones, receding into sinuses on the umbilical zones. 

The sutures may remain throughout life almost straight, wilh the 
slightest of lateral lobes and ventral saddles, or they may become 
quite sinuous, with well-delined lateral lobes and the ventral saiMlLt 
entire or divided by median lobes. A distinct dorsal lobe mAa 
its appearance in the contact furrow when tliis is formed and on 
the gerontic volution this furrow persists as an impressed Wtie 
although entirely freed from contact with the inner whorl (Fig. ;, 
PI. v). It diminishes slowly in depth and breadth, Imt its \ki- 
sisfence on the dorsum of this very long free gerontic stage slio« 
that it has a( quired a strong hold upon the organization of ihi* 
S])ccinien. Having no other specimens it cannot be said thit lliii 
persistence is common to al! individuals of the species. 



Eui;VSTOMrTES KCLLOCCt. 

NAifiiLUs Kellogoi, VVhiif., c/. «V. {BuJ/. Am. Mm., N. Y., i. 

No. 8, PI. xx\; not PI. xxxi, Figs. 4, 5). 
EuHVSiOMiTES Kellouui (?), Schroder, f^. (it. {Pal. Abk. Di»ii 
et Kayser, v, hft. 4, p. zO). 
I'l. V, Figs. 4, 5. 

The figures of Whitfield give an excellent general representaiiw 
of this species. The young are, however, slightly costated in the 
ne.inic stage and there are at least two distinct forms placed by 



443 

EURYSTOMITES ROTUNDUS. 

Nautilus Kelloggi, Whitf., op, cit, {BuiL Am, Mus,, New York, 
i, PI. xxxi, Figs. 4, 5 ; not PI. xxx). 
Loc, Fort Cassin. 
PI. V, Figs. 21-25. 

This species increases more rapidly in the growth of the ventro- 
dorsal diameters than in Kelloggi and retains the siphuncle near the 
venter for a longer time during the growth. This may be due, 
however, to the differences in the size, and not a matter of age, 
since in large whorls it assumes a similar position to Xhzioi Kelloggi, 
Fig. 21, PI. V, gives a view of the first two whorls from the side, 
partly restored from the study of the section, and the dotted lines 
explain the position of the last section (Fig. 25, PI. v) of the 
centre of first volution. 

This figure shows the metanepionic above and paranepionic be- 
low, just before the paranepionic comes in contact with the apex. 
This was the last section taken. Fig. 22 shows the first section, 
secured through the inner dorsal part of the metanepionic substage, 
and Figs. 23, 24, PI. v, show the successive sections connecting 
this with Fig. 25, and thus demonstrating the large size of the 
umbilical perforation and the correlative rotundity of the dorsi of 
the meta- and paranepionic substages. 

EURVSTOMITES GIBBOSUM, n. g. 

Loc, Port au Port Choix, Schooner Island, Newfoundland. 

I mention this new species here without giving figures, because it 
is important in the consideration of the relations of the dorsal lobe 
and impressed zone and it is so peculiar that it can be easily recog- 
nized. 

The general aspect is like that of Eurystomites Kelloggi , but the 
septa are more deeply concave than in any species of these faunas 
and the lateral sutures run forward on the sides as in Tarphyceras. 
The outlines of the whorls in section at all epinepionic stages is like 
that of the last whorl of the specimen of Nautilus Kelloggi^ here 
Eurystomites rotundus, as figured by Whitfield on PI. xxxi. Fig. 4, 
and in section the whorls at all stages are ovals similar to the meta- 
nepionic substage of Eurystomites rotundus (Fig. 25, PI. v), but 
the abdomen is rounder. No lateral zones or umbilical zones are 
differentiated, but there is a faint approximation to the digonal 
form probably in the early neanic 1 deg are only 



slightly convex and slope evenly and divergently outwards and con- 
sequently appear flattened in some specimens. 

The envelopment covers the abdomen, which last is promincntlj' 

The length of the sub-V-shaped dorsal lobe in the suture: it 
greater than in any species I have yet seen, and this is very initmc- 
live. Occurring as it does in a shell which is not very involiiie. 
and with a contact furrow but little exceeding the ordinary 
dimensions, it shows that the depth of the dorsal lobe in >hc 
sutures is not only correlated with the extent and depth of ihe 
contact furrow but also largely dependent upon theconcavityof ibe 
septa. In other words, if this species had had septa of ordinary 
concavity the dorsal lobes in the sutures would not have beeo so 
deep and sub- V-shaped as they are. Tiie sutures have also broarf 
lateral lobes running well forward to sharp saddles at the lio« of 
involution. There are broad saddles at the abdominal angles ird 
shallow ventral lobes or straight sutures across the venter. The 
siphuncle becomes in trace ntroventran in the cphebic stage md is 
very large, as it is in Eurrstomitirs Kelloggi. The whorls come in 
contact in the ananeanic substage. The shell grovre quite Urgt. 
but, so far as I have seen, none have any part of the last whorl /tee- 

EURYSTOMITES VlRGINIANA. 

NAL'Tii-fs Kello(;gi(?) {pars), Whitf. (not figured). 

Loc, near Lexington, Va., and Fort Cassin. 

This sliell had more cylindrical whorls and more numerous and 
straighter sutures at all stages than in Kelloggi. The siphuncle ij 
nearer the venter, and in the tyiie-specimen, which is over 90 mm. 
in iliameter (in collection U. S, National Museum), it is still almost 
siibventran at the entrance into the living chamber. This last '* 
less than one-half of a volution in length. The whorl is almost 
circular in this specimen at all stages observed, including the neanic 
stage, and the involution is very slight; the dorsal lobe correlaiw 
with this, being correspondingly shallow and narrow. The sulures 
otherwise resemble those of Kelloggi, but are straighter, and lb' 
three sijecimcns from Virginia do not show the ventral lobes ibat 
often occur in Kelloggi. 

There is a young specimen in the American Museum under the 
name of Kelloggi, from Fort Cassin, that appears to belong to this 
sjiecics, having similar sutures, form of whorl and involution. 



EURYSTOMITES UNDATUM. 

Nautilus undatus, Hall (^Fa/. New York, i, p. 52, PI. xiii and 
xiii dis), 
Loc., Poland, Herkimer county, N. Y., Black River Limestone. 
PI. V, Figs. I, 2. 

This species has much broader whorls in the young than in 
Eurystomites of the Quebec faunas. The position and size of the 
siphuncle, the large umbilical perforations and the sutures and the 
flattened abdomen of the adult stage and comparison with the 
heavily costated forms like Discoceras antiquissimutn and others 
show that this shell is probably a member of the genus Eurysto- 
mites. 

The nepionic stage has a very large umbilical perforation and in 
correlation with this the whorl has a rounded dorsum at this age. 
The metanepionic substage has a broadly elliptical form and sub- 
ventran siphuncle ; the paranepionic, on account of the rapid trans- 
verse growth, has a subdigonal whorl, as shown in Fig. 2, PI. v. 
The shell does not increase so fast transversely in the neanic stage 
and the whorl becomes rounder, a slight contact furrow appearing 
when the whorls come in contact, and the living chamber at this 
age is less than one-half of a volution in length. Light costations 
also appear in this substage, but the nepionic whorl is smooth with 
the exception of strong lines of growth. The abdomen becomes 
flattened in the paraneanic substage, and the sutures show slight, 
ventral lobes and very slight lateral lobes. 

The siphuncle is propioventran in the paranepionic substage and 
neanic stage. The costations become stronger in the paraneanic 
substage but are reflected on casts only to a very slight extent. 

The young are, however, quite variable, and the figures, PI. v, 
give probably an extreme form so far as the retention of the broad 
subdigonal form is concerned. In other varieties or species, for I 
think there are several species usually placed under this name, the 
sides and venter become slightly flattened in the metaneanic sub- 
stage, or even before this. In the specimen figured this change 
had not yet taken place, although the shell was in the metaneanic 
substage. 

The aperture in this specimen flared out laterally, but is removed 
in the section Fig. 2, PI. v. 

Slight, foldlike costse are better developed in the ephebic stage, 



and, although always present, they are only occasionally dcvdopeJ 
into decided costations even in TulUgrowa specimeDS. 

The shell grows quite large, but so far as I have 5c«n none lu« 
any part of the last whorl free. The largest shells often havcwn- 
pressed whorls, with abdomens much narrower and flat, and sirfci 
much flatter than in the earlier stages. 

Plancteceras. 

This group w.is first described by Remelt under the name of 
^goceras and subsequently under that of Tragoceras, but both of 
these being preoccupied, Schroder proposed that of Planctoccni.' 

Schroder considers it to be i subgenus, and that the only Jis- 
tinction between this and Fstonioceras lies in the fact thai il *« 
probably not close coiled at any stage. 

As Estonioceras is here limited, however, the sulurcs are differ- 
ent and have ventral and dorsal saddles with lateral lobes, as in 
Falcililuitcs. The young and all stages so far as seen have ai» 
compressed elliptical instead of depressed whorls. That is to ay, 
they are probably never digonal, and do not resemble those of 
Estonioceras at any stage, unless in the very earliest or nepionic 
stage which is not known. The whorls, as shown by Schroder in 
his fine figures, have the dorsum and venter somewhat depressed 
and very nearly cciual and distinct from the side in the young. 1" 
other words, there is a faint tentiency to form a quadragonal whorl. 
Later, probably in the ephebic stage, the dorsum may exceed t^c 
venter in breadth, and in the gerontic stage the whorl becomes al- 
most circular. 

The lines of growth are similar to those of Falcilituites, i. '■> 
they have broad ventral sinuses and a broad latero-dorsal crests. 

The volutions are attenuated and the living chambers very long. 

The siphuiicle is small and about twice its own diameter removed 
from the venter, or, in my nomenclature, is extracentroventran in 
the neanic and ephebic stages as measured on Schroder's figures. 

'I'lieonly s!>ecies referred to this genus in Europe h the flandeiirns 
(Orilioccraliles)/ii/f<7/«w/, sp. Schlot., which, judging from the fig- 
ures of Dewitz, Schroder, Quenstedt and Eichwald, probably i"- 
cUnk-a several quite distinct species. Planctoceras Quenstedi [Lit-, 
fiikaliis, Quenst.), for example, has distinct sutures and outline 

• Damea tl Kayser, Pal. Abti., v, hft. 4, 1991, p. (1, 



447 

from the species figured either by Dewitz or Schroder. In fact, ihe 
figures show that there are very likely three species under this one 
name. 

This genus is described here partly because it is an excellent illus- 
tration of the correlation of the dorsal and ventral saddles with 
elliptical compressed whorls and gibbous abdomens and gibbous 
dorsal sides such as occur in many cyrtoceran and gyroceran forms, 
and also because of its resemblance to Aphetoceras. 

AphetoceraSy^ n. g. 

The shells of this genus are remarkable for their resemblances, 
until a late stage of growth, to the cyrtoceran genus, Melonoceras, 
from which they differ in having open apertures, and in this case 
they would probably compare more closely in these stages with 
Oonoceras. These shells are, however, coiled with an even gyro- 
ceran curvature that does not bring the whorls in contact at any 
stage. 

The form of the whorl in section is compressed elliptical or ovi- 
form, the venter narrower than the dorsum. This outline is com- 
mon to all of the epembryonic stages as far as known. The nepi- 
onic substage has, however, not been seen as yet. 

There is no impressed zone at any stage. 

The whorl probably deviates from the spiral in the paragerontic 
substage, but this has not been observed, unless Farnsworthi is a 
true member of this generic phylum. 

The shell is invariably smooth so far as knovn. 

The sutures have very nearly the same form throughout the epem- 
bryonic stages, so far as known, having dorsal and ventral saddles 
and broad lateral lobes in correlation with gyroceran characters of 
the coil. 

The siphuncle is subventran or propioventran and probably does 
not vary much from these positions in any species. 

This genus is separable from Planctoceras by the gyroceran mode 
of coiling, by the form of the whorl in section, by the length of 
the living chamber and position of the siphuncle. 

Aphetoceras Americanum, n. s. (PI. vi. Figs. 5-8, > J^). 
I^oc, Port au Choix, Newfoundland. 

This shell has an open gyroceran coil and, so far as could be 



^ 



4^ 

^ A> 

s not in contact at any stage, but the eailier and pnAa- 

bly nepionic whorl was not seen. 

The whorls increase slowly by growth, especially in the transvetw 
diameters; the ventro-dorsal growth is somewhat more rapid, but 
not sufficiently so to close up the volutions. In the gerontic stage 
the living chamber begins to depart slightly from the preceding 
curve of growth, as shown in the drawing (,Fig. s, PI. vi), 

The shell is probably smooth. 

The whorls in section are compressed, the dorsum wider than the 
venter, and the dorso-ventral diameter much larger than the trans- 
verse, especially in the ephebic and gerontic stages. The abdomen 
becomes more or less flattened in the last two stages, but is rounded 
in the neanic stage. The dorsum remains rounded and gibbois 
throughout all the stages so far as known. 

The sutures have ventral and dorsal saddles and broad lateral 
lobes in the neanic stage and probably also in the later nepionic 
stage. After the abdomen becomes flattened, slight ventral iobes 
are developed in the sutures of the ephebic and gerontic stages. 

The siphmicle is large, propioventran in all the stages observed, 

APHETOCERAS BOREALE, n. S, (PI. V, FlgS. IS~'7' -^ J^)- 
Loc, Schooner Island (on southeast side), Newfoundland. 
This resembles Apketeceras Americanum, at the same age, in 
sutures and form, but the siphuncle is slightly nearer to the venter 
and the coiling is obviously distinct and the abdomen has not the 
well-marked, flattened aspect of the former. 

It is doubtful, of course, whether the whorl actually does form a 
coil in the specimens collected ; but, if it does, the inner whorls 
were probably more loosely coiled than in Aphetoceras AmerUanum, 
since the curvature of this fragment is larger than in any correspond- 
ing part of Americanum. 

Aphetoceras Farnsworthi. 

LiTUiTEs Farnsworthi, Bill, {pars.) {Geoi. Sum. Canada, Pal. i, 
p. zi. Fig. 24). 

Loc, Phillipsburg. 

This species probably belongs to a distinct genus, and is cited 
here provisionally under this name because it may be merely a 
highly degenerate species of Aphetoceras. It ts also coiled in the 
neanic stage, but apparently the whorls are not in very close con- 
tact. There are certainly two species, and probably three, usually 



449 



included under lliis name. One is separated above as Tarfihyetras 
fiarnsiogrthi and the other below as Aphctgcefas atUnuatum. The 
type is that figured by Billings, and this had the living chamber 
free and deviating strongly from the spiral. It was 91 mm. long 
on the dorsal surface and more than one-half of a volution in 
length when this measurement was applied to the coil of the preced- 
ing whorls. The siphunck in the ephebic stage was propioventran 
and the septa much closer together than is usual in this genus. 

ApHETOCERAS AITENCATUM. 

1.ITUITES Karnswortht, Bill, (pars.') {op, cit., p. 21). 

Loc., Phillipsburg, 

This species is founded upon the sp»ecinien described by Billings 
on p. II of his Paltoiok Fossils as having first two whorls in con- 
tact and making a coil an inch across. These whorls are, however, 
not in contact on his specimen, if my drawing of this is correct. 
The specimen is of nearly the same size as the type of Aphetoceras 
Farnsworthi, but one and a quarter volutions are free, so as to 
leave a gap of 8 mm. before the completion of the first quarter of 
the sepiaie part of the eccentric volution, and at the end of the 
same this gap has increased to 13 mm., and in the next quarter, at 
the end of the living chamber, it is 25 mm. The departure of the 
free whorl of Farnsworlhi increases, as shown in Billings' drawing, 
in less than one-half of a volution to 40 mm. 

The septate part of the eccentric volution in this specimen is 
58 mm. long, the living chamber is 88 mm. long. The former 
'would occupy about three-fourths of a volution if it followed a reg- 
■nlar open spiral curve, and the latter would be about one-half of a 
volution, estimated in the same way. 

The septa are similar to those of Farnswort/ii. The fragment of 
the siphuncle observable in the neaiiic stage changes in the length 
of 10 mm, from nearly subventran to propioventran. 

Dtlloceras,'' n. g. 

The shells of this group resemble those of Aphctoceras, but are 
just one grade more complicated. The whorls are similar in section, 
l)ut grow more rapidly in the ventrodorsal diameters, thesiphuncles 
in some species are very large and ventral. The sutures are simi- 

ritoc. AHEit. i-iiiLOS, sue. XXXII. 143. 3 e. ■■iiixted june 27, 1901. 



lar to those of Apheloceras, but the whorls are in contact eilha in 
the earlier epemhryonic stages or throughout the ephebic stage. A 
departure from the spiral regularly takes place in the gerontic sl^f 
or earlier ; sometimes the entire ephebic stage is free. 

No impressed zone has been found at any stage, although aslighi 
flattening of the dorsum was observed in one species. 

This group is represented by several species in ihc Newfoundland 
basin of the Quebec fauna, but it is only necessary here to describe 



Deltoceras planum, n. s. 
1j3c., Port au Clioix, on north side, Newfoundland. 
This fossil is apparently very close to Barrandraeerai twlahr. 

but it increases more rapidly in the dorso-rentral diameters and 
has a larger siphuncle, and this is closer to ihe venter and it diflere 
also in the greater compression of the form. 

In the neanic stage it agrees more closely with natalor in aiped. 
but the siphuncle issubvenlran. In the ephebic stage and aiagc 
ronttc substage it becomes propioventran and increases in ■i\iz miil 
it becomes 7 mm. in diameter ventro-dorsally where it cmentbe 
living chamber. The transverse diameter was not measurable, Iwi 
it is undoubtedly less than this in correlation with the comproitit 
■•haracter of the volution. The ventro-dorsal diameter of iIk Iw 
H-horl through the living chamber is 53 mm., the transvew 
unly about z8 mm. to 30 mm., the whole diameter of the coil 
.It this place being 163 inm. 

The iiicom|ilete living chamber is over one-quarter of a volution 
and has dejiarted slightly from the closer spiral of the ephebic siage. 
'Iliis departure is very gradual at first until the gerontic stage begins 
and then becomes more a]>[>arent and widens more rapidly. The 
ivliorls are in absolute contact only in the neanic stage. The venier 
.ipI.L'ars 10 be rounded at all stages of growth. 



Bii rra tidec ceras . 

riiis genus was described in my Genera of Fossil CepkalopiiiiV 
elude shells having large umbilical perforations, compiesstJ 
lilhtlv co-slated or smooth whorls. The venter usually narro«f 
an the dorsum, the whorls barely in contact or with very siighi 
iniact furrow, sijjhuncle near but above centre, septa deeply W' 



451 

cave, sutures having usually ventral and dorsal saddles and lateral 
lobes. This last statement is true of all the forms having the gyro- 
ceran mode of coiling, but not of those which have the closer nau- 
tilian form. In these there is a slight dorsal lobe and a different 
form of the paranepionic whorl which may eventually lead to their 
generic separation. 

The type is Barrandeoceras (Naut.) natator, sp. Billings. 

Barrandeoceras Minganense. 
Loc, Mingan Islands. 

There is a specimen from the Chazy limestone of the Mingan 
Islands in the collection of the Museum of the Geological Survey 
at Ottawa which has very similar characters to those of Barrandeo- 
ceras naiator, but is distinct in some of its characters. The living 
chamber is short and, if complete, about a quarter of a volution in 
length. It is free and in section is compressed oval, the abdomen 
broader than the dorsum, but the centro-dorsal diameter is longer 
than the transverse. 

The siphuncle is nearer the centre, being ventrocentren. The 
neanic, or perhaps an ephebic stage has slight annulations or raised 
lines of growth, judging from the marks on the section. This is 
labeled as coming from the white limestone of Large Island. 

There is no impressed zone at any stage observed. The ephebic 
stages have a whorl similar to that of Barrandeoceras convolvans in 
the neanic stage, but the abdomen is broader. 

Barrandeoceras convolvans. 

LiTUiTES CONVOLVANS, Hall {Pal. cf New York, i, p. 53, PI. xiii, 
Fig. 2). 
Loc, Watertown, N. Y. 

The specimen figured by Hall has in the ephebic stage sutures 
with slight dorsal lobes. This, however, may have been a mistake 
in drawing or an abnormal individual variation. A specimen in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology from the same locality, ex- 
hibiting the form of the whorl and the sutures of the ephebic stage, 
does not have such lobes. 

The characteristics otherwise are so close to Hall's description, 
and figure that, in spite of this and the supposition that the siphun- 
cle was ventral, I have referred this and a suite of sections of the 
same to his species. 

The whorls are variable in the coiling, and in some specimens 
are plainly not in contact at any stage. In others the neanic volu- 



tion is in contact, but this is so slight that no contact furrow ii 
formeti. The whorls are mostly gyroccran in the character of tbt 
coil becoming excentric in the ephcbic stage. 

The section is a much compressed oval, the ventre doruldun- 
eler much longer than the irausversc. the abdomen narrowly roundd 
and dorsum broader, but also gibbous. The nean it stage has a more 
rounded outline in section. 

The shell is smooth. 

The sutures have ventral and dorsal saddles with broad lateral 
lobes in the neanic and ephebic stages. 

The sipiiuncle varies from ceniroventren lo intraceoiroventrin in 
the neanic and ephebic stages. 

BaRRANDEOCERAS NAT a tor. 

Nautilus natatob, Bil!. {Can. Nat. iv, No. 6, iSj^). 
Bahrandeoceras natator, Hyatt (^Gen. Fatt. Ctfk., p. JjS). 

Loc, Mingan Islands. 

This species has volutions compressed oval in section, the dorsum 
somewhat broader than the venter ; siphuncle is extraceutrorenirai, 
even in the neanic stage ; septa deeply concave ; sutures with dor- 
sal and ventral saddles and the lateral lobes as in other specitj of 
this genus. 

The volutions are in contact, but ro contact furrow was fornitd 
at any aye. The cunlact takes place as in the young of Jistonic- 
ceras perforatum. Fig. 9, I'l. vii, on the venter of the paranepj- 
onic volution. 

The volution in the neanic stage, dorso-ventral diameter 13mm.. 
narrower venter in pro])ortion to the dorsum than i" 
he vi-]iicr was rounded at all stages and also the dor- 
laneanic and nepionic stage were not present in tlie 
men in llie Museum at Ottawa, but in following out 
the saiiif lines it is easily ascertained that the umbilical perforation 
nuist have been enormous, at least r5-i7 mm. in diameter. The 
liviiig I hamber was somewhat over one-fourth of a volution i" 
length. The whole diameter was aboul 108 mm. It was repoiifd 
as having been found in the Cbazy limestone. 

BaRRANLIEOCERAS SlERNiiERGI. 

Nautilus SiF.RNnERCJi, Barr. {Syst. Sil.,V\. xxxvi, xxxviij. 
Lot., Bohemia. PI. xiv. Figs. 2-5. 
This species has, as is usual in transitional species with gyrocetin 



has a much 
the adult. ' 






453 

mode of coiling, very variable aspects, owing to the closer coiling 
of some specimens than of others. 

There is no impressed zone in most specimens at any stage, 
although there is a slight flattening of the dorsal side and an 
obvious although very slight modification of the dorsum, which 
takes place in the most closely coiled shells. 

The whorl in section is closely similar to that of natator and the 
siphuncle similarly situated. The sutures are similar, with the 
exception of a faint dorsal lobe that appears in this species. 

The whorls do not touch in some specimens at all (PI. xiv, Fig. 
2); in others they may touch in the neanic and ephebic stages. In 
some they may become excentric in the gerontic stage, and in 
others this may occur earlier in the ephebic stage. Very likely 
there is more than one species included under the name, but it is 
obvious that they are transitional to Barramhoceras Sachen. 

Barrandeoceras Sacheri. 

Nautilus Sacheri, Barrande {Syst, Si/,, PL xxxix). PI. v, Fig. 
11-14. 
Loc, Bohemia. 

The large umbilical perforation is shown and the almost straight 
form of the ana- and metanepionic substages. The paranepionic 
substage has sutures with dorsal lobe (Fig. 13) and form with flat- 
tened dorsum (Fig. 14), precisely like that of the close-coiled forms 
of Siernbergi in the ephebic stage. In B. Sacheri^ however, the 
coiling is not variable and a contact furrow is invariably formed 
after contact, which takes place always as in Fig. 1 1, at the apex. 

The sutures in the ana- and metanepionic substages have ventral 
and dorsal saddles and form in section with similar position of 
siphuncle to Barrandeoceras natator of the Chazy and resemble 
Sternbergi only in the paranepionic substage. In the neanic stage, 
after the impressed zone is generated, the whorls become more 
compressed and this resemblance is less noticeable. 

Barrandeoceras tyrannum. 

Nautilus tyrannus, Barr. {Syst, Si/., PI. xxxviii). PI. v. Fig. 6-10. 
Loc, Bohemia. 

This species is similar to Sacheri, but has a smaller umbilical per- 
foration and is somewhat closer coiled, the contact furrow appear- 
ing sooner and the Sternberg/ stage of the paranepionic is consid- 
erably shortened. Its first appearance in the outline of the aperture 
is shown in Fig. 6 in the paranepionic substage. 



Figs. 6-9, PI, V, show the side and front views of two iji«)- 
mens, the smaller in the melanepionic and part of the [»ar»nqnonie 
substages and the other older. These are in.igTiiiicil Ici show 
the anaiiepionic substages, and Figs. 6, 8, and 10 show ihc cicairko 
on the apices of both of these. The longitudinal stria: shown on 
these are necessarily exaggerated, these markings being pcrccptihlt 
with difficulty under a magnifier. It is interesliiig to comjsfc 
these wiih the young of the existing Nautilus on PI. i, and it is iIm 
obvious that if found without their older stages in any lotalilj the; 
would certainly be described as cyrtoceran forms. 
Barrandeoceras (?) Elrodi. 

GvRocEBAs Elbod!, White (.EUvenlh Ann. Rep. Gtol. Mk»<t. 
p. 356, PI- xxxvii. Fig. I). 

Loc, Harlsville, Ind. 

This species has an oval outline in the full-grown and senile stagt 
figured by White, with siphuncle slightly above centre bytlMcrii' 
tion, but slightly below centre in the figure. The living chamber i* 
not quite one-half of a voltilion in length, but it is very large, ind 
this, together with one-half of the last volution, arc free. The 
younger whorls are closely coiled, but not more than two and ) 
half, if so many, are in contact; the remainder of the thiid wd 
first quarter of the fourth are free and the last pan excenfric. Dr. 
While describes ihem as rounded outline in section, giving ihe 
impression that there was no impressed zone. 

TliL' rate of growlh in the ventro-dorsal diameters is rapiJ, and 
conseipifntly ihe living chamber on the last of the third and finr 
of the fourth volution is very large, esjjecially in the ventro-doRal 

The form and siiturcs are similar to those of Barrandeectrai 
Sternbtrgi, and tlie species, if it is a member of this genus, is inl"- 
esliug oil account of iis appearance in the Niagara group, the cloit 
toiling of the young, and the length of the free whorl. 

Pycnoceras,* n. g. 

This genus has shells similar to those of Aphetoceras in ihe 
nupionic st^igc, with siphuncle subventran, similar form in section 
and similar sutures, with ventral and dorsal saddles and shallo« 
lateral lobes. This may be seen by comparing figures of .\plitto- 



455 

ceras (PI. vi, Fig. 5) with the figure of the young of Pycnoceras 
aperium (PL v, Fig. 18). The nepionic stage has rounded dorsum 
and more rounded venter than appears in the Fig. 19, PI. vi, be- 
cause of the presence of a thick band of shell on the venter, con- 
sisting of its own shell which is not present on the sides and also 
of the corresponding part of the shell of thn dorsum of the next 
older whorl that has been broken away. A slight contact furrow 
is present at the beginning of the ananeanic substage when the whorls 
come in contact at the point indicated in Fig. 18 by the end of the 
outline of the restored apex. This zone is further shown by the 
band of shell left on the venter from the dorsum of the next older 
whorl, which was the neanic volution. Upon this, also, there are 
remnants of the septa of this stage, showing that this zone was 
immediately accompanied by the advent of dorsal lobes in the 
sutures. These replaced the dorsal saddles of the nepionic stage. 

In the ephebic stage the siphuncle assumed a propioextraventran 
position and retained this until the gerontic stage. 

The form of the whorl remains quite similar, the ventro-dorsal 
diameters being longer than the transverse, but the venter becomes 
broader in proportion than the dorsum in neanic and ephebic 
stages. 

In the gerontic stage the living chamber and part of the septate 
last whorl alone are free in some species, in others the age at which 
the whorl becomes free varies greatly. 

The type of the genus is the young specimen. Fig. 18, which 
shows that the young are distinct from those of Tarphyceras, being 
much less closely coiled and having distinct form of whorl and 
large umbilical perforation. 

There are several undescribed species of this genus in the fauna 
of Newfoundland. 

Pycnoceras apertum, n. s. PI. v, Figs. 18-20. 
Loc, Port au Port, Newfoundland. 

This single specimen was found in the dolomitic limestone or 
calciferous in company with the closer coiled young of Tarphyceras. 

The nepionic stage is prolonged and has the oval form of whorl 
and sutures of the adults of the cyrtoceran genus, Melonoceras, anrl 
of the nepionic and neanic stages of the gyroceran form, Apheto- 
ceras, its nearest affine, which occurs, however, later in the fauna 
of the Quebec group. 



The characteristics have already been given in llie generic de- 
scriptions and the presence of the contact furrow in Ihc neastc 
stage noticed. It only remains to csU attention to the ^t thii 
this and the dorsal lobes of the sutures are generated togeihernthc 
whorls come in contact. 

PYCNOCERAS CALCITERIFOBME, n, S. 

Loc, Port au Choix and Schooner Island, NewfoumJlaud anJ 
PhiUipsburg, Ca.nada. 

This species is sufficiently abundant at Port au Choix, and seena 
at first identical with calciftms of Port au Choix, but the iMlcr 
is probably a species of Tarphyceras, having the small siphunclc of 
that group. 

The shell reaches a considerable sise, 138 mm. in tlie enlin 
diameter. This specimen has a living chambersomewhatoverone- 
half of a volution in length, and a similar living chamber occun in 
a younger specimen longer than in Euryslomiles. 

The whorl in section is an oval with evenly rounded udo, no 
umbilical shoulders, and the abdomen broader than the dorsum, but 
in the neanic stage, and perhaps in the eaiiy part of the ephcbic 
stage, the sides are evenly rounded and very gibbous, and the vcoiw 
may be narrower than the dorsum, measuring through the tbickot 
inner part of the whorl ventrad of the impressed zone. 

The siphunclc is very large, measuring just before entering the 
living chamber about 7 mm., and is propioventran in position, bui 
kss than its own diameter distant from tlie venter. It has a sub- 
vcnrrati position in the ananeanic substage, the earliest age observed. 
Killings described the siphunclc in Tarphyceras caktfetus s&i^\ 
,it the diameter lor the whole shell of three inches, and the sepia ^ 
numbering about twelve to the inch along the venter at the diame- 
ter of three inches. At this diameter in caiei/erijormt the sepia 
are six or eight to the inch, and the siphuncle is about 5 mm. in 
diameter. 

The contact furrow is very slight at all stages. The septa are 
dcuply concave, approximating to those of Euryslomiles gibbemu 
I ml owing to ihe slight amount of involution the dorsal lobes are shal- 
hiw; thusshoH'ing the du])endence of this character upon the amount 
of involution, as well a? the concavity of the septa. There art 
liro.id ventral s.iddles with almost straight suture or slight lobes, 
liro.id lateral lobes trending forwards to narrow saddles at the hne 
<,f involution. 



457 

The shell is smooth except from strong striae of growth, and oc- 
casional folds as in other species of this group, the costs are all ])er- 
fectly smooth. A specimen from Phillipsburg has identical 
form and position of siphuncle, and is in collection of Museum of 
Comp. Zoology. 

Falcilituiies, 

This genus set apart by Kernels, the type selected being Lituiies 
Decheni equal to Discoceras subcostatum Ang. et Lindstrom.* Thi» 
species has a very close-coiled whorl in the nepionic stage, the um- 
bilical perforation not being figured at all by Angelin and Lind- 
strom, a fact of essential importance when comparing this type with 
Estonioceras. The coiled volutions are three in number according 
to their figures, but the centre may be erroneously drawn. 

The shell has a decidedly quadragonal whorl like that of some 
species of Schroederoceras, and the abdomen is even slightly con- 
cave along the median portion? The lines of growth are strongly 
marked and have a different aspect from those of Estonioceras. 
The hyponomic sinus is deeper and broader and apparently the 
lateral lines rise towards the dorsum in crests, but these really join 
across the dorsum, forming one huge broad, dorsal crest. In other 
words, if figured correctly, the aperture on the Utt volution mu«t 
have had a very deep hyponomic sinus and huge projecting dorv>- 
lateral crests undivided by any dorsal sinus as in E-jtoniwx-raH. The 
closely coiled volutions may have had lines of growth with dor^l 
sinuses, but if so these disappeared on the free part of the whorU. 
These volutions may also have had a contact furrow, but it mnsK 
have been slight, since it entirely disappears on the early part of the 
free volutioa in both of the European fipecies mcfitioned l/';iow. 

The sutures have also ventral saddles with deep lateral VAjkk. 
Dorsal sutures are not given. 

The siphuncle :$ mtxh smai^er than :n Evtor*;oc/.'ra* ar,d \\ nearer 
the centre, beiiig l«t littie a>>ve this jy>;r.t or ce:.trove;,*reri, 'Vui\ 
organ is ellij/X-bcosoIdiJ accorcir,;? to \i*y>t\\:i i:A \,,rA\*.TOJu 
figures which are rtry cl«tr izA 2.\r/iij*:zA\y exact. 

There arc ozS:j two ^^Jj^ as yet d^cr/i/^, I'akiliiutUi D^^heni 

• I bcre van \0MSL fcV* v^ 'JMbn Jbrja *-7 'r^'x^az .1 \\a '*'m>:::Xj i>-n*^* >«^v''-*v 




RemeU, sp. Ang, el Liiidstrom, and FacilUuites f Muettaatn.t^. 
Dewitz. This last has the ventral saddles and approximaldy qiad- 
ragonal ronii of this genus. The sutures also have dorsal saddlrt 
and the siphuncle is small and centreu. There is a slight ctmtKl 
furrow in the coiled volutions, which is slill retained, but showi lo» 
less degree in the free part of the whorl as figured by Dewiti, and 
the dorsal part of the aperture is flat, not concave. The limf 
chamber was evidently entirely free in these two species when iiill 
grown, since in the figures by Angelin and I.indstrom and bj 
Dewitz this is shown. The umbilical perforation in MueUastms 
so much larger than in Decheni thai I refer this species to ihisgenui 
with considerable doubt. The close-coiled volutions are only two 
in number. 

Tronhelitida. 

This group was formerly included by the author under the famiij' 
name of Tainoceratidje, but was separated in Carboniferous Ceplu- 
lopods Fourth Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, and is here plarol 
under its proper title. The shells are smooth, or with heavy Inos- 
verse ridges, which are really primitive costations, but are n*vef 
very prominent. The whorls are nephritic or depressed sub- 
quadragonal or trapezoidal, the venter generally broader tbutbe 
dorsum, and the form is usually nautilinn. The sutures as a nilt 
have broad and slight ventral lobes and lateral lobes. 

The siphuncle is dorsad of the centre. Tliegeneraare asfolloTS: 
Litoceras and Trocholitoceras confined to the Quebec fautiai, 
Scliroederoceras and Trocholites found in both the Quebec fiunai 
and the Lower Silurian. 

Scb rotiieroceras . 

This genus has been described by Schroeder and others as DiS' 
coceras, and as having close affinity with Trocholites. 

The affinity with Discoceras is apparently close, but when one 
considers the heavily costatcd shells of that genus and the younger 
stages of the conch, it becomes obvious that the species having such 
dislinct characters and difl'erent modes of development cannot be 
associated according to the mode of research adopted here. 

There are some specit's like Schrocderoceras Eatoni and EiA- 
waldi, which approximate in the number and form of the whorls to 



459 

Trocholites, but this is not sustained by closer approximation in the 
early stages. The nepionic stage has whorls which depart more 
widely from the trocholitean form of the same age than the later 
stages of growth. 

The umbilical perforation is large, the whorls are few in number 
and increase less rapidly by growth and change more in form than 
in Trocholites, the sutures are more sinuous, the siphuncle is not 
so close to the dorsum, the apertures narrower in transverse and 
longer proportionately in ventro-dorsal diameters and have deeper 
narrower hyponomic sinuses, the living chambers are much shorter, 
varying, so far as known, from less than one- fourth of a volution to 
somewhat more than one-half of a volution, and the size is very 
much greater at the same age in all dimensions and there are fewer 
whorls. 

The resemblances consist in the surface ornamentation, which, 
although much coarser, is similar to that of Trocholites. 

But even here the deep V-shaped dorsal sinus found in some 
species is quite distinct. The aspect of the neanic stage before the 
whorl acquires the flattened abdomen and sides is similar, but this 
likeness becomes of less importance when the younger nepionic 
stage is considered. The ananepionic substage may possibly have 
very fine straight transverse striations, which are not usually visible, 
but it is apparently smooth as seen in my specimens and in the 
figures given by others.* The metanepionic stage has strong trans- 
verse bands of growth with finer striae on the surface of the bands. 
The borders of the bands are prominent and crenulated, the crenu- 
lation being due to short longitudinal depression and intermediate 
folds that occupy the edges of the bands and are discontinuous be- 
tween them. 

The costations also begin to appear in this substage, and these 
are in some species apparent as obscure folds on the casts. These 
are distinct from the bands of growth being less numerous on the 
surface and more widely separated. The crenulations disappear 
subsequently probably before the completion of the second whorl, 
but there are often a few continuous longitudinal raised lines per- 
ceptible on the centre of the venter and near the umbilical shoulders. 
The cyrtoceran form is retained longer in the nepionic stage than 
in Trocholites and the change to the gyroceran curve that brings 

•See Schxoedef B^gureotSchroederoceraa ( Troch.) Damesi, Pal. Abh. v, PI. xxvIII, Fig. 2a. 



the whorl finally into contact is more gradual, so that the umbilial 
t>erroration is larger and the contact occurs in the usual way on the 
ventral side of the ananepionic subslage, instead of on the doral 
side of the nietanepionic substage, as in Trocholites. 

The whorl has short ventro-dorsal and longer transverse diaroewtv 
or broad whorls like many species of Trocholites, but is like a broul 
whorled typical nautilian form from the earliest stage and has DM 
the kidney -shaped outline so common in sections, esjieciaily of ihe 
younger stages of the shell in Trocholites. 

The modifications of this outline through the flattening of tht 
abdomen and lessening of the gibbosity of ihesides occurs doubtleJ 
at different stages in different species, but in ^i-Aw^j/i-w^riW airf-i- 
ialum and Saemanni it is fully developed only in adults. 

The contact furrow is well marked in the young and contJnuciiO 
some species to be a well-defined depression throughout life, hrcom- 
ing, however, somewhat less marked in the free part of ihewhoriot 
gerontic stage. In some species it is very faintly mirktd »p- 
parently before this stage is reached. It seems to be dcpfnJf"! 
upon tlie closeness of the coiling and involution, which isasimle 
very slight at all stages in the ontogeny and all stages in ll« 
phylogeny. It is consequently somewhat remarkable that this MM 
should persist upon the dorsum of Ihe shell so long after the«tart 
becomes free of pressure on that side in the gerontic stage. 

The siphuncle does not apparently, so far as is seen, materially 
change the position it has at the end of the first whorl. It niay,J5 
in Saemanni, become slightly more removed from the dorsum, tai 
ill ans^iilatiim it is very close to the dorsum, even in the epheliic 
stage. The walls of this organ are thick, and it is often presetipl 
in the middle of loosdy crystalline calcareous deposits under condi- 
tions which are not usually considered favorable for the preienJ- 
lion of siphuncles. 

SCHROEDEROCERAS ANCLXATfM. 

LiTuiTEs ANcuLATUM Saem. {PaUnlogr., iii, PI. xxi. Fig. \a-b: noi 

Loc, Brevig, Norway. 

The original of theZ//. rt//i;'H/,f/wof Saemann (Fig. nj-*|isinthe 
Mus. of Comp. Zoiilo^'y. It has a subqiiadragonal whorl in the 
ephcbic stage with a flattened and slightly concave abdomen. Tlw 
shape in cross Fection is peculiar and quite difTerent from that in 
Fig, \d. The abdomen on the living chamber is slightly elevaieJ 



461 



the flat zone being narrower than the transverse diameters imme- 
diately internal to this. This may be due to compression, since on 
llie seplatc portion the lateral curve from the abdomen lo the utn- 
bilical shoulders show the somewhat flattened aspect given in 
Sacmann's figure. The umbilical shoulders are rounded. The 
abdomen not so broad as the dorsum, that is not so broad as the 
transverse diameter through the umbilical shoulders. 

The cast shows faint broad fold-like costations bending apically 
irhich were more prominent on the shell, as is shown by other speci- 
mens from the same locality. Saeman n's figure is correct in outline 
and proportions, but it is incorrect in that it does not give the 
sutures which are apparent on the original, and it also brings the 
cast of the whorls in close contact, whereas these are separated by 
the thick dorsal and ventral shell la)'ers. The whole surface of the 
cast is also erroneously given, since it is marked by obscure costa- 
tions, which must have been more prominent upon the exterior of 
ihe shell. These are more prominent in the young than upon the 
full-grown whorls. The sutures have well-marked ventral and dor- 
sal lobes and lateral lobes with saddles at the abdominal angles and 
unibilical shoulde